Chapter 14The Last Great Nomadic Challenges From Chinggis Khan to Timur
A young leader unites the nomadic Mongols of central Asia Overrun lands from China to Eastern Europe – dubs himself “Genghis Khan” – “world emperor”
Take over N. China, central Asia, and eastern Persia Genghis Khan’s sons and grandson’s will help conquer the rest of China, Tibet, Persia, Iraq, Southern Russia, and most of Asia Minor Divide conquered land up into 4 khanates (kingdoms)
Could cover 90 miles on horseback per day (the “amazing” Roman military could travel 25) Bows launched arrows 400 yards (English longbow limit 250yds) Scouts checked out next attack point before full scale attack Ruthless – submit or die Villages that resisted were destroyed completely
Genghis Khan and his Mongolian Buddies… fun facts, rumors, interesting bits Goal not to loot, but to destroy Upon capturing Baghdad in 1258, the last caliph and his sons were trampled to death – A fate reserved for rulers, goal? demoralize European rumor mill – Mongolians looked like monkeys, barked like dogs, ate raw flesh, drank horse urine, knew no laws, showed no mercy Water = weakness; could conquer through mountains, rice paddies, rivers, etc, but not seas/oceans (Java or Japan)
Reasons for Mongol Military Success Fernandez-Armesto, "The World, A History" p. 418
Impact Varied Pax Mongolica – after the initial shock of the attacks, a peace comparable to the Roman empire, is established. – Communication from E Asia and W Europe – **At the end of Pax Mongolica the Silk Road is over. Il-Khans - Persia – Mongols assimilated and became Muslim – Poor caliph – Il-Khans became protectors and advocates of Islam, all Mongols within the Khanate are ordered to convert – Timur/Tamerlane (from Jagadai) breaks the peace, attacks from India to Russia Timur = Turkish Osman (one of his guys) becomes the founder of the Ottoman Turks
Impact Varied Khanate of the Golden Horde – Russia - Batu - largely illiterate clan – cut off Russia’s contact with the West, lasts 240+ years – Meet great resistance, ruthless results “no eye remained to weep for the dead” – Kiev falls, Novgorod hangs on by a thread – Perks? Russia benefits from trade; Protected from Teutonic Knights who wanted to attack Orthodoxy and spread Catholicism – Downsides? Miss the Renaissance Khanate of Jagadai - India – Timur Lang (Tamerlane) (Turk, in-law of the Mongols) – destroyed just about everything in sight – destroys the sultanate – occupation doesn’t last as long – sultanate restores fairly quickly and Islam continues to grow in India under the Mogul Empire as Hindus cling to their beliefs
Impact Varied Khanate of the Great Khan - China – Khublai Khan – Known as the Yuan Dynasty 1279-1368 – dismissed Confucian scholars; many had deep Buddhist beliefs – forbade marriage between Mongols and Chinese – inhibited Chinese from learning Mongol language (which didn’t exist until GK) – Chinese maintain their own identity never take Vietnam or Japan – Japan is saved by typhoon winds “kamikaze” – divine wind – Rebellion – poor rebellion Ju Yanzhang founds
Keep in Mind Anti-Mongolian Writing is written by literate urbanites
Mongolian Superlatives Where was it least oppressive? Where did it create and establish an era of peace? Where was it most harmful for the society politically and culturally?
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