Chapter 12The Era of Tang and Song       Dynasties
RECAP   Great Wall – 221 BC;   Spread of Buddhism   Confucius believed a woman’s duty was to    ensure the stability of...
   Han dynasty falls around 220, China is    divided until the 600’s (but Chinese culture    still flourishes, unlike the...
The Tang Dynasty   Yangdi – murders Wendi (who is actually his    dad!)      He’s so demanding that his ministers kill  ...
More Tangs…   Conquer territories in Central Asia      “heavenly kahn” – vassal of Turkic Tribes   Force Vietnam, Tibet...
Tang Empire
Tang Reforms   Restored Han System       Civil Service System and Uniform Govt.            Jinshi – immediate elevation...
Those Tang Arts…     http://www.artsmia.org/art-of-asia/history/video-popup-t     Long sleeves      http://www.historyfo...
Buddhism   Xuanzang – Buddhist monk from China   Travels to India c. 645 CE   Brings back many Buddhist texts   Forms ...
Anti-Buddhist Backlash   Daoist and Confucians feel threatened   State does too – Buddhist monastic establishment poses ...
Bye-bye Tang, Hello Song   Tang dynasty weakens, corruption, drought, high taxes, famine, rebellions, etc; Tangs are    o...
The Song Empire            Does unify China            Run-ins with the Liao (Song pay             tributes to protect t...
Political Developments   The Tang fell because…       regional military commanders became independent        rulers who ...
Challenges with Bureaucracy   Now for the district, provincial and imperial    level   Standards adjusted (increases pas...
Industry and Production   Papermaking   Salt and Tea   Deforestation, turn to other sources – coal!   Master the abili...
Song Golden Age   Wealth and culture dominate; military does not.   Great Canal – improves agriculture by creating a    ...
Trade and Commerce   Trade flourishes (Song porcelain found in E.    Africa!)   Junks (Chinese ships) encourage trade   ...
Hangzhou   The most impressive city of its time   By end of Song times, 1,500,000 population   Famously wealthy, clean,...
Chinese Society   Gentry – wealthy landowning class, (only ones who    could afford to spend years studying to pass the  ...
Neo-Confucianism   Appeal of Buddhism, causes a re-thinking of Confucianism      Mencius (an old Confucian master), had ...
Foot binding
Foot binding
   Young girl’s feet would be bound with    long strips of cloth causing the foot to    be about half the size it would  ...
Art and Literature            Landscape painting –             “create a harmonious             relationship between     ...
   Pagoda – Buddhist    themes influenced    Chinese architecture.       Indian stupa evolved into        the graceful C...
   Porcelain – shiny, hard    pottery, prized as the    finest in the world.    Westerners later call it    “chinaware”
Chinese Inventions that Will Change            the World   Compasses   Gunpowder
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Chapter 12 Tang and Song China

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Stearns Ch 12
Tang and Song Dynasties

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Chapter 12 Tang and Song China

  1. 1. Chapter 12The Era of Tang and Song Dynasties
  2. 2. RECAP Great Wall – 221 BC; Spread of Buddhism Confucius believed a woman’s duty was to ensure the stability of the family and promote harmony in the home. Correct behavior=order and stability. Filial piety! And the Golden Rule! Legalism – the ruler alone possesses power, strenth, not goodness, is the rulers best virtue.
  3. 3.  Han dynasty falls around 220, China is divided until the 600’s (but Chinese culture still flourishes, unlike the Western world!) Sui emerge around 580s, led by Wendi. Wendi  re-establishes granaries to stabilize food supply and prices  lowers taxes  reunites the traditional core areas of Chinese civilization for the first time in 350ish years.
  4. 4. The Tang Dynasty Yangdi – murders Wendi (who is actually his dad!)  He’s so demanding that his ministers kill him Turmoil?  No. The Tang dynasty emerges in 618, with Li Yuan’s help. Li Yuan – works with his son, Li Shimin, (who encouraged him to lead a revolt) to crush all the rivals and revolts and establish the Tang dynasty.  Play rivals off of each other  Repair the Great Wall Li Shimin – within 8 years convinces dad to step down, takes the throne, and names himself “Tang Taizong” Tang Tiazong is a brilliant general, government reformer, historian, and becomes one of China’s most admired emperors.
  5. 5. More Tangs… Conquer territories in Central Asia  “heavenly kahn” – vassal of Turkic Tribes Force Vietnam, Tibet, and Korea to become tributary states. Tributary states: vassals who recognize China’s supremacy and send tributes to the Tang emperor. Students from Korea and Japan travel to the Tang capital to learn about Chinese govt, law, and arts. “Middle Kingdom” – China is central to the world around them  Tributary state envoys kowtow with their gifts before the empire  Subordinate lands normally did as they pleased, more diplomatic, trade, and cultural exchange
  6. 6. Tang Empire
  7. 7. Tang Reforms Restored Han System  Civil Service System and Uniform Govt.  Jinshi – immediate elevation of social status for individual his family  Larger territory = increased demand for gov’t positions  Scholar-gentry – help offset the pwr of land-holding aristocrats  Now many more positions than during the Han era Land Reform – broke up large land holdings into pieces for the peasants.  Equal field system – upon death, a farmer’s land was reallotted, only 1/5 remained under hereditary control  Centralized power by removing power from large landowners  Raised revenue by increasing number of people who would be taxed Grand Canal links Huang He to the Yangzi R.  Longest waterway ever made by human labor at this point
  8. 8. Those Tang Arts…  http://www.artsmia.org/art-of-asia/history/video-popup-t  Long sleeves http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/china/art/tang.htm  Buddha, Buddha on the wall…  Carved into rocky cliff sides, show tremendous stone cutting and metal working abilities  Horses and Camels  Focus of artists and sculptors  From along the Silk Road  Foreigners  From all over central Asia – another main focus  Literature  Described foreign foods, music, customs, and polo (a aristocratic favorite from Persia)
  9. 9. Buddhism Xuanzang – Buddhist monk from China Travels to India c. 645 CE Brings back many Buddhist texts Forms many monasteries New sects emerge – including Chan (Zen)  Focused on meditation to reach nirvana Monasteries and temples often have economic focus  Operate mills and oil presses  Perform banking services  Owned a lot of land (and wealthy patrons would list their land as belonging to the monastery to avoid state taxes)  Much temple wealth went to the arts
  10. 10. Anti-Buddhist Backlash Daoist and Confucians feel threatened State does too – Buddhist monastic establishment poses a fundamental economic challenge to imperial order Wuzong (841-847) lashes out  Open persecution  Thousands of monasteries and shrines destroyed  Hundreds of thousands of monks and nuns flee/return to civilian lives  Slaves and peasants of Buddhist lands are forced out to work the lands and are subject to taxation again  Hatred doesn’t last, but the Buddhists definitely took a hit
  11. 11. Bye-bye Tang, Hello Song Tang dynasty weakens, corruption, drought, high taxes, famine, rebellions, etc; Tangs are overthrown in 907. 960 – three major states emerge  The Liao Empire – Khitan people, Mongol relatives  The Xi Xia (Tanggut) Empire – Minyak people, W China, had connections to the former Tang  The Song Empire – 960 military commander Emperor Taizu reunites much of China (never quite as strong as the Tang Empire though)
  12. 12. The Song Empire  Does unify China  Run-ins with the Liao (Song pay tributes to protect themselves  Jurchens destroy the Liao capital in Mongolia  Proclaim Jin empire  Continue exacting tribute from the Song, take portions of their land, force Song to relocate their capital from Kaifeng to Hangzhou  Song dynasty – controls China for 316 (longer than Tang), but controls less land  960-1127 – “Northern Song”  1127-1279 – “Southern Song”
  13. 13. Political Developments The Tang fell because…  regional military commanders became independent rulers who raised their own armies and collected their own taxes Song – make the military subordinate to the civil administrators of the scholar-gentry class  Only civil officials can be governors  Rotate military commanders from region to region  Does it work? The Song’s have control, but their military is much weaker  Scholar bureaucrats actually leading Song armies in the field sometimes (have hardly any military training)
  14. 14. Challenges with Bureaucracy Now for the district, provincial and imperial level Standards adjusted (increases pass rate) Growing bureaucracy = stressed imperial treasury  Emperors try to raise taxes  Peasants revolt  More military needed to make peasants hush  More imperial debt.
  15. 15. Industry and Production Papermaking Salt and Tea Deforestation, turn to other sources – coal! Master the ability to use coal to smelt iron, even develop steel  Most advanced iron industry in the world  Swords, armor, arrow tips, tools for farmers and craftsmen, stoves, nails, needles, chains for suspension bridges, drill bits to make wells Gunpowder Wooden blocks to print entire pages Begin working on moveable type systems
  16. 16. Song Golden Age Wealth and culture dominate; military does not. Great Canal – improves agriculture by creating a better irrigation system and increases trade dramatically (land travel was expensive and cumbersome) Agricultural surplus (improved irrigation system and new strains of rice from Vietnam = success). Rise in agricultural productivity allowed people more time to pursue commerce, learning, and the arts.
  17. 17. Trade and Commerce Trade flourishes (Song porcelain found in E. Africa!) Junks (Chinese ships) encourage trade  Chinese actively trade, instead of waiting for traders to come to them  Horses, Persian rugs, and tapestries enter China  Silk, Paper, and porcelain leave China  Reopen Silk Road China issues paper money
  18. 18. Hangzhou The most impressive city of its time By end of Song times, 1,500,000 population Famously wealthy, clean, and diverse 10 big marketplaces Marco Polo of Venice declared it “the most noble city and the best that is in the world”
  19. 19. Chinese Society Gentry – wealthy landowning class, (only ones who could afford to spend years studying to pass the civil service exam). Many are Confucianists Peasants – self sufficient, “heaven is high, and the emperor far away” Merchants – great potential/opportunity to acquire wealth, (Confucianists believed merchants were lower than peasants because their wealth came from the labor of others) Women – status diminished after Tang and early Song dynasty
  20. 20. Neo-Confucianism Appeal of Buddhism, causes a re-thinking of Confucianism  Mencius (an old Confucian master), had written Zhu Xi, a commentary on Confucius’s main works  Places an emphasis on the importance of social life  Rejects withdrawing from life for individual meditation Death penalty for children  2.5 years hard labor for hitting your older sibling Brides and grooms usually the same age (unlike India) because Confucian principles didn’t want to mix generations Allowed mutual consent divorce (India doesn’t) Advocated confining young women, emphasized importance of virginity of young brides, fidelity for wives, and chastity for widows. (similar to India) Footbinding (a harsher, more constricting tradition than anything in India)
  21. 21. Foot binding
  22. 22. Foot binding
  23. 23.  Young girl’s feet would be bound with long strips of cloth causing the foot to be about half the size it would normally become. Tiny feet and a stilted walk represented beauty and nobility. This noble tradition filtered down to the lower classes. Women whose feet had been bound could not easily walk on their own, further reinforcing the Confucian concept that women should remain inside the home. Only peasants who needed their daughters to work in the field omitted the practice.
  24. 24. Art and Literature  Landscape painting – “create a harmonious relationship between heaven and earth”
  25. 25.  Pagoda – Buddhist themes influenced Chinese architecture.  Indian stupa evolved into the graceful Chinese pagoda.  Chinese sculptors created statues of Buddha as well.
  26. 26.  Porcelain – shiny, hard pottery, prized as the finest in the world. Westerners later call it “chinaware”
  27. 27. Chinese Inventions that Will Change the World Compasses Gunpowder

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