VIETNAM Invaded and occupied by Han Fiercely resisted Tangs, but succumbed Rebelled sporadically Under Chinese control Absorbed Chinese culture and technology Adopted Chinese agricultural methods and irrigation systems Studied Confucian texts Mimicked Chinese administration Traded with Chinese Resented Chinese dominance, when Tang fell, they won their independence
CHINESE IMPACT ON VIETNAM Vietnamese model the Chinese administrative system and bureaucracy Buddhism enters Vietnam (from both India and China)
JAPAN Isolated Develop separate language from Chinese Shintoism – animistic religion, emphasizes nature and spirits Interaction with China? Tang never conquer them, but trade exists and Japanese emissaries visit China One of the Japanese clans actually models their court off of the Tang’s Mid 8th century Confucianism and Buddhism are established in Japan
Early capitals at Nara and Kyoto Fujiwara family – controlled power and protected the emperor Emperor belonged to a family who was believed to have ruled Japan since the beginning of time Evenin turmoil, royal families/parties/factions are thrown out, but the imperial house survived
HEIAN ERA 794 – 1185 Fujiwara family, power behind the throne at the time Really liked Confucian learning and Chinese classics, painting, poetry, interior decoration, etc The Tale of Genji – written by a noblewoman!, Murasaki Shikibu Provides insight to the lives of the nobility Told by a lady-in-waiting Education of women wasn’t encouraged, but the Fijuwara court prided itself on the sophistication of this piece, especially as it was written by a womana
GOVERNMENT Fujiwara liked cultural pursuits Entrusted local gov’t issues and taxes to their warriors Problem? Yes. 2 warrior families – Taira and Minamoto struggle Minamoto emerges 1185 Leader of Minamoto clan appoints a clan leader, the shogun Shogun – military governor who rules in place of the emperor (near Tokyo, emperor still in Kyoto) Minamoto dominate for the next 400 yrs
JAPANESE FEUDALISM Bakufu (“tent”) – military gov’t, established by the Minamoto, lasts til 16th cent. Feudal system develops Regional lords wield power and authority, compete against each other for power Samurai – professional warriors Bushido – “the way of the warrior” (code of conduct)
JAPANESE VERSUS EUROPEANFEUDALISM Western Europe has more written contracts, everything was negotiated, benefits outlined, loyalties, etc Japanese rely on group and individual loyalties, agreed on by honor Samurai granted land from the lords, but didn’t own it Knights receive land, and could even become lords later in life In Japanese culture, the social division remains clear
KOREA Early civilization 2333 BCE Han had a colony in Korea 108 BCE – 313 CE Three Kingdom Period Koguryo 37 BCE Paekche 18 BCE Silla 57 BCE Unified Silla Dynasty 668 - 935 Koryo Dynasty 918-1392 Chosun (Yi) Dynasty 1392-1910
Buddhism enters Korea around 372 CE Confucian school is founded in Koguryo 7th century, Tang armies conquer much of the peninsula (Silla preserve their capital) Compromise: Chinese forces withdraw from Korea if the Silla king recognizes the Tang emperor as his overlord (become a tributary state) Kingdom of Silla unifies by 668 CE (with Chinese help) by overcoming the Paekche, then the Koguryo
Regularly deliver gifts to Chinese emperors Still have a great deal of independence Opens the door for Korean merchants to trade in China Silk Road runs all the way to Kyongju, the Silla capital
THE SILLA KINGDOM Celadon Korean woodblocks Tripitaka Koreana 1087 1232 1398 - Haeinsa Chikchi – 13th c. moveable type
SILK ROAD INTERACTION Cultural diffusion All the way to Korea giveaways Cultural diffusion Lapis lazuli evidence? Glass btw… last stop Tin Kyongju
THE CHOSON KINGDOM 1392-1912 Yi Clan of Chonju “Land of Morning Calm” King Sejong (1418- 1450) Creates hangul for the common man Encourages scientific research
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