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Ch 10 Medieval Europe
 

Ch 10 Medieval Europe

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Medieval Europe

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    Ch 10 Medieval Europe Ch 10 Medieval Europe Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 10The Middle Ages 500 – 1400s
    • Technically… Early Middle Ages  500-1000s High Middle Ages  1000-1400s
    • The Early Middle Ages Sparsely populated, dense forests, rich soil, etc. From 400-700 Germanic tribes carved Western Europe into small kingdoms Franks – strongest kingdom  Clovis, king of the Franks  Conquers Gaul  Ruled lands like the Franks, but preserves Roman legacy  Converted to Christianity (religion of people in Gaul)  Earns support AND gains the Christian Church of Rome as an ally
    • Painting of Clovis being baptized
    • Battle of Tours - 732  Islam appears in 622  Muslim armies overrun Christian lands  Palestine – N. Africa – Spain  When Muslim enter France, Charles Martel rallies Frankish warriors  Christians triumph – sign that “God is on their side”  Muslims are stopped and only overrun Spain  Christians view Muslim world with hostility
    • Charlemagne Grandson of Charles Martel Built an empire across France, Germany, and part of Italy Loved battle  Muslims in Spain, Saxons in the North, Avars and Slavs in the east, Lombards in Italy Conquests reunite much of the old Roman Empire
    •  Pope Leo III asks Charlemagne to help against rebellious nobles in Rome Frankish armies crush the rebellion Pope crowns Charlemagne on Christmas day, 800, to show his gratitude  Declares Charlemagne – Emperor of the Romans (why is this so significant?)  **Christian Pope crowns a German king successor to the Roman emperors  Also sets up conflicts between Roman Catholic popes and German emperors
    • •Eastern Empire is Furious•Ruler of the Eastern RomanEmpire saw himself as the Romanruler**Furthers division between theeastern and western regions ofthe old Roman empire
    •  Uses officials to make sure people are happy (roads, complaints, justice, etc)  Missi dominici Charlemagne can read, but can’t write Alcuin creates curriculum based on Latin learning  becomes the model educational system for Medieval Europe Extends Christian civilization to Northern Europe
    • Roaming threats Muslim forces threaten thru 900s Magyars  settle in Hungary and plunder Germany, ½ France, and Italy (eventually pushed back to Hungary) Vikings  stretch out from Scandinavia and attack England, Ireland, N. France, Russia, N. America, etc.
    • Feudalism and Manorialism Feudalism – political and military Manorialism - economic Vassals – pledge service and loyalty to greater lord
    • Happenings in the Kingdom of England King Edward (Anglo-Sax) dies Harold (weak guy) put in charge William of Normandy (strong leader, of Viking descent)  Raises an army and gets pope’s support  William triumphs and defeats Harold  William the Conqueror!  Norman (French) influence  Battle of Hastings  Bayeux Tapestry
    • King William (the Conqueror) Required feudal allegiance Domesday Book – listed every castle, field and pigpen in England  Helped with efficient tax collection Royal exchequer – royal treasury
    • Unified Legal System King Henry II  1154 – common law – legal system based on custom and court rulings and applied to all of England  Created a jury – group of men sworn to speak the truth
    • King Henry and Thomas Becket King Henry – claimed the right to try clergy in royal courts Thomas Becket – Archbishop of Canterbury, fiercely disagreed with the king “what a pack of fools and cowards I have nourished, that not one of them will avenge me of this turbulent priest” 4 knights kill Thomas Becket for King Henry Becket’s honored as a martyr and saint, pilgrimage destination
    • King John the Soft King John – clever, greedy, cruel, untrustworthy Not a people person War with Philip II – loses French lands Gives into Innocent III to avoid kingdom wide excommunication, has to recognize England as a fief to Rome.
    • Magna Carta 1215 at Runnymeade, 63 demands Magna Carta – Great Charter Due Process of Law  Free men are protected from arbitrary arrest and imprisonment Taxation  King can’t raise taxes without consulting the Great Council  No taxation without representation
    • MC’s significance  1. nobles now have certain rights (later extended to all citizens)  2. monarch must obey the law (and the charter)
    • Great Council House of Commons (2 knights from each county) House of Lords King summons this parliament for his own purpose Serve as a checks and balance
    • Onto France! Capetians – Hugh Capet – 987 – Count of Paris, voted to the throne 300+ years Capets rule – “Capetians” Gains support from Church
    • Philip Augustus (Philip II) Shrewd, able, bald, red-face, big drinker Pays middle class officials to fill government officials (buys their support) Normandy and Anjou from England Gains S. France By his death in 1223, Philip II is most powerful ruler in Europe
    • Louis IX Perfect medieval monarch Becomes king at 12 Generous noble devoted justice and charity Persecuted heretics and Jews, led the French knights in 2 wars against the Muslims Roving officials checkout the countryside Dies in 1270 – France has an efficient central government Declared a saint 30 years after death
    • Philip IV  Louis’s grandson  Extends royal power (good), tries to tax the clergy (not so good)–  Pope Boniface VIII – not happy about tax  “God has set popes over kings and kingdoms”  Forbids Philip to tax the clergy without papal consent  Philip threatens arrest clergy who don’t pay their taxes  Philip sends troops and they seize the pope  Pope Boniface VIII – escapes, but was beaten badly and dies  French pope is appointed  New pope moves the church court to Avignon
    • Estates General Created in 1302 3 parts – clergy, nobles, townspeople Body of people that have a say in the government NOT AS POWERFUL as the English Parliament (Great Council) because Estates General has no control of taxation
    • Holy Roman Empire  Otto I of Saxony – King of Germany  Helps pope out  962 – crowned as Holy Roman Emperor  Holy – crowned by the pope  Roman – heir to the emperors of ancient Rome  Pope Gregory VII – banned lay investiture  Only Pope can appoint bishops  HRE Henry IV  Disagreement with GregoryVII because he thinks the HRE should appoint bishops to their royal fiefs  Concordat of Worms – 1122  Church has sole pwr to elect and invest bishops w/spiritual authority; emperor has right to invest them with fiefs
    • The official crown!!
    • HRE ~1200
    • The Crusades Byzantine emperor Alexius I asks Pope Urban II for Christian knights to help him fight the Turks Muslim groups were interfering with Christian pilgrimages to the Holy Land Urban II  “an accursed race…has violently invaded the lands of those Christians and has depopulated them by pillage and fire”
    • God wills it!  1096 – armies of knights, and ordinary men and women all left for the Holy Land  Motivations  Religious zeal  Hopes of wealth and land  Adventure  Pope – hoped to heal the split between Roman and Byzantine churches  Hoped Christian knights would no longer waste time fighting each other  Many Crusades – Round 1, 2, 3, etc.
    •  Over 200 years – roughly 1095- 1290s 1st Crusade – massacre of Muslim and Jewish residents of Jerusalem Saladin (Muslim) retook Jerusalem Results and effects of the Crusades:  Fail to conquer the Holy Land  Increased trade  Middle Eastern products introduced to Europe  Growth of a money economy  Increased power for monarchs and the Pope  Global awareness  1271 Marco Polo to China
    • Reconquista in Spain Christian campaign to drive the Muslims out of Spain, attack Toledo Isabella of Castile marries Ferdinand of Aragon  Unity of two pwrful kingdoms opens the way for a unified state  End of religious toleration for Christians, Jews, and Muslims  Initiate the Spanish Inquisition – Church court set up to try people accused of heresy  Brutal against Muslims and Jews – many burned at the stake when they refuse to convert to Christianity
    • Painting of the Reconquista
    • The Inquisition
    • Medieval Architecture The Romanesque Church – fortresses with thick walls and towers  Barrel vault (long tunnel of stone covering most of the structure)  So heavy it required thick walls  No windows to keep walls strong  Dark and gloomy
    • Gothic Architecture  Flying buttresses – stone supports outside the church  Allow builders to construct higher walls and leave space for huge stained-glass windows  Could be very tall  Graceful spires, lofty ceilings, enormous windows – carry the eye upward to the heavens  Monuments are built to the “greater glory of God”  Make you feel very small, emphasize power and grandeur of God
    • Notre Dame
    • Flying buttresses - Chartres
    • Vernacular Vernacular Epics Dante’s Divine Comedy  Abandon all hope, ye that enter here Beowulf Song of Roland Canterbury Tales
    • Growth of Trade and Banking Agricultural advancements –  Cause population increase and surplus of food (allows for urbanization to occur)  Windmills, iron plow, horse replaced oxen, 3 field system Urban Growth – more specialized manufacturing and commercial activities  Increases trade  Creation of Guilds  Apprentice, journeyman, etc.  Prevents monopoly  Quality control  Development of banking system  Lending money  Receipts and regional systems  Joint business ventures  Invest in supplies and pool resources, limits risks since land and sea travel is dangerous
    •  Created to organize trade between cities in Northern Germany and Southern Scandinavia Hanseatic  with no navies to protect their travels, they band together for safety and successful trade League 1344 Hanseatic League is recognized as a loose trade association Seal of Lubeck, colors – red and white Extortion of trading privileges, very controlling, created monopolies whenever possible Trading: timber, pitch, turpentine, iron, copper, horses, livestock, hawks and falconry for hunting, fish (cod and herring), leather, hides, amber, and textiles Convert to Christianity Lubeck, Hamburg, Copenhagen, Stockholm, Novgorod, Tallin, etc. 1370 – pinnacle of Hansa power After 1450 – England forces the sound open, and diminishes Hansa power in the Baltic, league declines, Ivan the Terrible closes Hansa office in Novgorod
    •  Venetian Merchants  Reached their pinnacle after the 4th Crusade  Sent a fleet of Venetian vessels to Constantinople during the Crusades (does this sound weird to you?)  Loot and pillage Constantinople  Rule the city for the next 50 years  End of Constantinople’s domination in Eurasian trade – they’ll never be the dominant one again  Become the center of trade in W. Europe (they will continue to increase and succeed into the Renaissance)
    • Troubled 1300’s Famine and crop failure already rampant  Makes everyone more susceptible to the plague
    • PLAGUE! 1347 – a Genoese trading ship brings the plague to Messina, Sicily Italy to Spain to France and Germany – one in three people died Originated in Asia and spread to the Middle East to Europe  India depopulated; Mesopotamia, Syria and Armenia covered with dead bodies  Cairo – 7,000 dead bodies a day
    •  Yersinia pestis Bacillus lives in bloodstream of an animal or in the stomach of a flea Ideal host? The Black Rat – traveled on ships Two forms – bubonic and pneumonic  Bubonic – flea is the vector  Pneumonic – direct human contact
    •  Streets were cesspools Mud, refuse, human excrement Personal hygiene – everyone had fleas and body lice so flea bites were perfectly normal Aristocratic families all slept in one room together Middle-class or poor households often slept in one bed
    • Symptoms 1st Stage  A growth the size of a nut or an apple emerged in the armpit, groin or neck (lymph nodes)  Boil “buba” – gave the disease its name  Caused agonizing pain  If lanced and drained victim has a chance 2nd Stage  black spots or blotches appear from bleeding under the skin 3rd and Final Stage  Victim begins to cough violently and spit blood  Death usually followed within two to three days
    • Social Effects People didn’t understand the science behind how the disease spread…so, Terror and bewilderment spread Magic and witchcraft Profound pessimism Wild pleasures – we’ll die soon anyway Flagellants – scourged and whipped themselves as penance for their and society’s sins People fled from city centers
    • The Decameron Giovannia Boccaccio
    • Hundred Years War 1337-1453 (Actually 116 years) England v. France Edward III of England claimed the French crown in 1337 and war erupted English victories at first, France suffered greatly Thank you longbow (3 for 1)
    • Joan of Arc  1429 – 17 year old peasant woman appears in the court of Charles VII the uncrowned king of France  Tells Charles God sent her to save France  Persuades him to allow Joan to lead his armies against the English  Joan inspires the troops and leads them to several victories  English capture her, try her as a witch, burn her at the stake  Church later declares her as a saint  Joan’s execution rallies French troops  French have the cannon!
    • Effects? War created growing sense of nationalism Longbow and cannon Warfare changing Move towards nation states versus feudalism