Technically… Early Middle Ages 500-1000s High Middle Ages 1000-1400s
The Early Middle Ages Sparsely populated, dense forests, rich soil, etc. From 400-700 Germanic tribes carved Western Europe into small kingdoms Franks – strongest kingdom Clovis, king of the Franks Conquers Gaul Ruled lands like the Franks, but preserves Roman legacy Converted to Christianity (religion of people in Gaul) Earns support AND gains the Christian Church of Rome as an ally
Battle of Tours - 732 Islam appears in 622 Muslim armies overrun Christian lands Palestine – N. Africa – Spain When Muslim enter France, Charles Martel rallies Frankish warriors Christians triumph – sign that “God is on their side” Muslims are stopped and only overrun Spain Christians view Muslim world with hostility
Charlemagne Grandson of Charles Martel Built an empire across France, Germany, and part of Italy Loved battle Muslims in Spain, Saxons in the North, Avars and Slavs in the east, Lombards in Italy Conquests reunite much of the old Roman Empire
Pope Leo III asks Charlemagne to help against rebellious nobles in Rome Frankish armies crush the rebellion Pope crowns Charlemagne on Christmas day, 800, to show his gratitude Declares Charlemagne – Emperor of the Romans (why is this so significant?) **Christian Pope crowns a German king successor to the Roman emperors Also sets up conflicts between Roman Catholic popes and German emperors
•Eastern Empire is Furious•Ruler of the Eastern RomanEmpire saw himself as the Romanruler**Furthers division between theeastern and western regions ofthe old Roman empire
Uses officials to make sure people are happy (roads, complaints, justice, etc) Missi dominici Charlemagne can read, but can’t write Alcuin creates curriculum based on Latin learning becomes the model educational system for Medieval Europe Extends Christian civilization to Northern Europe
Roaming threats Muslim forces threaten thru 900s Magyars settle in Hungary and plunder Germany, ½ France, and Italy (eventually pushed back to Hungary) Vikings stretch out from Scandinavia and attack England, Ireland, N. France, Russia, N. America, etc.
Feudalism and Manorialism Feudalism – political and military Manorialism - economic Vassals – pledge service and loyalty to greater lord
Happenings in the Kingdom of England King Edward (Anglo-Sax) dies Harold (weak guy) put in charge William of Normandy (strong leader, of Viking descent) Raises an army and gets pope’s support William triumphs and defeats Harold William the Conqueror! Norman (French) influence Battle of Hastings Bayeux Tapestry
King William (the Conqueror) Required feudal allegiance Domesday Book – listed every castle, field and pigpen in England Helped with efficient tax collection Royal exchequer – royal treasury
Unified Legal System King Henry II 1154 – common law – legal system based on custom and court rulings and applied to all of England Created a jury – group of men sworn to speak the truth
King Henry and Thomas Becket King Henry – claimed the right to try clergy in royal courts Thomas Becket – Archbishop of Canterbury, fiercely disagreed with the king “what a pack of fools and cowards I have nourished, that not one of them will avenge me of this turbulent priest” 4 knights kill Thomas Becket for King Henry Becket’s honored as a martyr and saint, pilgrimage destination
King John the Soft King John – clever, greedy, cruel, untrustworthy Not a people person War with Philip II – loses French lands Gives into Innocent III to avoid kingdom wide excommunication, has to recognize England as a fief to Rome.
Magna Carta 1215 at Runnymeade, 63 demands Magna Carta – Great Charter Due Process of Law Free men are protected from arbitrary arrest and imprisonment Taxation King can’t raise taxes without consulting the Great Council No taxation without representation
MC’s significance 1. nobles now have certain rights (later extended to all citizens) 2. monarch must obey the law (and the charter)
Great Council House of Commons (2 knights from each county) House of Lords King summons this parliament for his own purpose Serve as a checks and balance
Onto France! Capetians – Hugh Capet – 987 – Count of Paris, voted to the throne 300+ years Capets rule – “Capetians” Gains support from Church
Philip Augustus (Philip II) Shrewd, able, bald, red-face, big drinker Pays middle class officials to fill government officials (buys their support) Normandy and Anjou from England Gains S. France By his death in 1223, Philip II is most powerful ruler in Europe
Louis IX Perfect medieval monarch Becomes king at 12 Generous noble devoted justice and charity Persecuted heretics and Jews, led the French knights in 2 wars against the Muslims Roving officials checkout the countryside Dies in 1270 – France has an efficient central government Declared a saint 30 years after death
Philip IV Louis’s grandson Extends royal power (good), tries to tax the clergy (not so good)– Pope Boniface VIII – not happy about tax “God has set popes over kings and kingdoms” Forbids Philip to tax the clergy without papal consent Philip threatens arrest clergy who don’t pay their taxes Philip sends troops and they seize the pope Pope Boniface VIII – escapes, but was beaten badly and dies French pope is appointed New pope moves the church court to Avignon
Estates General Created in 1302 3 parts – clergy, nobles, townspeople Body of people that have a say in the government NOT AS POWERFUL as the English Parliament (Great Council) because Estates General has no control of taxation
Holy Roman Empire Otto I of Saxony – King of Germany Helps pope out 962 – crowned as Holy Roman Emperor Holy – crowned by the pope Roman – heir to the emperors of ancient Rome Pope Gregory VII – banned lay investiture Only Pope can appoint bishops HRE Henry IV Disagreement with GregoryVII because he thinks the HRE should appoint bishops to their royal fiefs Concordat of Worms – 1122 Church has sole pwr to elect and invest bishops w/spiritual authority; emperor has right to invest them with fiefs
The Crusades Byzantine emperor Alexius I asks Pope Urban II for Christian knights to help him fight the Turks Muslim groups were interfering with Christian pilgrimages to the Holy Land Urban II “an accursed race…has violently invaded the lands of those Christians and has depopulated them by pillage and fire”
God wills it! 1096 – armies of knights, and ordinary men and women all left for the Holy Land Motivations Religious zeal Hopes of wealth and land Adventure Pope – hoped to heal the split between Roman and Byzantine churches Hoped Christian knights would no longer waste time fighting each other Many Crusades – Round 1, 2, 3, etc.
Over 200 years – roughly 1095- 1290s 1st Crusade – massacre of Muslim and Jewish residents of Jerusalem Saladin (Muslim) retook Jerusalem Results and effects of the Crusades: Fail to conquer the Holy Land Increased trade Middle Eastern products introduced to Europe Growth of a money economy Increased power for monarchs and the Pope Global awareness 1271 Marco Polo to China
Reconquista in Spain Christian campaign to drive the Muslims out of Spain, attack Toledo Isabella of Castile marries Ferdinand of Aragon Unity of two pwrful kingdoms opens the way for a unified state End of religious toleration for Christians, Jews, and Muslims Initiate the Spanish Inquisition – Church court set up to try people accused of heresy Brutal against Muslims and Jews – many burned at the stake when they refuse to convert to Christianity
Medieval Architecture The Romanesque Church – fortresses with thick walls and towers Barrel vault (long tunnel of stone covering most of the structure) So heavy it required thick walls No windows to keep walls strong Dark and gloomy
Gothic Architecture Flying buttresses – stone supports outside the church Allow builders to construct higher walls and leave space for huge stained-glass windows Could be very tall Graceful spires, lofty ceilings, enormous windows – carry the eye upward to the heavens Monuments are built to the “greater glory of God” Make you feel very small, emphasize power and grandeur of God
Vernacular Vernacular Epics Dante’s Divine Comedy Abandon all hope, ye that enter here Beowulf Song of Roland Canterbury Tales
Growth of Trade and Banking Agricultural advancements – Cause population increase and surplus of food (allows for urbanization to occur) Windmills, iron plow, horse replaced oxen, 3 field system Urban Growth – more specialized manufacturing and commercial activities Increases trade Creation of Guilds Apprentice, journeyman, etc. Prevents monopoly Quality control Development of banking system Lending money Receipts and regional systems Joint business ventures Invest in supplies and pool resources, limits risks since land and sea travel is dangerous
Created to organize trade between cities in Northern Germany and Southern Scandinavia Hanseatic with no navies to protect their travels, they band together for safety and successful trade League 1344 Hanseatic League is recognized as a loose trade association Seal of Lubeck, colors – red and white Extortion of trading privileges, very controlling, created monopolies whenever possible Trading: timber, pitch, turpentine, iron, copper, horses, livestock, hawks and falconry for hunting, fish (cod and herring), leather, hides, amber, and textiles Convert to Christianity Lubeck, Hamburg, Copenhagen, Stockholm, Novgorod, Tallin, etc. 1370 – pinnacle of Hansa power After 1450 – England forces the sound open, and diminishes Hansa power in the Baltic, league declines, Ivan the Terrible closes Hansa office in Novgorod
Venetian Merchants Reached their pinnacle after the 4th Crusade Sent a fleet of Venetian vessels to Constantinople during the Crusades (does this sound weird to you?) Loot and pillage Constantinople Rule the city for the next 50 years End of Constantinople’s domination in Eurasian trade – they’ll never be the dominant one again Become the center of trade in W. Europe (they will continue to increase and succeed into the Renaissance)
Troubled 1300’s Famine and crop failure already rampant Makes everyone more susceptible to the plague
PLAGUE! 1347 – a Genoese trading ship brings the plague to Messina, Sicily Italy to Spain to France and Germany – one in three people died Originated in Asia and spread to the Middle East to Europe India depopulated; Mesopotamia, Syria and Armenia covered with dead bodies Cairo – 7,000 dead bodies a day
Yersinia pestis Bacillus lives in bloodstream of an animal or in the stomach of a flea Ideal host? The Black Rat – traveled on ships Two forms – bubonic and pneumonic Bubonic – flea is the vector Pneumonic – direct human contact
Streets were cesspools Mud, refuse, human excrement Personal hygiene – everyone had fleas and body lice so flea bites were perfectly normal Aristocratic families all slept in one room together Middle-class or poor households often slept in one bed
Symptoms 1st Stage A growth the size of a nut or an apple emerged in the armpit, groin or neck (lymph nodes) Boil “buba” – gave the disease its name Caused agonizing pain If lanced and drained victim has a chance 2nd Stage black spots or blotches appear from bleeding under the skin 3rd and Final Stage Victim begins to cough violently and spit blood Death usually followed within two to three days
Social Effects People didn’t understand the science behind how the disease spread…so, Terror and bewilderment spread Magic and witchcraft Profound pessimism Wild pleasures – we’ll die soon anyway Flagellants – scourged and whipped themselves as penance for their and society’s sins People fled from city centers
Hundred Years War 1337-1453 (Actually 116 years) England v. France Edward III of England claimed the French crown in 1337 and war erupted English victories at first, France suffered greatly Thank you longbow (3 for 1)
Joan of Arc 1429 – 17 year old peasant woman appears in the court of Charles VII the uncrowned king of France Tells Charles God sent her to save France Persuades him to allow Joan to lead his armies against the English Joan inspires the troops and leads them to several victories English capture her, try her as a witch, burn her at the stake Church later declares her as a saint Joan’s execution rallies French troops French have the cannon!
Effects? War created growing sense of nationalism Longbow and cannon Warfare changing Move towards nation states versus feudalism
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