Tigris and Euphrates          Nile      Huang He           & Indus River Valley     Civilizations      AP World      Mrs. ...
Tigris-EuphratesMesopotamia – meaning “land between rivers”(between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers)– fertile crescent– Mo...
City of UrFertile soil, flat, swampy landWinter flooding, summer droughtsNo defense, few resources (soil andreeds, no ston...
GovernmentRuled by priests from ZigguratsCollect taxes (in goods, not money)Became absolute monarchies
ReligionPolytheistic and superstitiousAnu – God of HeavenEnlil – God of CloudsEa – God of Water and FloodsTop 3 followed i...
Life, Death, and ChangeSumerians Believe:– Man was nothing– Gods and demons should be feared– People need to earn gods’ pr...
Cultural AccomplishmentsTrade/barter network withnearby groupsIrrigation to control theT&E RiversCuneiform – formed witha ...
Women’s RightsHave rights in most occupations (but noteducation)Men still have ability to sell wives andchildren into slav...
Accomplishments cont. (cool        inventions)Copper + Tin = BronzeWheelSailboatPlowArtisans and specialzationNippur calen...
Success and DeclineSumerians were best at:– Adapting to the environment– Effective government and social organization to d...
BabyloniansMajor City – BabylonMesopotamianCivilization too!Conquer Mesopotamianregion and spreadSumerian culture all over...
Absolute monarchy ruledempirePolytheistic religion (likeSumer)– Marduk – supreme god  who won a pwr struggle– View of life...
Cultural Accomplishments       “Enuma Elish” – world’s       first epic poem,       explanation of creation       Hammurab...
Success and DeclineSuccess– Adopted Sumerians patterns for civilization– Unified diverse peoples through consistent  laws ...
Hittites
1400 BCE – 1200 BCE ish.                        Learned to extract iron from oreOld city gates of the   Iron weapons are h...
PhoeniciansWestern end of Fertile Crescent, on Mediterranean SeaNatural resources? – Cedar trees – snails1200 BCE to 700 B...
CulturalAccomplishments Extensive trade networks  – Snails with purple dye (60,000    snails = 1 lb)  – Cedar wood  – Impo...
Success and DeclineSuccess– Adapted well and applied technology (like  ships) to meet their needsDecline– Overwhelmed by g...
Assyrians Northern Mesopotamia – capital at Ninevah Used iron weapons, fierce warriors – Merciless, lots of captives Resou...
Cultural AccomplishmentsWorld’s strongest and best military to that point in historyNinevah – one of the grandest and larg...
AssurbanipalLast King of Kings –~650 BCECreated library of25,000 tablets (evenforeign languagedictionaries
Success and DeclineSuccess– Expansive empire     Great weapons, rule by terror, superior military– Israel and Judah paid t...
ChaldeanBabylon II – 1,000 yrs after HammurabiConquer Assyrians and move capital fromNinevah to Babylon600 BCE – 550 BCEGo...
Cultural Accomplishments         Magnificent city of Babylon          – Bricks inscribed “I am            Nebuchadnezzar, ...
Nebuchadnezzar605 BCE – 562 BCEBabylonian Captivity –– Believed that moving conquered people  lessened chance of rebellion...
Success– Strong charismatic ruler consolidated power  with the militaryDecline– Collapsed upon Nebuchadnezzar’s death  bec...
HebrewsSettle in Palestine “Land of the Philistines”Surrounded by desert, but a green areawith olive trees and palms near ...
Roots traced back to2000 BCE whenAbraham left UrHebrew civilizationarose ~ 1650 BCE Most of our historicalknowledge comesf...
GovernmentJews were often ruled by other invadingempires– They were even taken away from Palestine  into “captivity”– They...
Religious BeliefsFirst religion to base itself onmorality/ethics & internal standards (notnature).World’s first monotheist...
Finally different beliefs than the Sumerians!  Serving God was of greatest importance.  God had made a covenant with the J...
Cultural AccomplishmentsTen CommandmentsMonotheism – the Hebrew scriptures laida foundation for Christianity and evenIslam...
Important PeopleAbraham – the “Father of Nations” - from Ur -with whom God made the basic “covenant”Jacob (“Israel”) – Abr...
The “Golden Age” of Israel (1020 – 922BCE) which united most of the 12 tribeslasted less than 100 years under 3 majorKings...
Hebrews were later conquered by theAssyrians, Chaldeans, Persians, Greeks,and Romans (the time of Jesus) – held to their b...
PersiansEast Mesopotamia, modern-day IranHeight – all of Mesopotamia, Egypt, AsiaMinor, part of Greece and India550 BCE – ...
Monarchy divided into 20 provinces– Provinces by ethnicities and culture      Own language, religion, most of their laws– ...
Zoroastrianism Ahura Mazda v. Ariman – Good v. evil Each deity led vast spiritual armies constantly battling each other  E...
Man is importantChoice of good/evil in life determines lifeafter death (heaven/hell)Emphasis on moral conductEducation and...
Cultural AccomplishmentsDealt wisely with diverse nationalitiesRoyal Road – 1,677 miles with 111 posts– 1 week v. 3 mos– P...
Rulers    Cyrus –     – The Jews called him “the       anointed of the Lord.” (In 537,       he allowed over 40,000 to    ...
Success and DeclineEventually became too big and diverse tokeep togetherDefeated by Greeks and Romans
Indus River Valley                                                Harappan Society                                        ...
HuangheChina’s Yellow RiverFairly isolatedPolitically well organizedcarefully-regulated irrigation, floods a continual con...
Shang~1650 BCE – group called the Shang gain control of N.ChinaDominate until 1027 BCECapital city at Anyang, (walled)Shan...
Social ClassesRoyal family and class of noble warriors– Leather armor, bronze weapons, horse-drawn chariotsEarly Chinese c...
Religious Beliefs Complex religious beiefs Many gods and spirits of nature Shang Di (top god) + mother goddess who brought...
Interaction BeginsBy 1000 BCE…– Phoenicians were trading with Britain for  metals– Chinese silk is reaching Egypt– Egypt f...
Commonalities?Think…Which features of civilization did all fourriver valley civilizations develop on theirown?
SPRITE!S – social structureP – politicalR - religionI – intellectual accomplishmentsT – technological advancementsE - econ...
Apwh Unit 1 part 2  - River Valley Civilizations
Apwh Unit 1 part 2  - River Valley Civilizations
Apwh Unit 1 part 2  - River Valley Civilizations
Apwh Unit 1 part 2  - River Valley Civilizations
Apwh Unit 1 part 2  - River Valley Civilizations
Apwh Unit 1 part 2  - River Valley Civilizations
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Apwh Unit 1 part 2 - River Valley Civilizations

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Apwh Unit 1 part 2 - River Valley Civilizations

  1. 1. Tigris and Euphrates Nile Huang He & Indus River Valley Civilizations AP World Mrs. Hals Unit 1 Part 2
  2. 2. Tigris-EuphratesMesopotamia – meaning “land between rivers”(between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers)– fertile crescent– Modern day IraqSuccession of many civilizations in this areaSumerians are first – emerge ~3500 BCE– People arrive ~4000 BCE– Civilization from 3200 - 2000
  3. 3. City of UrFertile soil, flat, swampy landWinter flooding, summer droughtsNo defense, few resources (soil andreeds, no stone, wood or metal)Adapt: irrigation, mud bricks for city walls,trade through a broad network
  4. 4. GovernmentRuled by priests from ZigguratsCollect taxes (in goods, not money)Became absolute monarchies
  5. 5. ReligionPolytheistic and superstitiousAnu – God of HeavenEnlil – God of CloudsEa – God of Water and FloodsTop 3 followed in importance by Sun, Moon, and Stars – Individual gods of cities, temples, and the home were next in line Bottom – “Wicked Udugs” – Spirits of disease, misfortune, and trouble
  6. 6. Life, Death, and ChangeSumerians Believe:– Man was nothing– Gods and demons should be feared– People need to earn gods’ protection and favor– Souls of the dead went to the “land of no return” – gloomy afterlife
  7. 7. Cultural AccomplishmentsTrade/barter network withnearby groupsIrrigation to control theT&E RiversCuneiform – formed witha stylus and clay– Cuneiform – pictograms– Pictograms – ideograms– Ideograms – syllables– Reduces the number of characters from 2000-600
  8. 8. Women’s RightsHave rights in most occupations (but noteducation)Men still have ability to sell wives andchildren into slaveryMen can divorce woman for any reason,women don’t have this right
  9. 9. Accomplishments cont. (cool inventions)Copper + Tin = BronzeWheelSailboatPlowArtisans and specialzationNippur calendar (b/ms standard for most ofancient world)First complex institutions (government andreligious– Gvt ideas diffuse to SW Asia
  10. 10. Success and DeclineSumerians were best at:– Adapting to the environment– Effective government and social organization to deal with problemsDecline:– Constant warfare for 1000+ years, weakens cooperation and the Sumerian civilization– Eventually allow nomads to scale city walls, loot the streets, and conquer the cities
  11. 11. BabyloniansMajor City – BabylonMesopotamianCivilization too!Conquer Mesopotamianregion and spreadSumerian culture all over– Ziggarats, Cuneiform, irrigation, etc.– Geographic Situation? - same as Sumerians– 2000 BCE to 1550 BCE
  12. 12. Absolute monarchy ruledempirePolytheistic religion (likeSumer)– Marduk – supreme god who won a pwr struggle– View of life, death, etc. – same as Sumerians
  13. 13. Cultural Accomplishments “Enuma Elish” – world’s first epic poem, explanation of creation Hammurabi’s Code – King Hammurabi ~ 1750 BCE – First unified code of laws, list of 282 laws – 8 ft black stone – Justice and balance – Stern punishments – Death penalties for murder, theft, fraud, false accusations, sheltering runaway slaves, failure to obey royal orders, adultery, incest – Civil laws regulated prices, wages, commercial dealings, marital relationships, conditions of slavery, etc
  14. 14. Success and DeclineSuccess– Adopted Sumerians patterns for civilization– Unified diverse peoples through consistent laws and a uniform cultureDecline– But, increasingly powerful neighbors– Weaker kings and internal problems– Babylon collapsed into many smaller empires and civilizations for the next 700 years
  15. 15. Hittites
  16. 16. 1400 BCE – 1200 BCE ish. Learned to extract iron from oreOld city gates of the Iron weapons are harder and sharper thanHittite capital bronze or copper Iron is plentiful and cheaper So, the Hittites are armed and known as conquerors Eventually their iron info spreads across Asia, Africa, and Europe – Cue the Iron Age
  17. 17. PhoeniciansWestern end of Fertile Crescent, on Mediterranean SeaNatural resources? – Cedar trees – snails1200 BCE to 700 BCEReligion? Polytheistic and similar to Sumer and BabylonLots of city-states with absolute monarchies – Tyre is biggest, but each city-state competed for trade
  18. 18. CulturalAccomplishments Extensive trade networks – Snails with purple dye (60,000 snails = 1 lb) – Cedar wood – Imported wine, weapons, slaves, cloth, glass, ivory, and precious metals Sophisticated ships – Sails and oars – Probably circled Africa around 600 BCE Est. trading colonies – Carthage (Tunisia) and others Developed the first alphabet – Based on sounds, 22 shapes – Greeks, Romans, literacy rates
  19. 19. Success and DeclineSuccess– Adapted well and applied technology (like ships) to meet their needsDecline– Overwhelmed by growing empires with more people and resources– Absorbed by bigger empires
  20. 20. Assyrians Northern Mesopotamia – capital at Ninevah Used iron weapons, fierce warriors – Merciless, lots of captives Resources? – Like Sumer 1200 BCE to 612 BCE (best? ~850 BCE) Ruled by “King of Kings” – City-states had rulers, but the King of Kings was above them all Religion – polytheistic, like Sumer
  21. 21. Cultural AccomplishmentsWorld’s strongest and best military to that point in historyNinevah – one of the grandest and largest cities in theworld– “evil and wicked” – Jonah and the whale– World’s greatest library– Trade center for gold, ivory, and silver
  22. 22. AssurbanipalLast King of Kings –~650 BCECreated library of25,000 tablets (evenforeign languagedictionaries
  23. 23. Success and DeclineSuccess– Expansive empire Great weapons, rule by terror, superior military– Israel and Judah paid tribute to prevent attack Assyrians attacked anyway, capture N. Israel and Judah (including Jerusalem and Solomon’s Temple) 586 BCEDecline– Hebrews view their decline as God’s judgment on the cruel Assyrians– Empire collapsed as it grew too big and stretched too thin to govern
  24. 24. ChaldeanBabylon II – 1,000 yrs after HammurabiConquer Assyrians and move capital fromNinevah to Babylon600 BCE – 550 BCEGovernment? – absolute monarchyReligion – polytheistic, like Sumerians
  25. 25. Cultural Accomplishments Magnificent city of Babylon – Bricks inscribed “I am Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon” – Hanging Gardens of Babylon – built for his Queen – 7 story ziggurat – Walls wide enough to drive chariot on top Astrology and Astronomy – Improved calendar – Developed Zodiac (stars determine human destiny)
  26. 26. Nebuchadnezzar605 BCE – 562 BCEBabylonian Captivity –– Believed that moving conquered people lessened chance of rebellion– When armies captured Jerusalem in 586, they pillaged the Temple, destroyed the city, and brought the 15,000 captured Jews to Babylon– Big milestone in Jewish history (Daniel), strengthens monotheism
  27. 27. Success– Strong charismatic ruler consolidated power with the militaryDecline– Collapsed upon Nebuchadnezzar’s death because of incompetent accessors– Rising Persian empire
  28. 28. HebrewsSettle in Palestine “Land of the Philistines”Surrounded by desert, but a green areawith olive trees and palms near the JordanRiver & the Sea of Galilee (in the north)Few natural resources
  29. 29. Roots traced back to2000 BCE whenAbraham left UrHebrew civilizationarose ~ 1650 BCE Most of our historicalknowledge comesfrom the Torah– (first 5 books of the Jewish scripture)
  30. 30. GovernmentJews were often ruled by other invadingempires– They were even taken away from Palestine into “captivity”– They always maintained a desire and determination to return to their homeland
  31. 31. Religious BeliefsFirst religion to base itself onmorality/ethics & internal standards (notnature).World’s first monotheistic religionBelieved God of Abraham (called Yahweh)was not confined to one place– God everywhere and in all situations.
  32. 32. Finally different beliefs than the Sumerians! Serving God was of greatest importance. God had made a covenant with the Jews (his chosen people). Strongly in “social justice”; people have a duty to fight evil, injustice, & ignorance. Change was positive as they sought to create a better world with their emphasis on education, justice, and progress. Believe in “Heaven,” but their primary focus was on the “here & now” (not the afterlife). The importance of following Gods commandments/laws. God gave Moses the “Ten Commandments,” but they also followed many other holy laws and rituals. Mankind has an inherently sinful nature (the Genesis story of temptation & sin).
  33. 33. Cultural AccomplishmentsTen CommandmentsMonotheism – the Hebrew scriptures laida foundation for Christianity and evenIslamConcept of social justiceThe “Hebrew” languageThe concept of a God of justiceEmphasis on education and a belief thatcivilization & progress can be positiveforces for change
  34. 34. Important PeopleAbraham – the “Father of Nations” - from Ur -with whom God made the basic “covenant”Jacob (“Israel”) – Abraham’s grandson; his 12sons would become the leaders of the “12tribes”Noah – the dude with ark during the floodMoses – Jewish orphan, led the Hebrew“Exodus”, received the Ten Commandmentsatop Mount Sinai
  35. 35. The “Golden Age” of Israel (1020 – 922BCE) which united most of the 12 tribeslasted less than 100 years under 3 majorKings – (Saul, David, and Solomon) – capital at Jerusalem – Solomon built the great Jewish temple from cedar wood trimmed with brass and gold (it was designed to house the Ark of the Covenant)
  36. 36. Hebrews were later conquered by theAssyrians, Chaldeans, Persians, Greeks,and Romans (the time of Jesus) – held to their belief in God and continued to hope for the Messiah.The Jewish people were eventuallyscattered all over the world (an eventcalled the Diaspora) with the harsh rule ofthe Roman Empire and the expansion ofIslam
  37. 37. PersiansEast Mesopotamia, modern-day IranHeight – all of Mesopotamia, Egypt, AsiaMinor, part of Greece and India550 BCE – 350 BCE
  38. 38. Monarchy divided into 20 provinces– Provinces by ethnicities and culture Own language, religion, most of their laws– Satrap, Tax Collector and Army Leader for each Province Wise, tolerant, and fair
  39. 39. Zoroastrianism Ahura Mazda v. Ariman – Good v. evil Each deity led vast spiritual armies constantly battling each other Essentially monotheistic – believed and worshipped one true and good God Avesta – collection of writings Beliefs preached by prophet Zoroaster ~600 BCE – Explained war, conquest, flooding, famine, and other evils, etc. Modern Day? – Some practicing Zoroastrians in Iran and India “Parsis”
  40. 40. Man is importantChoice of good/evil in life determines lifeafter death (heaven/hell)Emphasis on moral conductEducation and progress can be positiveforces of change
  41. 41. Cultural AccomplishmentsDealt wisely with diverse nationalitiesRoyal Road – 1,677 miles with 111 posts– 1 week v. 3 mos– Political stability = tremendous increase in trade and cultural diffusionFirst to issue coins– Unified cultures– Improved trade
  42. 42. Rulers Cyrus – – The Jews called him “the anointed of the Lord.” (In 537, he allowed over 40,000 to return to Palestine). Darius – extended empire to India with the 10,000 Immortals – Created the Province System, Royal Road, and coined money – Only failure was inability to conquer Greece Xerxes – Persian Wars and 300
  43. 43. Success and DeclineEventually became too big and diverse tokeep togetherDefeated by Greeks and Romans
  44. 44. Indus River Valley Harappan Society – Emerges 2500 BCE – Frustratingly little evidence – Indus and Saraswati Rivers – very powerful and unpredictable – ~2,000 BCE it was the biggest culture area in the world, stretching 500,000 sq miles – Running water, alphabet, artistichttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Civilt%C3%A0ValleIndoMappa.png seals, urban planning, uniform bricks, – Two famous cities Mohenjo-Daro Harappa
  45. 45. HuangheChina’s Yellow RiverFairly isolatedPolitically well organizedcarefully-regulated irrigation, floods a continual concernConstruct palaces and tombsBy 2000 BCE, advanced technology and intellectual life included: – Riding horses – pottery – Skillful use of bronze – Iron introduced 1000 CE – Worked with coal – Ideographic symbols etched on bone – Astronomy
  46. 46. Shang~1650 BCE – group called the Shang gain control of N.ChinaDominate until 1027 BCECapital city at Anyang, (walled)Shang kings – controlled only a small area– Led noble warriors into battle (warrior kings)Loyal princes and nobles governed most of the land– Probably head of “clans” – the groups of families who claim a common ancestorProbably similar to the city-states of Sumer instead ofthe centralized gvt of the Egyptian pharaohs
  47. 47. Social ClassesRoyal family and class of noble warriors– Leather armor, bronze weapons, horse-drawn chariotsEarly Chinese cities support a class of artisans andmerchants– Artisans – produced goods for nobles (bronze weapons, silk robes, jade jewelry)– Merchants – exchanged food and crafts made by local artisans Salt, cowrie shells, and other goods not in NE ChinaPeasants – majority of Shang China– Farming villages, grueling lives, stone tools, maintaining dikes– Men pledged allegiance to their noble lords
  48. 48. Religious Beliefs Complex religious beiefs Many gods and spirits of nature Shang Di (top god) + mother goddess who brought plants and animals to Earth – King is link between people and Shang Di – Shang Di wouldn’t respond to mortal pleas, only spirits of the greatest mortals would relay pleas to Shang Di (like ancestors’ spirits) Prayers for victory in war, good harvests, etc. Offer sacrifices of food to the ancestors Yin and Yang – – Yin = Earth, darkness, and female forces – Yang = Heaven, light, and male forces – Delicate balance must be maintained
  49. 49. Interaction BeginsBy 1000 BCE…– Phoenicians were trading with Britain for metals– Chinese silk is reaching Egypt– Egypt fairly self-contained comparatively– Harappa and Mesopotamia trade– China didn’t influence these early river valley civilizations as much as they will later influence Korea, Japan, and Vietnam
  50. 50. Commonalities?Think…Which features of civilization did all fourriver valley civilizations develop on theirown?
  51. 51. SPRITE!S – social structureP – politicalR - religionI – intellectual accomplishmentsT – technological advancementsE - economic

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