Ancient Egypt
Location• Nile River Valley down to the first cataract
Geographic Influences• Isolation – flat land, protective deserts• Nile River  – “lifeline” or “gift from the gods”  – Tran...
•   When?•   3200 BCE – 1000 BCE•   Three time periods:•   Old Kingdom – 2700-2200•   Middle Kingdom – 2050 - 1800•   New ...
Government• Originally 3 kingdoms  governed by an absolute  monarch• Later, Egypt unifies into  one great kingdom ruled  b...
• Polytheistic                             Religion   • Priests held spiritual and                                        ...
View of Life, Death, and Change• Egyptians believed:  – Life should be traditional and enjoyed  – Mummification – preservi...
Cultural Accomplishments• An advanced, progressive culture  – Hieroglyphics     • “sacred carving,” used clay and papyrus ...
• Women were respected, shared many rights  with men   – Including divorce and marriage• Complex number system   – Kept fi...
•   Pyramids    – Tombs for the Pharaohs    – Perfectly symmetrical structures    – Required over 2 million stones        ...
Significant People and Events• King Menes – unified the 3 separate empires  into the “Old Kingdom”  – Capital at Memphis ~...
Queen Hatshepsut • Ancestor of King Tut • Declares herself   Pharoah   – First female ruler of a     civilization/empire •...
Thutmose III• Conquers Syria and  Palestine  – Height of the Egyptian    empire• Hebrews who had  come willingly to  Egypt...
•   ~1375 he tried to force Egypt to be    monotheistic     – “Aton is the only God”                         Akenaton•   M...
King Tut• About 8 or 9 yrs old• Restores the old  capital and belief  system  – So Egyptians liked him
•   The 3,300-year-old mummy of the    ancient King Tutankhamun lies    exposed on a CT machine in Luxor,    Egypt on Wedn...
Ramses II     • The last great Pharaoh     • Was in charge when       Moses led Hebrews out       of Egypt (Exodus)     • ...
• Luxor Album:• https://picasaweb.google.com/1150515006931
New Kingdom Accomplishments• Built the Valley of the Kings   – Great temples and tombs beneath desert cliffs (less     con...
Success and Decline• Desert protection helped• Weren’t by outsiders challenged like  Mesopotamia was• Used Nile ingeniousl...
Rosetta Stone• Slab of black stone  with Greek,  Hieroglyphics, and  Demotic writing• Discovered by Jean  Champollion in 1...
Ancient egypt
Ancient egypt
Ancient egypt
Ancient egypt
Ancient egypt
Ancient egypt
Ancient egypt
Ancient egypt
Ancient egypt
Ancient egypt
Ancient egypt
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Ancient egypt

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River Valley Civilizations - Nile - Egypt

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Ancient egypt

  1. 1. Ancient Egypt
  2. 2. Location• Nile River Valley down to the first cataract
  3. 3. Geographic Influences• Isolation – flat land, protective deserts• Nile River – “lifeline” or “gift from the gods” – Transportation, communication, and good agriculture despite the surrounding deserts• Adaptations – Predictable floods – Used “basin irrigation” to retain water for farming when the flooding ended
  4. 4. • When?• 3200 BCE – 1000 BCE• Three time periods:• Old Kingdom – 2700-2200• Middle Kingdom – 2050 - 1800• New Kingdom – 1550 - 1100
  5. 5. Government• Originally 3 kingdoms governed by an absolute monarch• Later, Egypt unifies into one great kingdom ruled by a Pharaoh or “God- King” – Theocracy – government ruled by a divine figure or by religious law
  6. 6. • Polytheistic Religion • Priests held spiritual and political power – And shaved all hair from their bodies • Aton – Sun god • Amon – god of EgyptNefirtiti worshipping Aton • Osiris – god of the Dead – Weighs all human hearts on a scale. If lighter than a feather they are pure and will live forever. If heavier, the impure heart will be destroyed and eaten by the Devourer of Souls • Book of the Dead – Collection of prayers and meditations, seen as holy scriptures • Pure heart involved “Maat”Picture from the Book of the Dead – Virtues of good life, truth, justice, and order
  7. 7. View of Life, Death, and Change• Egyptians believed: – Life should be traditional and enjoyed – Mummification – preserving the body for life after death • Ka – eternal spirit that lives on in Pharaohs • Pyramids were designed to provide a comfortable place in which to live (including drawings, jewelry and clothing) – Imagined the future life for pure souls to be much like the present
  8. 8. Cultural Accomplishments• An advanced, progressive culture – Hieroglyphics • “sacred carving,” used clay and papyrus – The best ancient calendar (6 hours short of a true solar calendar year – Geometry • Used to survey lands – Medicine • Understood heart rates/pulses • Broken bones, fevers, treating wounds • Even used electric fish in pools for healing and therapy
  9. 9. • Women were respected, shared many rights with men – Including divorce and marriage• Complex number system – Kept financial and tax records• Very stratified society – Literacy a significant factor – Social mobility, even for slaves (esp. through service in the army or to the Pharaoh)• Pyramids
  10. 10. • Pyramids – Tombs for the Pharaohs – Perfectly symmetrical structures – Required over 2 million stones • Some stones weighed 200 tons • Some poured in molds like concrete – 80 pyramids in Egypt • Largest at Giza – Most treasures and mummies stolen by thieves – Probably willingly built by peasants
  11. 11. Significant People and Events• King Menes – unified the 3 separate empires into the “Old Kingdom” – Capital at Memphis ~3100 BCE• 3100-1600 BCE – “ups and downs” – Middle Kingdom emerges during high point – Pyramids built – Art and Architecture flourished• New Kingdom 1570-1075 – True, great Egyptian empire and civilization – Desert not enough, Egyptians create buffer zone
  12. 12. Queen Hatshepsut • Ancestor of King Tut • Declares herself Pharoah – First female ruler of a civilization/empire • 22 yr reign • Killed (probably by her stepson Thutmose III)
  13. 13. Thutmose III• Conquers Syria and Palestine – Height of the Egyptian empire• Hebrews who had come willingly to Egypt are forced into slavery – (this sets up the LMPG thing)
  14. 14. • ~1375 he tried to force Egypt to be monotheistic – “Aton is the only God” Akenaton• Moved the capital – Thebes to Akhetaton• Changed is name – From Amonhotep to Akenaton (not much better)• Replaced by King Tut
  15. 15. King Tut• About 8 or 9 yrs old• Restores the old capital and belief system – So Egyptians liked him
  16. 16. • The 3,300-year-old mummy of the ancient King Tutankhamun lies exposed on a CT machine in Luxor, Egypt on Wednesday as Egyptian antiquities chief Zahi Hawass, left, looks on.
  17. 17. Ramses II • The last great Pharaoh • Was in charge when Moses led Hebrews out of Egypt (Exodus) • 67 yr reign • Est. peace w/ Hittites • Built many temples and statues of himself • Fathered over 150 children before dying at age 99
  18. 18. • Luxor Album:• https://picasaweb.google.com/1150515006931
  19. 19. New Kingdom Accomplishments• Built the Valley of the Kings – Great temples and tombs beneath desert cliffs (less conspicuous than pyramids) – Near Thebes – King Tut, Ramses II, and others were inside
  20. 20. Success and Decline• Desert protection helped• Weren’t by outsiders challenged like Mesopotamia was• Used Nile ingeniously• Empire collapses due to – ineffective Pharaohs – Strengthening Assyrians and Persians • Who conquer Egypt c.1000 BCE
  21. 21. Rosetta Stone• Slab of black stone with Greek, Hieroglyphics, and Demotic writing• Discovered by Jean Champollion in 1799• Code broken in 1822 – **first time hieroglyphics were read and understood
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