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Agriculture, industrialization, and urbanization


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  • 1.  What am I? Why am I so special to European farmers?
  • 2. Part 2:Agriculture, Industrialization, and Urbanization
  • 3.  Food supply never certain, especially in the east Crop failure = malnutrition or starvation (death) Price fluctuation  Smaller supply  Greater population demand  Prices increase sharply 1700- small farms disappearing  Wealthy buy out village farms- then rent them out  Known as enclosure- as land was fenced in  Intend to use land more rationally and for greater profits  Landlords commercialize agriculture, challenge the traditional peasant ways of production  Peasants revolt
  • 4.  Villagers= traditional methods of farming Wealthy landowners- free to experiment w/ new methods  Use scientific approach to increase harvest size  Ideas and harvest size exchanged  Effected by Scientific Rev. and Enlightenment
  • 5.  Dutch agricultural reform – devise better dikes and drainage systems, try new crops, better yield of animal fodder (fertilizer), better soil = better crops  English hire Cornelius Vermuyden to help in Cambridge Jethro Tull- 1721 seed drill  Well spaced rows, specific depth  More germination = larger crop Charles “Turnip” Townsend  Crop Rotation- most revolutionary discovery  Wheat, turnips, barley, and clover  Don’t need to leave one fallow!  Turnips enrich the soil and help with nutrient rich animal fodder
  • 6.  Robert Bakewell- selective breeding of animals  Breed the animals who yield more milk and meat
  • 7. YEAR SHEEP CATTLE (lbs.) (lbs.) 1710 28 370 1795 80 800
  • 8. 800700600500400 1710 1795300200100 0 SHEEP CATTLE
  • 9.  France – restricts the enclosure movement Prussia, Austria, Poland and Russia  Begin plowing untilled lands  Doesn’t increase production, just work load of the serfs  Maize and potatoes introduced
  • 10.  More food due to better livestock & crop rotation Smaller farmers pushed off land  Left cities for colonies  Became labor force for industry Nutrition improved= increase in population= working class in cities
  • 11. 1700 1800 1850Europe’s overall 100 -120 million 190 million 260 millionpopulation (notincludingOttoman Empire) 1750 1800England and 6 million 10 millionWales 1715 1789France 18 million 26 million 1722 1766Russia 22 million 29 million
  • 12.  Death rate declined Hygiene and sanitation improved Less wars and epidemics during the 1700s Better medical knowledge and techniques (thanks scientific revolution!) The potato (1 acre = enough potatoes to feed a family for a whole year!) more people lived in the countryside than could find employment there…so…they headed to the cities!
  • 13.  Read page 506 “Water, Washing, and Bathing” What was scarce in Europe until the late 1800s? What was water used for? During the Middle Ages, what did people believe your personal appearance reflected? How does that change during the Renaissance and Reformation? Which parts of the body were you supposed to wash? Why were public bathhouses sketchy? How does linen clothing contribute to changes in societal beliefs? What theory causes bathing to become popular?
  • 14.  Waterpower, coal- energy or machines Iron ore for tools
  • 15.  Good harbors- merchant ships  Overseas trade = raw materials & markets  Led to industrial growth  Middle/merchant class growth developed- $ for new projects
  • 16.  Interest in science and technology 1660 Royal Society- exchanged scientific ideas and inventions Businesses invested in inventions (entrepreneurship)
  • 17.  1700’s- most developed  Loans- **led to business investment
  • 18.  1700’s- wars fought in foreign lands  Century of peace- no worries of invasion  Economic growth stressed by govt.  Merchants influenced Parliament  Govt. supported laws encouraging business
  • 19.  GB led wool industry  Wool spun by hand- demand not met, prices high  Desire for inventions for spinning and weaving  Inventions transform cotton industry
  • 20.  1733 John Kay- flying shuttle  Weaving twice as fast (hand) 1764 James Hargreaves- spinning jenny  Spinning keep up w/ weaving(hand) 1769 Richard Arkwright- water frame  Spinning (water)
  • 21.  1779 Samuel Crompton- spinning mule  Water frame & spinning jenny combo  Factories were built- too large and expensive for home 1785 Edmund Cartwright- power loom  Weavers kept up w/ spinning
  • 22.  Late 1700’s- cotton supply can’t keep up 1763 Eli Whitney- cotton gin  Removes seed from cotton 1785- 40 million yards 1850- 2 billion yards
  • 23. The Cotton Gin
  • 24.  Watts & steam engine  Problem- factories had to be by water (far from raw materials)  Solution- steam new power source  Old engines for mines too slow & expensive  Michael Boulton helps Watts  Steam engine more practical
  • 25.  In 1500 only 156 cities have populations of more than 10,000  Paris, Milan, Venice, and Naples – 100,000+ By 1800 – 363 cities have 10,000 or more  17 cities have 100,000+ Percentage of population living in cities changes from 5% to 9%
  • 26. 1700 1800London 700,000 Nearly 1 million 1789Paris 500,000 1800Berlin 170,000 1730 1794Warsaw 30,000 120,000 1703 1800St. Petersburg Founded 250,000
  • 27.  Even in France and GB, less than 20% of the population lived in the cities Towns of 10,000 were much more common than urban centers Between 1500-1750 – most urban expansion occurred in already established cities  1600-1750 – towns of less than 40,000 declined 1750 on – birth of new cities, rapid growth of older cities
  • 28.  What types of cities do you think grew most rapidly?  Capitals  Port cities Which cities would have declined between 1600-1750?  Older landlocked trading centers  Medieval industrial cities  Ecclesiastical centers
  • 29.  “urban growth from below” (Jan De Vries, 1981) Overall population increase More food = more people = moving to towns with factories Promotes growth of nearby market towns
  • 30.  Bonus Opportunity  Read the “urban class” section on p. 505-8  Draw a cartoon that reflects the urban classes of the upper, middle, artisan, and lower classes
  • 31.  Great dichotomy between the urban rich and the urban poor Both upper class and middle class sought to strengthen their political influence (but independently) Aristocrats and the upper middle class  Live in fashionable town houses  Upper Class  Nobles, large merchants, bankers, clergy, gov’t officials
  • 32.  Middle Class  Prosperous, merchants, trades people, bankers, and professionals  Bourgeoisie  More comfortable than urban artisans  Tensions within middle class (merchants v professionals, etc)
  • 33.  Artisans – single largest group in the city  Grocers, butchers, carpenters, cabinetmakers, smiths, printers, hand-loom weavers, tailors, etc  Vulnerable (crops, others incomes, etc)  Often live above their shop  Guilds limited, not as dominant as Middle Ages, but for some crafts they try to limit how many people learn a particular skill
  • 34.  Urban poor  usually lived around the rivers  Single room homes  The desperate often resort to crimes, prostitution, vagrancy, begging, and alcoholism  Towns that emerge around factories have deplorable conditions Peasants  Poverty greater in the countryside  some head to the cities to find a better life, but find misery in the city
  • 35.  Often led by artisans, when what was “economically just” had been offended Price of bread Artisan leaders would often confiscate the bread or grain and sell it at a “just” price Benefits?  Restrains greed of merchants Other riots break out on behalf of discriminated minorities Crowd usually attacks property not other people For economic or political gains
  • 36.  Amsterdam, some W. European cities  Significant contributors to the intellectual and financial institutions Eastern Europe  1762 – Catherine the Great (Russ) excludes the Jewish people in a manifesto that welcomed foreigners to settle in Russia  Jewish populations seek protection for their livelihoods and religious practices from local officials  Often resident aliens of countries, without full rights  Usually live separately from non-Jewish Europeans in ghettos, often self-governing  Often could not pursue professions freely  Could not move without permission  Could be expelled from their homes and have properties confiscated
  • 37.  3. Bonus Opportunity – Due Monday  Read the “urban class” section on . 505-8  Draw a cartoon that reflects the urban classes of the upper, middle, artisan, and lower classes