What am I? Why am I so special to European farmers?
Part 2:Agriculture, Industrialization, and Urbanization
Food supply never certain, especially in the east Crop failure = malnutrition or starvation (death) Price fluctuation Smaller supply Greater population demand Prices increase sharply 1700- small farms disappearing Wealthy buy out village farms- then rent them out Known as enclosure- as land was fenced in Intend to use land more rationally and for greater profits Landlords commercialize agriculture, challenge the traditional peasant ways of production Peasants revolt
Villagers= traditional methods of farming Wealthy landowners- free to experiment w/ new methods Use scientific approach to increase harvest size Ideas and harvest size exchanged Effected by Scientific Rev. and Enlightenment
Dutch agricultural reform – devise better dikes and drainage systems, try new crops, better yield of animal fodder (fertilizer), better soil = better crops English hire Cornelius Vermuyden to help in Cambridge Jethro Tull- 1721 seed drill Well spaced rows, specific depth More germination = larger crop Charles “Turnip” Townsend Crop Rotation- most revolutionary discovery Wheat, turnips, barley, and clover Don’t need to leave one fallow! Turnips enrich the soil and help with nutrient rich animal fodder
Robert Bakewell- selective breeding of animals Breed the animals who yield more milk and meat
France – restricts the enclosure movement Prussia, Austria, Poland and Russia Begin plowing untilled lands Doesn’t increase production, just work load of the serfs Maize and potatoes introduced
More food due to better livestock & crop rotation Smaller farmers pushed off land Left cities for colonies Became labor force for industry Nutrition improved= increase in population= working class in cities
1700 1800 1850Europe’s overall 100 -120 million 190 million 260 millionpopulation (notincludingOttoman Empire) 1750 1800England and 6 million 10 millionWales 1715 1789France 18 million 26 million 1722 1766Russia 22 million 29 million
Death rate declined Hygiene and sanitation improved Less wars and epidemics during the 1700s Better medical knowledge and techniques (thanks scientific revolution!) The potato (1 acre = enough potatoes to feed a family for a whole year!) more people lived in the countryside than could find employment there…so…they headed to the cities!
Read page 506 “Water, Washing, and Bathing” What was scarce in Europe until the late 1800s? What was water used for? During the Middle Ages, what did people believe your personal appearance reflected? How does that change during the Renaissance and Reformation? Which parts of the body were you supposed to wash? Why were public bathhouses sketchy? How does linen clothing contribute to changes in societal beliefs? What theory causes bathing to become popular?
Waterpower, coal- energy or machines Iron ore for tools
Good harbors- merchant ships Overseas trade = raw materials & markets Led to industrial growth Middle/merchant class growth developed- $ for new projects
Interest in science and technology 1660 Royal Society- exchanged scientific ideas and inventions Businesses invested in inventions (entrepreneurship)
1700’s- most developed Loans- **led to business investment
1700’s- wars fought in foreign lands Century of peace- no worries of invasion Economic growth stressed by govt. Merchants influenced Parliament Govt. supported laws encouraging business
GB led wool industry Wool spun by hand- demand not met, prices high Desire for inventions for spinning and weaving Inventions transform cotton industry
1733 John Kay- flying shuttle Weaving twice as fast (hand) 1764 James Hargreaves- spinning jenny Spinning keep up w/ weaving(hand) 1769 Richard Arkwright- water frame Spinning (water)
1779 Samuel Crompton- spinning mule Water frame & spinning jenny combo Factories were built- too large and expensive for home 1785 Edmund Cartwright- power loom Weavers kept up w/ spinning
Late 1700’s- cotton supply can’t keep up 1763 Eli Whitney- cotton gin Removes seed from cotton 1785- 40 million yards 1850- 2 billion yards
Watts & steam engine Problem- factories had to be by water (far from raw materials) Solution- steam new power source Old engines for mines too slow & expensive Michael Boulton helps Watts Steam engine more practical
In 1500 only 156 cities have populations of more than 10,000 Paris, Milan, Venice, and Naples – 100,000+ By 1800 – 363 cities have 10,000 or more 17 cities have 100,000+ Percentage of population living in cities changes from 5% to 9%
1700 1800London 700,000 Nearly 1 million 1789Paris 500,000 1800Berlin 170,000 1730 1794Warsaw 30,000 120,000 1703 1800St. Petersburg Founded 250,000
Even in France and GB, less than 20% of the population lived in the cities Towns of 10,000 were much more common than urban centers Between 1500-1750 – most urban expansion occurred in already established cities 1600-1750 – towns of less than 40,000 declined 1750 on – birth of new cities, rapid growth of older cities
What types of cities do you think grew most rapidly? Capitals Port cities Which cities would have declined between 1600-1750? Older landlocked trading centers Medieval industrial cities Ecclesiastical centers
“urban growth from below” (Jan De Vries, 1981) Overall population increase More food = more people = moving to towns with factories Promotes growth of nearby market towns
Bonus Opportunity Read the “urban class” section on p. 505-8 Draw a cartoon that reflects the urban classes of the upper, middle, artisan, and lower classes
Great dichotomy between the urban rich and the urban poor Both upper class and middle class sought to strengthen their political influence (but independently) Aristocrats and the upper middle class Live in fashionable town houses Upper Class Nobles, large merchants, bankers, clergy, gov’t officials
Middle Class Prosperous, merchants, trades people, bankers, and professionals Bourgeoisie More comfortable than urban artisans Tensions within middle class (merchants v professionals, etc)
Artisans – single largest group in the city Grocers, butchers, carpenters, cabinetmakers, smiths, printers, hand-loom weavers, tailors, etc Vulnerable (crops, others incomes, etc) Often live above their shop Guilds limited, not as dominant as Middle Ages, but for some crafts they try to limit how many people learn a particular skill
Urban poor usually lived around the rivers Single room homes The desperate often resort to crimes, prostitution, vagrancy, begging, and alcoholism Towns that emerge around factories have deplorable conditions Peasants Poverty greater in the countryside some head to the cities to find a better life, but find misery in the city
Often led by artisans, when what was “economically just” had been offended Price of bread Artisan leaders would often confiscate the bread or grain and sell it at a “just” price Benefits? Restrains greed of merchants Other riots break out on behalf of discriminated minorities Crowd usually attacks property not other people For economic or political gains
Amsterdam, some W. European cities Significant contributors to the intellectual and financial institutions Eastern Europe 1762 – Catherine the Great (Russ) excludes the Jewish people in a manifesto that welcomed foreigners to settle in Russia Jewish populations seek protection for their livelihoods and religious practices from local officials Often resident aliens of countries, without full rights Usually live separately from non-Jewish Europeans in ghettos, often self-governing Often could not pursue professions freely Could not move without permission Could be expelled from their homes and have properties confiscated
3. Bonus Opportunity – Due Monday Read the “urban class” section on . 505-8 Draw a cartoon that reflects the urban classes of the upper, middle, artisan, and lower classes
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