   What am I?   Why am I so special to European farmers?
Part 2:Agriculture, Industrialization, and          Urbanization
   Food supply never certain, especially in the east   Crop failure = malnutrition or starvation (death)   Price fluctu...
   Villagers= traditional methods of farming   Wealthy landowners- free to experiment w/    new methods       Use scien...
   Dutch agricultural reform – devise better dikes and    drainage systems, try new crops, better yield of    animal fodd...
   Robert Bakewell- selective breeding of animals       Breed the animals who yield more milk and meat
YEAR    SHEEP CATTLE        (lbs.) (lbs.) 1710      28     370 1795     80    800
800700600500400                    1710                       1795300200100 0      SHEEP   CATTLE
   France – restricts the enclosure movement   Prussia, Austria, Poland and Russia     Begin plowing untilled lands    ...
   More food due to better livestock & crop rotation   Smaller farmers pushed off land       Left cities for colonies  ...
1700               1800          1850Europe’s overall   100 -120 million   190 million   260 millionpopulation (notincludi...
   Death rate declined   Hygiene and sanitation improved   Less wars and epidemics during the 1700s   Better medical k...
   Read page 506 “Water, Washing, and Bathing”   What was scarce in Europe until the late 1800s?   What was water used ...
   Waterpower, coal- energy or machines   Iron ore for tools
   Good harbors- merchant ships       Overseas trade = raw materials & markets       Led to industrial growth       Mi...
   Interest in science and technology   1660 Royal Society- exchanged scientific ideas    and inventions   Businesses i...
   1700’s- most developed       Loans- **led to business investment
   1700’s- wars fought in foreign lands     Century of peace- no worries of invasion     Economic growth stressed by go...
   GB led wool industry       Wool spun by hand- demand not met, prices high       Desire for inventions for spinning a...
   1733 John Kay- flying shuttle       Weaving twice as fast (hand)   1764 James Hargreaves- spinning jenny       Spin...
   1779 Samuel Crompton- spinning mule       Water frame & spinning jenny combo       Factories were built- too large a...
   Late 1700’s- cotton supply can’t keep up   1763 Eli Whitney- cotton gin       Removes seed from cotton   1785- 40 m...
The Cotton Gin
   Watts & steam engine       Problem- factories had to be by water (far from raw        materials)       Solution- ste...
   In 1500 only 156 cities have populations of    more than 10,000       Paris, Milan, Venice, and Naples – 100,000+   ...
1700      1800London           700,000   Nearly 1 million                 1789Paris            500,000                    ...
   Even in France and GB, less than 20% of the    population lived in the cities   Towns of 10,000 were much more common...
   What types of cities do you think grew most    rapidly?       Capitals       Port cities   Which cities would have ...
   “urban growth from below” (Jan De    Vries, 1981)   Overall population increase   More food = more people = moving t...
   Bonus Opportunity       Read the “urban class” section on p. 505-8       Draw a cartoon that reflects the urban clas...
   Great dichotomy between the    urban rich and the urban    poor   Both upper class and middle    class sought to stre...
   Middle Class     Prosperous, merchants, trades people, bankers, and      professionals     Bourgeoisie     More com...
   Artisans – single largest group in the city     Grocers, butchers, carpenters, cabinetmakers, smiths,      printers, ...
   Urban poor     usually lived around the rivers     Single room homes     The desperate often resort to crimes, pros...
   Often led by artisans, when what was    “economically just” had been offended   Price of bread   Artisan leaders wou...
   Amsterdam, some W. European cities       Significant contributors to the intellectual and financial        institutio...
   3. Bonus Opportunity – Due Monday       Read the “urban class” section on . 505-8       Draw a cartoon that reflects...
Agriculture, industrialization, and urbanization
Agriculture, industrialization, and urbanization
Agriculture, industrialization, and urbanization
Agriculture, industrialization, and urbanization
Agriculture, industrialization, and urbanization
Agriculture, industrialization, and urbanization
Agriculture, industrialization, and urbanization
Agriculture, industrialization, and urbanization
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Agriculture, industrialization, and urbanization

686

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
686
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
16
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Agriculture, industrialization, and urbanization

  1. 1.  What am I? Why am I so special to European farmers?
  2. 2. Part 2:Agriculture, Industrialization, and Urbanization
  3. 3.  Food supply never certain, especially in the east Crop failure = malnutrition or starvation (death) Price fluctuation  Smaller supply  Greater population demand  Prices increase sharply 1700- small farms disappearing  Wealthy buy out village farms- then rent them out  Known as enclosure- as land was fenced in  Intend to use land more rationally and for greater profits  Landlords commercialize agriculture, challenge the traditional peasant ways of production  Peasants revolt
  4. 4.  Villagers= traditional methods of farming Wealthy landowners- free to experiment w/ new methods  Use scientific approach to increase harvest size  Ideas and harvest size exchanged  Effected by Scientific Rev. and Enlightenment
  5. 5.  Dutch agricultural reform – devise better dikes and drainage systems, try new crops, better yield of animal fodder (fertilizer), better soil = better crops  English hire Cornelius Vermuyden to help in Cambridge Jethro Tull- 1721 seed drill  Well spaced rows, specific depth  More germination = larger crop Charles “Turnip” Townsend  Crop Rotation- most revolutionary discovery  Wheat, turnips, barley, and clover  Don’t need to leave one fallow!  Turnips enrich the soil and help with nutrient rich animal fodder
  6. 6.  Robert Bakewell- selective breeding of animals  Breed the animals who yield more milk and meat
  7. 7. YEAR SHEEP CATTLE (lbs.) (lbs.) 1710 28 370 1795 80 800
  8. 8. 800700600500400 1710 1795300200100 0 SHEEP CATTLE
  9. 9.  France – restricts the enclosure movement Prussia, Austria, Poland and Russia  Begin plowing untilled lands  Doesn’t increase production, just work load of the serfs  Maize and potatoes introduced
  10. 10.  More food due to better livestock & crop rotation Smaller farmers pushed off land  Left cities for colonies  Became labor force for industry Nutrition improved= increase in population= working class in cities
  11. 11. 1700 1800 1850Europe’s overall 100 -120 million 190 million 260 millionpopulation (notincludingOttoman Empire) 1750 1800England and 6 million 10 millionWales 1715 1789France 18 million 26 million 1722 1766Russia 22 million 29 million
  12. 12.  Death rate declined Hygiene and sanitation improved Less wars and epidemics during the 1700s Better medical knowledge and techniques (thanks scientific revolution!) The potato (1 acre = enough potatoes to feed a family for a whole year!) more people lived in the countryside than could find employment there…so…they headed to the cities!
  13. 13.  Read page 506 “Water, Washing, and Bathing” What was scarce in Europe until the late 1800s? What was water used for? During the Middle Ages, what did people believe your personal appearance reflected? How does that change during the Renaissance and Reformation? Which parts of the body were you supposed to wash? Why were public bathhouses sketchy? How does linen clothing contribute to changes in societal beliefs? What theory causes bathing to become popular?
  14. 14.  Waterpower, coal- energy or machines Iron ore for tools
  15. 15.  Good harbors- merchant ships  Overseas trade = raw materials & markets  Led to industrial growth  Middle/merchant class growth developed- $ for new projects
  16. 16.  Interest in science and technology 1660 Royal Society- exchanged scientific ideas and inventions Businesses invested in inventions (entrepreneurship)
  17. 17.  1700’s- most developed  Loans- **led to business investment
  18. 18.  1700’s- wars fought in foreign lands  Century of peace- no worries of invasion  Economic growth stressed by govt.  Merchants influenced Parliament  Govt. supported laws encouraging business
  19. 19.  GB led wool industry  Wool spun by hand- demand not met, prices high  Desire for inventions for spinning and weaving  Inventions transform cotton industry
  20. 20.  1733 John Kay- flying shuttle  Weaving twice as fast (hand) 1764 James Hargreaves- spinning jenny  Spinning keep up w/ weaving(hand) 1769 Richard Arkwright- water frame  Spinning (water)
  21. 21.  1779 Samuel Crompton- spinning mule  Water frame & spinning jenny combo  Factories were built- too large and expensive for home 1785 Edmund Cartwright- power loom  Weavers kept up w/ spinning
  22. 22.  Late 1700’s- cotton supply can’t keep up 1763 Eli Whitney- cotton gin  Removes seed from cotton 1785- 40 million yards 1850- 2 billion yards
  23. 23. The Cotton Gin
  24. 24.  Watts & steam engine  Problem- factories had to be by water (far from raw materials)  Solution- steam new power source  Old engines for mines too slow & expensive  Michael Boulton helps Watts  Steam engine more practical
  25. 25.  In 1500 only 156 cities have populations of more than 10,000  Paris, Milan, Venice, and Naples – 100,000+ By 1800 – 363 cities have 10,000 or more  17 cities have 100,000+ Percentage of population living in cities changes from 5% to 9%
  26. 26. 1700 1800London 700,000 Nearly 1 million 1789Paris 500,000 1800Berlin 170,000 1730 1794Warsaw 30,000 120,000 1703 1800St. Petersburg Founded 250,000
  27. 27.  Even in France and GB, less than 20% of the population lived in the cities Towns of 10,000 were much more common than urban centers Between 1500-1750 – most urban expansion occurred in already established cities  1600-1750 – towns of less than 40,000 declined 1750 on – birth of new cities, rapid growth of older cities
  28. 28.  What types of cities do you think grew most rapidly?  Capitals  Port cities Which cities would have declined between 1600-1750?  Older landlocked trading centers  Medieval industrial cities  Ecclesiastical centers
  29. 29.  “urban growth from below” (Jan De Vries, 1981) Overall population increase More food = more people = moving to towns with factories Promotes growth of nearby market towns
  30. 30.  Bonus Opportunity  Read the “urban class” section on p. 505-8  Draw a cartoon that reflects the urban classes of the upper, middle, artisan, and lower classes
  31. 31.  Great dichotomy between the urban rich and the urban poor Both upper class and middle class sought to strengthen their political influence (but independently) Aristocrats and the upper middle class  Live in fashionable town houses  Upper Class  Nobles, large merchants, bankers, clergy, gov’t officials
  32. 32.  Middle Class  Prosperous, merchants, trades people, bankers, and professionals  Bourgeoisie  More comfortable than urban artisans  Tensions within middle class (merchants v professionals, etc)
  33. 33.  Artisans – single largest group in the city  Grocers, butchers, carpenters, cabinetmakers, smiths, printers, hand-loom weavers, tailors, etc  Vulnerable (crops, others incomes, etc)  Often live above their shop  Guilds limited, not as dominant as Middle Ages, but for some crafts they try to limit how many people learn a particular skill
  34. 34.  Urban poor  usually lived around the rivers  Single room homes  The desperate often resort to crimes, prostitution, vagrancy, begging, and alcoholism  Towns that emerge around factories have deplorable conditions Peasants  Poverty greater in the countryside  some head to the cities to find a better life, but find misery in the city
  35. 35.  Often led by artisans, when what was “economically just” had been offended Price of bread Artisan leaders would often confiscate the bread or grain and sell it at a “just” price Benefits?  Restrains greed of merchants Other riots break out on behalf of discriminated minorities Crowd usually attacks property not other people For economic or political gains
  36. 36.  Amsterdam, some W. European cities  Significant contributors to the intellectual and financial institutions Eastern Europe  1762 – Catherine the Great (Russ) excludes the Jewish people in a manifesto that welcomed foreigners to settle in Russia  Jewish populations seek protection for their livelihoods and religious practices from local officials  Often resident aliens of countries, without full rights  Usually live separately from non-Jewish Europeans in ghettos, often self-governing  Often could not pursue professions freely  Could not move without permission  Could be expelled from their homes and have properties confiscated
  37. 37.  3. Bonus Opportunity – Due Monday  Read the “urban class” section on . 505-8  Draw a cartoon that reflects the urban classes of the upper, middle, artisan, and lower classes
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×