Cell Organelles Power Point

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Cell Organelles Power Point

  1. 1. Cell Organelles
  2. 2. Why are there Organelles? <ul><li>Specialized Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Act as containers (separate parts of the cell from other parts) </li></ul><ul><li>Sites for chemical reactions (ex. Chloroplasts and Mitochondria) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Nucleus <ul><li>Control Center of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Contains DNA and RNA </li></ul><ul><li>Large, roundish organelle </li></ul><ul><li>Can produce Proteins </li></ul>City Hall/ Mayor’s Office
  4. 4. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) <ul><li>Folded membrane that extends through the cytoplasm to the nuclear membrane </li></ul><ul><li>2 Kinds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough- Has ribosomes attached and is involved with protein transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth- Lacks ribosomes and is involved with detoxification of poison and lipid synthesis </li></ul></ul>http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/insidethecell/images/ch1_roughER.jpg
  5. 5. Ribosomes <ul><li>Dot-like structures produced in the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Site of protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Each ribosome is composed of 2 sub-units: small and large </li></ul><ul><li>2 type of ribosomes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free: floating in the cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attached: associated with the ER </li></ul></ul>Protein Factory
  6. 6. Golgi Apparatus <ul><li>Stacks of sacs with vesicles pinching off from the edges </li></ul><ul><li>Packages materials for export from the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Will modify lipids and proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Stores and packages materials for export out of cell </li></ul>http://www.sciencenews.org/view/download/id/48467/name/Golgi_apparatus Post Office
  7. 7. Mitochondria <ul><li>Primary energy producers of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Double membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Produces ATP via aerobic respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Have their own DNA and method of replication </li></ul><ul><li>Endosymbiotic Theory </li></ul>Power Plant http://shs.westport.k12.ct.us/asr/Bio%202/webquests/cell%20city/organelle%20links/mitochondria.gif
  8. 8. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Site of photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll = Green Color </li></ul><ul><li>Endosymbiotic Theory </li></ul>http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/staff/dave/roanoke/chloroplast.gif
  9. 9. Microtubules <ul><li>Made from proteins within eukaryotic cells </li></ul><ul><li>Provide the structure for the cell- cytoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Tracks for transporting organelles & vesicles </li></ul><ul><li>Pull apart chromosomes during division </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Cillia and flagella </li></ul>
  10. 10. Centrioles <ul><li>Found in eukaryotic cells </li></ul><ul><li>Come in pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Made from short microtubules </li></ul><ul><li>Assist the cell with cell division </li></ul>
  11. 11. Vacuoles <ul><li>Single membranes that surround solid or liquid contents </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuole will as a container for the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cells usually have 1 large vesicle filled with water </li></ul><ul><li>50-90% of a plant cell’s volume is a vacuole </li></ul>Storage Unit http://education.kings.edu/dsmith/vacuole.jpg
  12. 12. Vesicles <ul><li>Sac surrounded by a single membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Endocytotic- will bring contents into cell </li></ul><ul><li>Exocytotic- takes materials out of cell </li></ul>UPS/Delivery Service
  13. 13. Lysosomes <ul><li>Sacs within the cell that contains digestive enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Encased within a single membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Used to digest/breakdown complex organic molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Lysosome will merge with the “food” & the contents will begin the digestion </li></ul>Dump or Garbage Truck
  14. 14. Peroxisomes <ul><li>Resemble Lysosomes with structure and function </li></ul><ul><li>Sac with a single membrane that break down amino acids, alcohol and fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>Unique because it produces and disposes of Hydrogen Peroxide, which is fatal to cells </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cell Wall <ul><li>Thin layer of cellulose that surrounds the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Permeable to many substances </li></ul><ul><li>Provides strength and support to the plant </li></ul>http://www.desmids.nl/info/sheddingoftheprimarycellwall/images/Pleurotaeniumehrenbergii3.jpg City Limit
  16. 16. Cell Membrane <ul><li>Semi-permeable membrane that lets some things in and prevents materials from leaving </li></ul><ul><li>Provides limited structure </li></ul><ul><li>Lipid bilayer </li></ul>http://wiki.chemprime.chemeddl.org/images/thumb/6/60/Lipid-Bilayer_Model_for_Membranes_.jpg/470px-Lipid-Bilayer_Model_for_Membranes_.jpg City Limit

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