Rocks PowerPoint


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Rocks PowerPoint

  1. 1. Rocks, Rocks, and more Rocks!!!!
  2. 2. What is a rock? <ul><li>A solid mixture of crystals of one or more minerals. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What’s so great about rocks? <ul><li>Used to make tools & weapons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spears & arrow heads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obsidian scalpels used in delicate operations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used to make buildings (new & old) </li></ul><ul><li>Some contain fossils which help scientists learn about the past. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Rock Cycle (pg. 82) <ul><li>The process by which one rock type changes into another. </li></ul><ul><li>The rock cycle takes millions of years. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 3 processes that change one rock type to another. <ul><li>Weathering & Erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Heat & Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Melting & Cooling </li></ul>
  6. 6. 3 Types of Rocks <ul><li>Igneous Rock </li></ul><ul><li>Sedimentary Rock </li></ul><ul><li>Metamorphic Rock </li></ul><ul><li> Rocks are classified based on how they were formed (weathering and erosion, heat and pressure, melting and cooling). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Subtypes <ul><li>Igneous, Sedimentary, & Metamorphic are divided into subtypes based on differences in how rocks are formed. </li></ul><ul><li>Two criteria: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Texture </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 1. Composition <ul><li>Composition is the minerals of which a rock is made of. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: (pg. 85) </li></ul><ul><li>Limestone – 95% Calcite, 5% Aragonite </li></ul><ul><li>Granite – 10% Mica, 35% Quartz, </li></ul><ul><li>55% Feldspar </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2. Texture <ul><li>Texture is the sizes, shapes, and positions of the grains of which a rock is made. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Fine-grained – made of small grains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Silt or clay particles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Coarse-grained – made of large grains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Pebbles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Medium-grained – fine and medium texture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Sand </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Igneous Rock <ul><li>Igneous is Latin for “fire” </li></ul><ul><li>Igneous rock forms from cooling lava and magma. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Igneous - Composition Felsic vs. Mafic <ul><li>Lighter in color </li></ul><ul><li>Less dense </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of elements such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silicon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aluminum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ex. Granite </li></ul><ul><li>Darker color </li></ul><ul><li>More dense </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of elements such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ex. Basalt </li></ul>
  12. 12. Igneous – Texture Intrusive vs. Extrusive <ul><li>Magma cools beneath Earth’s surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Cools very slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Coarse-grained texture </li></ul><ul><li>Large crystals </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Granite </li></ul><ul><li>Lava cools on the Earth’s surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Cools very quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Fine-grained texture </li></ul><ul><li>Small or no crystals </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Basalt </li></ul>
  13. 13. Sedimentary Rock <ul><li>Sediment = rock fragments caused by erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Sediments are compacted and cemented together to form sedimentary rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Strata – the layers seen in </li></ul><ul><li>sedimentary rock </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sedimentary – Composition Clastic , Chemical , Organic <ul><li>Clastic – fragments of other rocks and minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and shape of rock fragments influence the names of sedimentary rocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look at pg. 92, Figure 17 for example. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Conglomerate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical – forms from solutions of minerals and water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rainwater dissolves small pieces of rock and washes into the ocean where it eventually forms new minerals (Fig. 18) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Limestone </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Sedimentary – Composition Clastic , Chemical , Organic <ul><li>Organic – rock which forms from the remains of animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Bituminous coal (made of plant matter) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about fossils? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can be found in ALL types of sedimentary rock. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Sedimentary – Texture Stratification <ul><li>Stratification – layering, the layers differ depending on the kind, size, and color of the sediment. </li></ul><ul><li>- Check out Fig. 21 & 22 on pg. 94 for examples. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Metamorphic Rock <ul><ul><li>Meta means “changed” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphos means “shape” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The structure, texture, or composition of the rock has changed by pressure, heat, or the combination of both. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Origins of Metamorphic Rocks <ul><li>Contact Metamorphism – when rocks come into contact with magma, heat “cooks” the rock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change due to temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regional Metamorphism – when a lot of pressure causes large pieces of Earth’s crust to collide with one another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change due to pressure </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Metamorphic - Composition <ul><li>Heat and pressure cause minerals in the original rock to change into other minerals. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Metamorphic – Texture Foliated vs. Nonfoliated <ul><li>Minerals are aligned by pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Looks like pages in a book </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Slate,Phyllite </li></ul><ul><li>No regular pattern </li></ul><ul><li>One or only a few minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Marble, Quartzite </li></ul>