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  • 1. Rocks, Rocks, and more Rocks!!!! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stone_hedge
  • 2. What is a rock?
    • A solid mixture of crystals of one or more minerals.
  • 3. What’s so great about rocks?
    • Used to make tools & weapons
      • Spears & arrow heads
      • Obsidian scalpels used in delicate operations
    • Used to make buildings (new & old)
    • Some contain fossils which help scientists learn about the past.
  • 4. The Rock Cycle (pg. 82)
    • The process by which one rock type changes into another.
    • The rock cycle takes millions of years.
  • 5. 3 processes that change one rock type to another.
    • Weathering & Erosion
    • Heat & Pressure
    • Melting & Cooling
  • 6. 3 Types of Rocks
    • Igneous Rock
    • Sedimentary Rock
    • Metamorphic Rock
    •  Rocks are classified based on how they were formed (weathering and erosion, heat and pressure, melting and cooling).
  • 7. Subtypes
    • Igneous, Sedimentary, & Metamorphic are divided into subtypes based on differences in how rocks are formed.
    • Two criteria:
      • 1. Composition
      • 2. Texture
  • 8. 1. Composition
    • Composition is the minerals of which a rock is made of.
    • Examples: (pg. 85)
    • Limestone – 95% Calcite, 5% Aragonite
    • Granite – 10% Mica, 35% Quartz,
    • 55% Feldspar
  • 9. 2. Texture
    • Texture is the sizes, shapes, and positions of the grains of which a rock is made.
      • a. Fine-grained – made of small grains
      • Ex. Silt or clay particles
      • b. Coarse-grained – made of large grains
      • Ex. Pebbles
      • c. Medium-grained – fine and medium texture
      • Ex. Sand
  • 10. Igneous Rock
    • Igneous is Latin for “fire”
    • Igneous rock forms from cooling lava and magma.
  • 11. Igneous - Composition Felsic vs. Mafic
    • Lighter in color
    • Less dense
    • Made up of elements such as:
      • Silicon
      • Aluminum
      • Sodium
      • Potassium
    • Ex. Granite
    • Darker color
    • More dense
    • Made up of elements such as:
      • Iron
      • Magnesium
      • Calcium
    • Ex. Basalt
  • 12. Igneous – Texture Intrusive vs. Extrusive
    • Magma cools beneath Earth’s surface.
    • Cools very slowly
    • Coarse-grained texture
    • Large crystals
    • Ex. Granite
    • Lava cools on the Earth’s surface.
    • Cools very quickly
    • Fine-grained texture
    • Small or no crystals
    • Ex. Basalt
  • 13. Sedimentary Rock
    • Sediment = rock fragments caused by erosion
    • Sediments are compacted and cemented together to form sedimentary rock.
    • Strata – the layers seen in
    • sedimentary rock
  • 14. Sedimentary – Composition Clastic , Chemical , Organic
    • Clastic – fragments of other rocks and minerals
      • Size and shape of rock fragments influence the names of sedimentary rocks
      • Look at pg. 92, Figure 17 for example.
      • Ex. Conglomerate
    • Chemical – forms from solutions of minerals and water
      • Rainwater dissolves small pieces of rock and washes into the ocean where it eventually forms new minerals (Fig. 18)
      • Ex. Limestone
  • 15. Sedimentary – Composition Clastic , Chemical , Organic
    • Organic – rock which forms from the remains of animals
      • Ex. Bituminous coal (made of plant matter)
      • What about fossils?
      • They can be found in ALL types of sedimentary rock.
  • 16. Sedimentary – Texture Stratification
    • Stratification – layering, the layers differ depending on the kind, size, and color of the sediment.
    • - Check out Fig. 21 & 22 on pg. 94 for examples.
  • 17. Metamorphic Rock
      • Meta means “changed”
      • Morphos means “shape”
    • The structure, texture, or composition of the rock has changed by pressure, heat, or the combination of both.
  • 18. Origins of Metamorphic Rocks
    • Contact Metamorphism – when rocks come into contact with magma, heat “cooks” the rock
      • Change due to temperature
    • Regional Metamorphism – when a lot of pressure causes large pieces of Earth’s crust to collide with one another
      • Change due to pressure
  • 19. Metamorphic - Composition
    • Heat and pressure cause minerals in the original rock to change into other minerals.
  • 20. Metamorphic – Texture Foliated vs. Nonfoliated
    • Minerals are aligned by pressure
    • Looks like pages in a book
    • Ex. Slate,Phyllite
    • No regular pattern
    • One or only a few minerals
    • Ex. Marble, Quartzite