C6 English Consonants

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C6 English Consonants

  1. 1. English consonants <ul><li>Work in the same group </li></ul><ul><li>Scan chapters 4 & 6 again </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the answers to the following questions </li></ul>
  2. 2. English consonants <ul><li>Define the following terms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>manners of articulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plosives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>initial, medial and final positions of a plosive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aspiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fortis vs lenis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fricatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>affricates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>homorganic </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. English consonants <ul><li>What are the three properties used for describing a consonant? </li></ul><ul><li>How is a plosive produced? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the English plosives? </li></ul><ul><li>How does aspiration take place? And when? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the English fricatives? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the English affricates? </li></ul>
  4. 4. English consonants <ul><li>Manners of articulation: the particular way the airstream is obstructed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plosives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affricates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fricatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximants (central, lateral) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. English consonants <ul><li>Plosives: Oral stops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The air is stopped completely in the oral cavity for a brief period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then it explodes with the release of the closure, producing loud-enough noise to be heard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English plosives: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bilabials: p, b </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alveolars: t, d </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Velars: k, g </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. English consonants <ul><li>The articulation of a plosive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closing phase (dynamic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occlusion / Compression phase (static) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Release phase (dynamic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral release </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal release </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral release </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. English consonants <ul><li>Bilabials: p, b </li></ul>
  8. 8. English consonants <ul><li>Alveolars: t, d </li></ul>
  9. 9. English consonants <ul><li>Velars: k, g </li></ul>
  10. 10. English consonants <ul><li>Positions of plosives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial – CV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medial - VCV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final - VC </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. English consonants <ul><li>Initial – CV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voiced plosives: released with weak plosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voiceless plosives: released with audible plosion  aspiration </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. English consonants <ul><li>Aspiration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The phenomenon in which a small “puff of air” escapes through the vocal folds after the release phase. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcribed as [ C h ] </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. English consonants <ul><li>Aspiration </li></ul>
  14. 14. English consonants <ul><li>Aspiration rule: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voiceless stops become aspirated when they occur syllable initially before stressed vowels (in a stressed syllable). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> / C / </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pot spot repeat compass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>top stop attack contour </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>kid skid akin condemn </li></ul></ul></ul>[ C h ] / $ _ V [+stress] [ C ] / elsewhere [-voiced] [+stop]
  15. 15. English consonants <ul><li>Positions of plosives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial – CV: scarcely voiced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medial - VCV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final – VC: scarcely voiced </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. English consonants <ul><li>Positions of plosives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial – CV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medial - VCV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final – VC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ma p , ma t , </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>la b , la d , la g </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>la p la b </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mea t mea d </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. English consonants <ul><li>Fricatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consonants produced with a continuous airflow through the mouth, accompanied by a continuous audible noise (hissing sound) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuant consonants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>f, v, 8, 5, s, z, ~, 2, h </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. English consonants <ul><li>Labiodentals: f, v </li></ul>
  19. 19. English consonants <ul><li>Inter-dentals: 8, 5 </li></ul>
  20. 20. English consonants <ul><li>Alveolars: s, z </li></ul>
  21. 21. English consonants <ul><li>Alveo-palatals: ~, 2 </li></ul>
  22. 22. English consonants <ul><li>Glottal: h </li></ul><ul><li>Has the quality of the vowel it precedes </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hj ( . ) </li></ul></ul>w
  23. 23. English consonants <ul><li>Affricates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consonants produced when the air is built up by a complete closure of the oral tract and then released and continued like a fricative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The plosive and the following fricative must be “ homorganic ” (made with the same articulators) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-continuant consonants that show a slow release of the closure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>t~, d2 </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. English consonants <ul><li>Alveo-palatals: t~, d2 </li></ul>
  25. 25. English consonants <ul><li>Fortis consonants </li></ul><ul><li>Produced with more force </li></ul><ul><li>Usually thought of as voiceless </li></ul><ul><li>p, t, k, s, f, ~, t~ </li></ul><ul><li>Lenis consonants </li></ul><ul><li>Produced with less force </li></ul><ul><li>Usually thought of as voiced </li></ul><ul><li>b, d, g, v, z, 2, d2 </li></ul>
  26. 26. English consonants <ul><li>Fortis consonants </li></ul><ul><li>Syllable – final:  shortening a preceding vowel or l, m, n, 7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mop mob </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rich ridge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syllable – initial:  devoicing a following approximant ( l, r, w, j ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>play lay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tray ray </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quick wick </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. English consonants <ul><li>Consolidation </li></ul>Alveolar plosives
  28. 28. English consonants <ul><li>Consolidation </li></ul>Dental fricatives
  29. 29. English consonants <ul><li>Consolidation </li></ul>Bilabial plosives
  30. 30. English consonants <ul><li>Consolidation </li></ul>Alveolar fricatives
  31. 31. English consonants <ul><li>Consolidation </li></ul>Affricates
  32. 32. English consonants <ul><li>Consolidation </li></ul>Labiodental fricatives
  33. 33. English consonants <ul><li>Consolidation </li></ul>Glottal fricative
  34. 34. English consonants <ul><li>Consolidation </li></ul>Velar plosives
  35. 35. English consonants <ul><li>Consolidation </li></ul>Alveo-palatal fricatives
  36. 36. Preparation for next class <ul><li>Review: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plosives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fricatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affricates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortening of vowels before a fortis consonant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devoicing of approximants after a fortis consonant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Read </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 7 </li></ul></ul>

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