C6 English Consonants

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  • 1. English consonants
    • Work in the same group
    • Scan chapters 4 & 6 again
    • Discuss the answers to the following questions
  • 2. English consonants
    • Define the following terms:
      • manners of articulation
      • plosives
      • initial, medial and final positions of a plosive
      • aspiration
      • fortis vs lenis
      • fricatives
      • affricates
      • homorganic
  • 3. English consonants
    • What are the three properties used for describing a consonant?
    • How is a plosive produced?
    • What are the English plosives?
    • How does aspiration take place? And when?
    • What are the English fricatives?
    • What are the English affricates?
  • 4. English consonants
    • Manners of articulation: the particular way the airstream is obstructed
      • Plosives
      • Affricates
      • Fricatives
      • Nasals
      • Approximants (central, lateral)
  • 5. English consonants
    • Plosives: Oral stops
      • The air is stopped completely in the oral cavity for a brief period
      • Then it explodes with the release of the closure, producing loud-enough noise to be heard
      • English plosives:
        • Bilabials: p, b
        • Alveolars: t, d
        • Velars: k, g
  • 6. English consonants
    • The articulation of a plosive:
      • Closing phase (dynamic)
      • Occlusion / Compression phase (static)
      • Release phase (dynamic)
        • Oral release
        • Nasal release
        • Lateral release
  • 7. English consonants
    • Bilabials: p, b
  • 8. English consonants
    • Alveolars: t, d
  • 9. English consonants
    • Velars: k, g
  • 10. English consonants
    • Positions of plosives:
      • Initial – CV
      • Medial - VCV
      • Final - VC
  • 11. English consonants
    • Initial – CV
      • Voiced plosives: released with weak plosion
      • Voiceless plosives: released with audible plosion  aspiration
  • 12. English consonants
    • Aspiration
      • The phenomenon in which a small “puff of air” escapes through the vocal folds after the release phase.
      • Transcribed as [ C h ]
  • 13. English consonants
    • Aspiration
  • 14. English consonants
    • Aspiration rule:
      • Voiceless stops become aspirated when they occur syllable initially before stressed vowels (in a stressed syllable).
      • / C /
      • Examples:
        • pot spot repeat compass
        • top stop attack contour
        • kid skid akin condemn
    [ C h ] / $ _ V [+stress] [ C ] / elsewhere [-voiced] [+stop]
  • 15. English consonants
    • Positions of plosives:
      • Initial – CV: scarcely voiced
      • Medial - VCV
      • Final – VC: scarcely voiced
  • 16. English consonants
    • Positions of plosives:
      • Initial – CV
      • Medial - VCV
      • Final – VC
        • ma p , ma t ,
        • la b , la d , la g
        • la p la b
        • mea t mea d
  • 17. English consonants
    • Fricatives:
      • Consonants produced with a continuous airflow through the mouth, accompanied by a continuous audible noise (hissing sound)
      • Continuant consonants
      • f, v, 8, 5, s, z, ~, 2, h
  • 18. English consonants
    • Labiodentals: f, v
  • 19. English consonants
    • Inter-dentals: 8, 5
  • 20. English consonants
    • Alveolars: s, z
  • 21. English consonants
    • Alveo-palatals: ~, 2
  • 22. English consonants
    • Glottal: h
    • Has the quality of the vowel it precedes
    • Problems:
      • hj ( . )
    w
  • 23. English consonants
    • Affricates:
      • Consonants produced when the air is built up by a complete closure of the oral tract and then released and continued like a fricative
      • The plosive and the following fricative must be “ homorganic ” (made with the same articulators)
      • Non-continuant consonants that show a slow release of the closure
      • t~, d2
  • 24. English consonants
    • Alveo-palatals: t~, d2
  • 25. English consonants
    • Fortis consonants
    • Produced with more force
    • Usually thought of as voiceless
    • p, t, k, s, f, ~, t~
    • Lenis consonants
    • Produced with less force
    • Usually thought of as voiced
    • b, d, g, v, z, 2, d2
  • 26. English consonants
    • Fortis consonants
    • Syllable – final:  shortening a preceding vowel or l, m, n, 7
      • mop mob
      • rich ridge
    • Syllable – initial:  devoicing a following approximant ( l, r, w, j )
      • play lay
      • tray ray
      • quick wick
  • 27. English consonants
    • Consolidation
    Alveolar plosives
  • 28. English consonants
    • Consolidation
    Dental fricatives
  • 29. English consonants
    • Consolidation
    Bilabial plosives
  • 30. English consonants
    • Consolidation
    Alveolar fricatives
  • 31. English consonants
    • Consolidation
    Affricates
  • 32. English consonants
    • Consolidation
    Labiodental fricatives
  • 33. English consonants
    • Consolidation
    Glottal fricative
  • 34. English consonants
    • Consolidation
    Velar plosives
  • 35. English consonants
    • Consolidation
    Alveo-palatal fricatives
  • 36. Preparation for next class
    • Review:
      • Plosives
      • Fricatives
      • Affricates
      • Aspiration
      • Shortening of vowels before a fortis consonant
      • Devoicing of approximants after a fortis consonant
    • Read
      • Chapter 5
      • Chapter 7