In hypertext web sites it is considered generally rather bad etiquette not to link to related external material. The value of your own information is very much a function of what it links to, as well as the inherent value of the information within the web page. So it is also in the Semantic Web.Remember, this is about machines linking – machines need identifiers; humans generally know when something is a place or when it is a person. BBC + DBPedia + GeoNames + Archives Hub + Copac + VIAF = the Web as an exploratory space
Archives are reaching (should reach) global audiences People access information online What does this mean for cataloguing? The way we catalogue needs to change The web is ubiquitous Machines are our intermediaries..and allies
The original finding aid?An archivist!Advantages: Disadvantages:Expert knowledge & Limited lifespaninterpretation Not easily sharedHuman-readable No search function Not machine-readable
Handwritten, typedAdvantages: Disadvantages:Durable (maybe) Not machine-readableHuman-readable Not easily sharedCan be kept with the Have to read individuallymaterials it describes Not searchableDoesn’t require specialtechnology
Includes word processeddocuments, PDFs, HTMLdocuments...Advantages DisadvantagesHuman-readable Content not machine-Can exchange via readableemail, web Might be locked intoDurable (maybe!) proprietary formatsSearchable (individually) Mark-up is about presentation, not structure or content
Advantages: Disadvantages:Human-readable (depending Proprietaryon the system) Badly designedMachine-readable Not always flexibleCan be exchanged and shared Need mapping for dataSearchable integrationCross-searchableDurableCan be standards-based
Advantages:Human-readable (withpractice)Machine-readable Disadvantages:Easily exchanged and sharedSearchable Technical barriersCross-searchable UnderstandingDurable Permissive standardsStandards-based Lack of tools
We can’t share or exchange data meaningfullywithout standards – they facilitateinteroperability.EAD: encoding standard based on ISAD(G): cataloguing standardStandards can give us a common vocabulary fordata exchange
Index terms provide a route into descriptionsUse standard terms taken from source/thesaurus Significant topics Drawing topics together Internal links for navigation Consistency Aid to discoveryUKAD indexing tutorial: http://www.ukad.org/UKAD-Indexing-Tutorial/
Will your description make sense to users outof context? Do you need to add extrainformation?Will your description make sense without youthere to explain?Have you usedarchival jargon?
Your descriptions are there to connect peoplewith the information they need.Think about what people need to know, andwrite your descriptions with a people-focus.Don’t stick to the rules if they’re not helpful!ISAD (G) doesn’t include some informationthat’s vital for the online environment.
Linked Data / Linking Data Beatrice Webb Martha Beatrice Webb, 1858-1943, social reformer Martha Beatrice Webb, 1858-1943, social reformerhttp://data.archiveshub.ac.uk/id/person/webbmarthabeatrice1858-1943socialreformer or http://data.archiveshub.ac.uk/id/person/345678
Triple statement CreatedBy Archival Person Resource Created Subject: Archival Resource Predicate: CreatedBy Object: Person Subject > Predicate > Object
If something is identified, it can be linked to We can then take items from one dataset and link them to items from other datasets BBC Copac VIAF DBPedia Archives GeoNames Hub
‘Our role in using technology is really all aboutpeople. I often think of myself as themiddleman, between the technology (thedevelopers) and the audience.’http://archiveshub.ac.uk/blog/2012/07/the-modern-archivist-working-with-people-and-technology/
On an index card, write: The Stanley Kubrick Archive c.1945-2002 853 linear metres
ISAD(G) mandatory fields: 3.1.1 Reference code 3.1.3 Title 3.2.1 Name of Creator 3.1.3 Dates of Creation 3.1.5 Extent of the Unit of Description 3.1.4 Level of description
Look at your index card. What informationwould need to be added/changed for an onlineaudience?
The Archives Hub has these additionalmandatory fields: Repository name Reference for a global environment Language Conditions governing access Scope & content
University of the Arts, LondonThe Stanley Kubrick ArchiveGB 3184 SKStanley Kubrickc1945-2002853 linear metresFondsEnglishThis collection is open for consultationThe collection spans Kubricks entire career from his time as a photographer in the1940s and early 1950s until his last film in 1999 (Eyes Wide Shut). Kubrick diedduring the editing of Eyes Wide Shut and some items relating to the release/finishedversion were added by his staff. They have been included because they were heldwith the main collection, at the creators home, following the pattern of what he keptand were deposited with the Archive.The collection covers the film making process from pre until post production and includes:…
Repository University of the Arts, LondonTitle The Stanley Kubrick ArchiveReference GB 3184 SKCreator Stanley KubrickDates c1945-2002Extent 853 linear metresLevel FondsLanguage English
‘Dublin Core is an independent international metadatastandard managed by the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative(DCMI). The DCMI promotes interoperable metadatastandards for information discovery and in particularmaintains a core set of metadata elements. The standard hasbeen designed in consultation with informationprofessionals, including librarians, curators and archivists.Like all metadata standards, Dublin Core consists of a set ofmetadata elements that are designed to capture informationabout a resource, be it electronic or physical, and allow thatinformation to be shared. The building blocks of Dublin Coreare the 15 simple metadata elements available athttp://dublincore.org/documents/dces/. The full set ofterms is at http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-terms/ .’
Contributor Publisher Coverage Relation Creator Rights Date Source Description Subject Format Title Identifier Type Language
XML is a markup that facilitates data exchange.It is created from pairs of tags, eg:<books> <title>Alice in Wonderland</title> <author>Lewis Carroll</author> <extent>1 volume</extent> <format>hardback</format></books>Tags must be correctly nested and paired.
In pairs, agree tags for this data: University of the Arts, London The Stanley Kubrick Archive Stanley Kubrick c1945-2002
One answer:<repository>University of the Arts, London</repository> <title> The Stanley Kubrick Archive </title> <originator> Stanley Kubrick </originator> <unitdate>c1945-2002</unitdate>
EAD is XML for archives: it allows for themeaningful exchange of archivedescriptions, using an agreed-upon standard.Archivists all over the world have agreed whatthe EAD terms mean. Thus we can say that<origination> should always contain thename/s of the creating enitity/ies.XML is an international, interoperable formatfor data exchange.