Job roles in the media


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Job roles in the media

  1. 1. JOB ROLES IN THE MEDIA Beth Higgins
  2. 2. CATEGORISED JOB ROLESJob sector Job RoleManagement Casting Props dept. LocationCreative Producer Script Direction Hair and Make-up Art Dept. Music Camera Performance CostumeEditorial (post – production) Editing and Post ProductionTechnical Camera LightingFinancial AccountsAdministrative Distribution
  3. 3. KEY TERMSKey Term MeaningShift work Shift work a pattern of work which is designed to include all 24 hours of the day. People on shift work are often required to rotate their shifts regularly, for e.g. one month they may work 12pm- 8pm and the next, 8pm-4am.Fixed term A fixed term contract is a contract of employment that expires on a specified date decided prior to the signing of the contract.Office hours Office hours is simply the amount of hours a specific work place is open.Freelance A freelance worker is self employed and does not have continuous employment, but is employed for specific projects.Hourly rates Employees who work on an hourly rate are paid a set amount for the amount of hours they work, and any overtime they do, allows for extra pay according to the number of hours extra they work.Piece work Piece work is paid according to the quantity of products created for a certain project.
  4. 4. MANAGEMENT: CASTING• Casting Director• Casting Assistant Return
  5. 5. MANAGEMENT: LOCATION• Unit Manager• Location Manager• Assistant Location Manager Return
  6. 6. MANAGEMENT: PROPS DEPT.• The Properties Dept.• Property Master• Prop Maker• Armourer• Greensman• Props Storeman• Dressing Props• Standby Props Return
  7. 7. CREATIVE: PRODUCER “NOT ONLY HANDLING THE FINANCIAL SIDE BUT ALSO THE CREATIVE DRIVE BEHIND IT”The role of a producer is to transform storyline ideas, into the next big blockbusters, making surethere is a profit made. There is a lot of pressure on the producer’s shoulders as they are the oneswho have to create an environment in which the cast and crew working on the project can workas creatively and effectively as possible. The producer plays a role in every stage of the film’screation:Development – responsible for coming up with the baseline of the story, as well as finding thescript writer and the rights needed in order to create the film (if the film is a remake of a classic,a storyline from a book etc.)Pre-Production – responsible for assisting the executive producer in raising funds for theproject. They also work closely with other creative members of the team e.g. directors,cinematographer etc.Production – In charge of approving all changes during the project, e.g. script changes, budgetsetc.Post-Production – Involved closely in the distribution and financial aspects once the film ismade.A good producer has aspects such as being a good: businessman, negotiator, motivator etc. Nospecific qualifications are needed to become a producer. Although many colleges do providecourses in film producing, it is hard to provide anyone with every skill needed in becoming a filmproducer. They need experience and persuasion in order to convince financers that their moneywill end up making a profit if they invest in the said project. Return
  8. 8. CREATIVE: DIRECTOR “PRODUCER NEEDS TO SECURE DIRECTOR WITH GOOD REPUTATION” Similar to the writer sometimes approaching the producer with an idea, thiscan apply to the director, however the majority of the time, it is the producer who will approach the director once they have their ideas. It is often in thebest interest for the producer to look for a director who is well known as thiswill help to attract the interest of better writers and chances for financing of the film as people will know if they like previous films directed by said director and will happily have input on a similar film. Every director has anagent who will be in charge of their professional lives and these agents take a percentage cut of whatever the producer offers the director. Return
  9. 9. CREATIVE: ART DEPT.• Art Dept. Overview• Production Designer• Art Director• Supervising Art Director (Assistant, Standby)• Set Director• Production Buyer (Assistant)• Concept Artist• Graphic Artist• Storyboard Artist• Draughtsman (Junior) Return
  10. 10. CREATIVE: CAMERA• Camera Dept. Overview• Director of Photography• Script Supervisor• Camera Operator•1st & 2nd Camera• Steadicam Operator• Ariel Director of Photography• Ariel Camera Pilot (Assistant)• Marine and Diving Camera Crew• Grip• Crane Operator• Video Assistant Operator Return
  11. 11. CREATIVE: COSTUME• Costume Designer (Assistant)• Wardrobe Supervisor• Costume Supervisor• Costume Maker• Costume Daily Return
  12. 12. CREATIVE: SCRIPT• Screenwriter• Development Executive• Script Editor• Script Reader Return
  13. 13. CREATIVE: MAKE UP DEPT.• Chief Make up artist• Chief Hairdresser• Prosthetics• Hair Dresser (Assistant)• Make Up Artist (Assistant)• Trainee Return
  14. 14. CREATIVE: MUSIC• Composer• Music Supervisor Return
  15. 15. CREATIVE: PERFORMANCE• Performers Overview• Actors• Agent• Variety Artist• Choreographer (Assistant)• Singer• Puppeteer• Stunt Performer Return
  16. 16. EDITING AND POST PRODUCTION• Editor (Assistant and 2 nd)• Post Production Supervisor• Titles Designer Return
  17. 17. TECHNICAL: LIGHTING• Director of Photography• Gaffer• Best Boy• Lighting Technician• Moving Light Operator• Practical Light Technician• Console Operator• Genny Operator Return
  18. 18. FINANCIAL: ACCOUNTS• Production Accountant• Financial Controller• Key Assistant Accountant (Assistant, Trainee) Return
  19. 19. ADMINISTRATIVE: DISTRIBUTION• Distributor• Marketing and Publicity Manager• Publicist• Marketing Assistant• Sales Agent Return
  20. 20. CASTING DIRECTORA casting director is in charge of casting all the roles for a production. Thisinvolves them working closely with the Producer and the Director to gain anunderstanding of the requirements needed for each character, The castingdirector arranges and directs all interviews with possible cast members.A new and up to date knowledge of upcoming talent is needed to be a castingdirector as it is important to know the type of actors that audiences arewanted to watch at the time. They are also responsible drawing up thecontracts with the cast members agents. Therefore negotiation is a key skillneeded in the role of casting director.Qualifications needed:Often a casting director will have a degree in some form of the this areaincluding the Arts, English, Media etc. however no specific qualifications areactually needed. Often casting directors begin as trainees at talent agencies. Return
  21. 21. LOCATION MANAGERA location manager is in charge of finding suitable locations for filming aswell as negotiating prices etc. with the land owners of their chosen location.They are also responsible for tackling issues which may affect surroundingland owners such as noise etc. After shooting the footage, the locationmanager is in charge of making sure that the specific location is left in the wayit was before filming commenced.Qualifications needed:No official qualifications are needed to become a location manager howevermuch experience is required. This means that many location managers begintheir career lives as runners, and work their way to where they want to be.A key factor to becoming a location manager is a high knowledge of healthand safety as well as full drivers licence, as they are required to find locations. Return
  22. 22. ARMOURERAny project including firearms have to involve an Armourer, without them, it would be illegal forthe firearms to be handled. They are in charge of transporting and storing the fire arms involvedin the film. The Armourer is in charge of the safety of the crew when handling the fire arms, andthey make the decision as to whether the cast which are expected to use the fire arms arecompetent enough. The Armoured is involved closely with the director and the producer indiscussing the script and researching what kind of fire arms would be appropriate to useaccording to the genre/ era of the film. They also work closely with the police on terms ofinforming them if any fire arms are going to be used outdoors during the filming.During filming, the Armourer will work with the director of photography to discuss whichcamera angles would be the best to use with the minimum risk of injury.Comprehensive training in the use of firearms is essential to take up the job role of an armourer.Permits and certificates are also required to prove that the armourer is allowed to be inpossession of the fire arms. Return
  23. 23. GRAPHIC ARTISTA graphic artist creates any prop which includes graphic items such as money,newspapers etc. It has to be done in a way where the audience cannot tell thatthe items are not genuine, therefore the graphic artist has to make a cleverreproduction. Graphic artists are often hired on the basis of reputation -often hired through the set decorator it helps for the graphic artist to havemade an impression on the set decorator in the past.Being a graphic artist involves having a lot of skill but the job is sporadic(occasional). Graphic artists work on a freelance basis – charging for theirservices by the hour rather than a fixed salary. Return
  24. 24. MARINE AND DIVING CAMERA CREWQualification’s needed:• HSE Commercial Diving Certificate Part 4Job Role:The marine and diving crew are in charge of the safety of all crew during filming in the water.The underwater director of photography/ underwater camera operator takes up the role of thehead of the marine crew. The marine crew not only work with the others in the water, but also inplanning the scenes which will take place, including storyboarding with the Visual EffectsSupervisor and the Stunt Co-ordinators.Work Load:The work load of the marine crew is physically demanding and involves long foreign trips awayfrom home.Building up to becoming part of a Marine Diving Crew:• Begin in junior positions and possible the 2 nd Assistant Camera. Return
  25. 25. WARDROBE SUPERVISORUsusally employed on larger budget productions, a wardrobe supervisor begins their work in theshort time before filming begins. A wardrobe supervisor is in charge of many of the costumeworkers and is also responsible for making sure that all equipment needed for the wardrobe is incorrect working order, as well as transporting the costumes to make sure they are where they areneeded and when. Organisation and managerial skills are important in the role of a wardrobesupervisor, as well as planning and scheduling skills. Sometimes wardrobe supervisors are also incharge of the budget for the costume department therefore skills in money management are alsoneeded.Sometimes a wardrobe supervisor is expected to draw up a risk assessment to make sure thatnone of their crew are injured using the machinery to create the costumes.Wardrobe supervisors must need good linguistic skills as they may be required to travel todifferent countries for the particular film they are working on.Qualifications needed:Qualifications in fashion design are not essential but often preferable. Experience gained fromworking in other such areas is a relevant factor. Often a wardrobe supervisor will work their wayup from other roles such as costume trainees. Due to the job involving travel, a full EU passportis needed. Return
  26. 26. SCREENWRITERA screen writer plays a major role in the development of creating a film. They are in chargeof researching the suggested story as well as developing and writing the narrative beforepresenting it to the Executives. This means that the screenwriters have a large influenceover the emotional impact of the specific screenplay.Often screen writers are freelance workers and either pitch their own ideas to producers inthe hope of them being further developed, or are hired by producers to make their visionscome alive.The difference between the amount of screenplays written and those actually made intofilms is very larger and there are very few screenwriters who make enough to live off thisjob alone.A screenwriter is responsible for providing blue prints of a film and must make the plansalive so that when pitching the ideas, cinematicall imagery is created in their minds.Qualifications needed:There is no formal training needed to become a screenwriter however there are a numberof courses available to people interested in the job. Producers will not accept screenplays ifthey are not written in a certain way so it is a good idea to develop your skills through oneof these courses. Return
  27. 27. PROSTHETICSProsthetic artists are required on many different forms of projects including film, musicvideos, documentaries, dramas etc. Their job requires forming bodily props made frommaterials such as silicone, gelatin etc. – any material which can form a disfigurement to theactors.Prosthetic artists can be hired throughout the entire time of a production or can be hiredtemporarily as Dailies. A prosthetic artists usually works on a freelance basis and spendsmany hours away from home.A prosthetics job is to meet with the make up dept. pre production and discuss briefs ofspecific designs they are to follow. Some of the times the briefs they are given have beenrushed and are very basic, and the prosthetic artist is allowed to use their imagination tointerpret their own ideas – providing it fits in with the brief. A prosthetic artist often worksfrom home however in larger productions, there is often a specific area build on set.Qualifications needed:Many prosthetic artists are self trained however there are courses available in the form ofBA degrees, and other vocational courses. A prosthetic artists will always needed to updatedportfolio – made up from photographs of their work - for any job to provide an exampleof the kind of things they are used to. Return
  28. 28. COMPOSERA composer is required to write the music for a project, according to the directorsneeds. The composer needs to write music which creates the correct atmospherefor the film as well as emphasizing emotions. A composer oversees the wholeprocess from writing the music, guiding the orchestra and post production.Music written by a composer is required to be original. A composer is required tobe able to write music in different styles, appropriate for the genre of the film theyare writing for.They need to be able to have the creative insight which allows them to create thedirectors ideas into reality. They also need to be able to work with the newesttechnologies to create the best pieces.Qualifications needed:Often some form of music qualification is needed to become a composer howevermany projects simply require talent and compassion to make amazing pieces ofmusic. Some courses are available specifically for Composing for Film andTelevision, allowing people to work on film sets with orchestras. Return
  29. 29. PUPPETEERPuppeteers are required in filming to make inanimate objects performsimilarly to actors. Many different kinds of puppets are used by a puppeteerincluding: hand puppets, stringed puppets or even life sized puppets.Puppeteers are required to work in different environments, often poor oneseither above or below the stage. Puppeteers are sometimes required to workunder water with life sized puppets. When working with animatronics – thepuppeteers are required to work with the special effects team. This benefitsboth parties as they can learn each others strengths and weaknesses.Qualifications needed:Some drama schools offer puppeteer courses to allow basic disciplines such asknowledge of script performance, ability of using physicality to create life inpuppet etc. Return
  30. 30. TITLES DESIGNERA title designer is responsible for creating the opening credits for the film, anycaptions occurring during the film such as times, locations etc. as well as theclosing credits which often involve the scrolling screen containing the casts names,the producer etc. They are required to research into the correct types of fontsavailable to match the type of genre of the film. They also decide on the colouringof the font, as well as the background behind the writing.A title designer often works on a freelance basis, often in their own homes orstudios. A title designer is not usually needed until the end of the editing process,where they will then sit with the director and editor and discuss the ideas whichwill influence the way the titles will be created.Qualifications needed:Often title designers are art school graduates who have studied for film illustrationor graphic design. College courses provide the opportunity for building a portfoliowhich is necessary for such a competitive business. Return
  31. 31. GAFFERGaffers are in charge of operating the electrical work for a production as wellas leading the technicians who set up the lighting equipment. Gaffers areinvolved in working closely with the Director of Photography in order tocreate an understanding of the image they are trying to produce.Health and safety is a key responsibility of the Gaffer. They are involved increating a risk assessment and checking all the electrical equipment. They arealso involved in budgeting and choosing the best type of equipment for thefilming.Qualifications needed:All gaffers are required to have be a fully trained electrician and many have adegree in electrical engineering. Gaffers are required to attend many tardeshows to keep their knowledge of equipment up to date. Return
  32. 32. FINANCIAL CONTROLLERIn production, there are two types of financial controllers, depending on thetype of project.On reasonable sized projects, either an experienced production accountant ofqualified accountant is hired to be the financial controller.On larger projects, freelance senior production accountants are hired as thefinancial controllers.The main responsibilities of a financial controller are controlling the accounts,taxes and financial analysis for all the areas if the production. Return