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Stem cell primordial_food_excerpt

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  • 1. AFA Stimulates Stem Cell Mobilization(Excerpt from Primordial Food Aphanizomenon flos-aquae: A wild blue green alga withunique health properties, by Christian Drapeau, MSc.) Spurred by political considerations, much attention hasrecently been brought to the issue of using embryonic stem cells forresearch purposes and for the development of treatments for variousdiseases. Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are cells harvested from embryos thathave nearly unlimited capacity to regenerate and become any kind ofcell in the body. In the embryo, they are the initial precursors of allthe cells destined to become the brain, heart, muscles, skin, bones,etc. When transplanted into an adult, embryonic stem cells have theability to heal and repair any organ in which they are transplanted,providing an extremely useful tool for the treatment of variousdegenerative diseases. Treatment with embryonic stem cells haseither been shown or is suspected to improve various degenerativediseases such as Parkinson’s diseases, diabetes, heart disease, as wellas degeneration of the nervous system. Knowledge of the potential of embryonic stem cells in treatingvarious health conditions emerged in the 1960s and gainedsignificant momentum in the 1980s. However, research involvingESC received significant opposition over the years because of theobvious ethical nature of harvesting cells from live human embryosand because of the door it opens to research involving geneticmanipulation of humans. However, as an alternative to this ethicaldilemma, much evidence has accumulated over the past few yearsindicating that adult bone marrow stem cells might have pluripotentproperties similar to ESC, leading to the hypothesis that stimulationof in situ release of bone marrow stem cells could constitute aneffective treatment for various degenerative diseases.82 For example, Goodell 83 recently described how bone- et almarrow stem cells can migrate from the bone marrow to the heartand contribute to cardiac muscle repair and the formation of newblood vessels after ischemic injury (cardiac arrest).
  • 2. In brief, highly purified bone marrow stem cells were geneticallymodified to produce a fluorescent protein. The mice’s innate stemcells were killed through irradiation. Then the genetically modifiedstem cells were transplanted into their bone marrow, leaving thefluorescent bone marrow stem cells as the sole source of availablestem cells. Cardiac arrest was subsequently triggered in the mice bycoronary artery occlusion. A few weeks later, the engrafted fluorescent stem cells haddifferentiated into cardiac muscle and endothelial cells, whichcontributed to the formation of functional cardiac tissue, as well asnew blood vessels. Similar migration of bone marrow stem cells and subsequentregeneration of tissue was also suspected to take place in the brain.In a double-blind study including 40 patients suffering fromParkinson’s disease, injection of embryonic stem cells derived fromseven- to eight-week-old embryos slowed the progression of thediseases in all of the 20 patients.84 Likewise, there is evidenceindicating that stem cells could reverse symptoms of Alzheimer’sdisease.85 Studies were therefore conducted to investigate whether stemcells injected intravascularly or endogenously released from the bonemarrow could cross the blood-brain barrier, migrate, thendifferentiate into brain cells. Bone marrow stem cells, along withmonocytes and macrophages, were shown to have the ability to crossthe blood-brain barrier and reach the brain.86-89 Intravascular delivery of genetically marked adult mouse bonemarrow stem cells into lethally irradiated normal adult mice led tothe development in the central nervous system of donor-derived cellshaving neuronal properties (neuronal phenotypes).90 After eight totwelve weeks, it was estimated that about 0.2 to 0.3 percent of thetotal number of neurons were derived from the bone marrow. Theauthors wrote, “Our results clearly show that adult cells from themarrow can gain access to the adult brain and assume characteristicsof central nervous system neurons.”90 Similarly, Mezey et al88 showed that in a strain of mice incapableof developing cells of the myeloid and lymphoid lineages,
  • 3. transplanted adult bone marrow stem cells migrated into the brainand differentiated into cells that expressed neuron-specific antigens.Between 2.3 and 4.6 percent of all neurons were donor-derived.Some neurons were observed with axonic projections and apparentdendritic trees. The authors suggested that bone marrow stem cellsmight naturally migrate into certain regions of the brain and give riseto a variety of neural cell types, thus implying a greater potential forregeneration of the central nervous system than had beentraditionally expected.88 Based on information produced by various scientific teams,Jensen et al82 recently proposed the Stem Cell Theory of Healing,Regeneration and Repair (Figure 5 on previous page). Thisbreakthrough theory suggests that bone marrow stem cells leave thebone marrow and travel throughout the body, providing for healingand regeneration of damaged organs during the entire lifetime of anindividual. In other words, adult bone marrow stem cells may be oneof the natural mechanisms that the human body utilizes for healing,regeneration and repair. According to this theory, there is no need to harvest embryonicstem cells, manipulate them, then reinject them into individuals.Regeneration can take place simply by stimulating the release ofstem cells from the bone marrow and stimulating their migrationinto tissues. The task is therefore simply to find natural compoundsable to stimulate stem cell release and migration. Such compoundscould be used for the daily enhancement of the body’s naturalmechanism of healing and regeneration. The only such natural compound known to date is AFA, whichhas been recently shown to stimulate stem cell release and migration.Based on this information, a patent has been filed regarding the useof AFA for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’sdisease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, cardiac arrest recovery, andregeneration.
  • 4. ©Unity International, 2003References82. Jensen and Drapeau (2002) The use of in situ bone-marrow stem cells for the treatment of various degenerative diseases. Med Hypotheses 59(4): 422-428.83. Goodell et al. (2001) Stem cell plasticity in muscle and bone marrow. Ann N Y Acad Sci 938: 208-218.84. Polli, E.E. (2000) Transplanting bone-marrow stem cells in the central nervous system. Haematologica 85: 1009-1010.85. Mattson, M.P. (2000) Emerging neuroprotective strategies for Alzheimer’s disease: dietary restriction, telomerase activation, and stem cell therapy. Exp Gerontol 35: 489-502.86. Williams and Hickey (1995) Traffic of hematogenous cells through the central nervous system. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 202: 221-245.87. Knopf et al. (1998) Antigen-Dependent Intrathecal Antibody Synthesis in the Normal Rat Brain: Tissue Entry and Local Retention of Antigen- Specific B Cells. J Immunol 161: 692-701.88. Mezey et al. (2000) Turning blood into brain cells bearing neuronal antigens generated in vivo from bone marrow, Science 290: 1779-1782.89. Hickey, W.F. (1999) Leukocyte traffic in the central nervous system: the participants and their roles. Semin Immunol 11: 125-37.90. Brazelton et al. (2000) From marrow to brain: expression of neuronal phenotypes in adult mice. Science 290: 1775-1779.