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Creative Cities _ A critical review _  Bertram Niessen 2008 (ENG)
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Creative Cities _ A critical review _ Bertram Niessen 2008 (ENG)

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  • 1. CREATIVE CITIESa critical overview of literature and definitions bertram m. niessen http://b3rtramni3ss3n.wordpress.com bertrammarianiessen (at) gmail.com twitter: @bertramniessen
  • 2. Creative Cities_ Introduction
  • 3. Creative Cities_ introduction_ a matter of definitions
  • 4. Creative Cities_ introduction_ a matter of definitionsCreative CityA broad concept that connects Creativity with the CityThe City seen as a milieu where creativity can take placeIt underlines the importance of immaterial factors (thought, urban atmosphere, talent, vibrant street-life, etc)Book: Landry and Bianchini “The Creative City ” (1994)
  • 5. Creative Cities_ introduction_ a matter of definitionsBerlin
  • 6. Creative Cities_ introduction_ a matter of definitionsBerlin
  • 7. Creative Cities_ introduction_ a matter of definitionsNew York
  • 8. Creative Cities_ introduction_ a matter of definitionsNew York
  • 9. Creative Cities_ introduction_ a matter of definitionsWhere the idea comes from?- Shift from Urban Managerialism to Urban Entrepreneurialism (David Harvey, 1989) → the idea of a zero sum competition among cities- The need to find a new production paradigm for western cities after the de-industrialisation crisis of the 80s- The quest for a new immaterial economy based on intangible labour and cognitive assets (Creative Industries)
  • 10. Creative Cities_ introduction_ a matter of definitions
  • 11. Creative Cities_ introduction_ a matter of definitions
  • 12. Creative Cities_ introduction_ a matter of definitionsAs a consequence- The emergence of City Branding and City Marketing- Wider processes of urban renewal- The rising importance of urban landmarks
  • 13. Creative Cities_ introduction_ a matter of definitionsAs a consequence
  • 14. Creative Cities_ introduction_ a matter of definitions
  • 15. Creative Cities_ introduction_ a matter of definitionspreliminary questionwhat does it mean “creative”?→ more than 60 different definitions in psychology (Taylor, 1988)
  • 16. Creative Cities_ introduction_ a matter of definitionspreliminary questionwhat does it mean “creative”?→ more than 60 different definitions in psychology (Taylor, 1988)2 main existing ways of conceptualisation for the relationship betweenurban spaces and creativity1) studies on the city as a base for creative industries: Florida (2002), Peck(2005), Scott (2000, 2006), Pratt (2000), Molotch (2005); 2) the city as a place that enhance individual and collective creativity:Landry (2000), Chatterton (2000), Hall (2000), De Certau (1990)
  • 17. Creative Cities_ introduction_ a matter of definitions 1) Creative Class 2) Creative field 3) “Complexity approaches”
  • 18. Creative Cities_ introduction _ Creative Class (2002) _ Focus
  • 19. Creative Cities_ introduction _ Creative Class (2002) _ Focus
  • 20. Creative Cities_ introduction _ Creative Class (2002) _ Focus
  • 21. Creative Cities_ introduction _ Creative Class (2002) _ FocusMain analysis object: “the Creative Class”Core force for economic development of contemporary cities40 million workers (30 % US workforce)- Super-Creative Core (12% of US Professionals): science, education, computer programming, research, engineering.- Creative Professionals (cognitive workers): healthcare, business and finance, legal sector, education.- Neo-Bohemians
  • 22. Città Creative _ Classe Creativa _ Florida (2002) _ FocusMain object of the analysis : “the Creative Class”, characterised by- low social barriers;- social and cultural heterogeneity (in terms of jobs, origins, lifestyle, aspectations, etc)- always in search of other creatives;- always in search of a lively cultural and artistic environment;- in search of amenities (café, art galleries, cultural spaces, etc).
  • 23. Creative Cities_ introduction _ Creative Class (2002) _ 3Ts Index
  • 24. Creative Cities_ introduction _ Creative Class (2002) _ 3Ts IndexT1: Technology- indicators of high-tech industry- Indicators from the patent databasesT2: Talent- measures of human capital based on educational attainment- indexes from statistic occupational data filesT3: Tolerance- specific integration indicators- foreign-born people indicators- artistic communities indicators- gay and lesbian population indicators
  • 25. Creative Cities _ Creative Class _ Florida (2002) _ Critics
  • 26. Creative Cities _ Creative Class _ Florida (2002) _ Critics1) Nature of the casual mechanism - > “Cargo Cults” of Creativity2) Reflexivity of the 3T Index - > Autopoiesis of urban competition3) Mono-dimensionality of analysis - > Politics oriented mainly towards secondary measures4) Inadequate consideration for socio-economical inequalities, especially at the urban level - > Occupational and spatial segregation5) Excess of trust in the power of short-term planning - > Lack of consideration for long term cultural and urban policies6) Ambiguous definition of “creative class” - > “Its better to invite everybody to the party”
  • 27. Città Creative _ Conclusioni