MMR vaccine


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MMR vaccine

  2. 2. Measles
  3. 3. Mumps
  4. 4. Rubella Rubella (German measles) is in the Togaviridae family.. Rubella is an illness transmitted through direct or droplet contact from nasopharyngeal secretions characterized by rash, low-grade fever, lymphadenopathy, and Swollen glands Coryza (cold like symptoms) Aching joints (especially in young women)
  5. 5. Mumps and rubella vaccine (German measles) first available in 1967 and 1969. Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine combined in 1971
  6. 6. Disease Component Virus Strain Immunized Vaccine Measles attenuvax Enders attenuated Edmonston strain Propagation Growth Medium Medium Medium 199((a buffered salt solution containing vitamins and amino acids and supplemented with chick fetal bovine serum) embryo containing SPGA cell (sucrose, phosphate, culture glutamate, and recombinant human albumin) as stabilizer and neomycin. Mumps Mumpsvax Jeryl Lynn (B Level) strain rubella Meruvax II Wistar RA 27/3 WI-38 strain of live human attenuated diploid rubella virus lung fibroblasts MEM Minimum Essential Medium (solution containing buffered salts, fetal bovine serum human serum albumin and neomycin, etc.)
  8. 8. NEED FOR 2nd DOSE: case study
  9. 9. The level of effectiveness of MMR vaccine • • 90-95% of people will be immune to measles after the first dose • • 90-95% of people will be immune to mumps after the first dose • • 97-99% of people will be immune to rubella after the first dose.
  10. 10. • The MMR vaccine has been used for 30 years with an excellent safety record. • Worldwide over 500 million doses of the MMR vaccine have been given since the mid-1970s. • - The US has used over 200 million doses of the MMR vaccine routinely, since the mid1970s. • - The UK has given around 13 million doses since its introduction in 1988.
  11. 11. Condition Febrile convulsions (temperature fits) Meningitis/encephalitis Conditions affecting blood clotting (ITP) Children Affected After The Natural Disease Children Affected After The First Dose Of MMR 1 in 200 (measles) 1 in 1000 1 in 1000 (measles, mumps encephalitis) 1 in 20 (mumps meningitis) 1 in 6000 (rubella encephalitis) less than 1 in 1 000 000 1 in 3000 (rubella) 1 in 6000 (measles) 1 in 22 000 - 1 in 100 000 Severe allergic response (anaphylaxis) SSPE (a delayed complication of measles that causes brain damage and death) 1 in 8000 (children who get measles under 2) Death 1 in 2500 to 1 in 5000 (measles higher in children under 1) 1 – 2 in 1000 for notified cases of measles in recent years 0 0
  12. 12. MMR Vaccine Side Effects • Mild problems – Fever – Mild rash – Swelling of glands in the cheeks or neck • Moderate Problems – Seizure (Jerking or Staring) caused by fever – Temporary pain and stiffness in the joints • Severe Problems (Very Rare) – – – – Serious allergic reaction Deafness Long-term seizures, coma, Permanent brain damage
  13. 13. Treatment of CDC Side Effects • You can treat the fever by keeping the toddler cool and by offering lots to drink to keep hydrated. • Soak a washcloth in ice cold water and pat the parts of the body where the rash has covered.
  14. 14. MMR & Autism
  15. 15. ADVANTAGES OF MULTIVALENT VACCINE  Fewer visits to the medical centre will be required. (This is a major benefit in those countries where most people find transportation difficult; it could be a dis benefit to those health care personnel  who rely on the fees paid for vaccinating children to augment their incomes.)  There would be an improvement in the degree of vaccine coverage obtained which will have epidemiological benefits  lowering of the unit cost of the vaccine may be expected as there would be decreases in the costs of separate vials, labels, packages, cold chain storage, needles and syringes, the time of medical personnel and the size of inventories.