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World History Review

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  • 1. World History Review May 2009
  • 2. Essay Rubrics
    • The D ocument B ased Q uestion
    • The Comparative Essay
    • The Change Over Time Essay
  • 3. D ocument B ased Q uestion
    • Write a good thesis (1 pt)
      • Is your thesis acceptable?
    • Interpret the evidence within the documents (1 pt)
      • Do you understand the basic meanings of the documents used in this essay?
    • Support your thesis (2 pts)
      • Have you supported the thesis with appropriate evidence from ALL of the documents?
    • Analyze the documents and identify the author’s point of view (1)
      • Have you analyzed the author’s point of view in at least two, but preferably three, documents?
    • Group the documents in at least two different ways (1 pt)
      • Have you analyzed the documents by grouping the, in at least two, but preferably three, ways?
    • Identify and explain the need for other types of documents to clarify the issue (1 pt)
      • Have you identified and explained the need for two types of additional documents AND explained why you need them?
  • 4. Comparative Essay
    • Write a thesis that clearly states your claim. Why do you believe this claim is to be true? (1 pt)
      • Is your thesis acceptable? Do you compare the issues or themes specified?
    • Address all parts of the question (2 pts)
      • Have you addressed all parts of the question, even if you have not done so completely or in a balanced fashion?
    • Support your thesis with appropriate historical evidence (2 pts)
      • Have you substantiated the thesis with appropriate historical evidence?
    • Make at least two direct, relevant comparisons (1 pt)
      • Have you shown at least one or two relevant, direct comparisons between or among the societies?
    • Include a similarity or difference in your comparisons (1 pt)
      • Have you shown at least one reason for a similarity or difference identified in direct comparison?
  • 5. Change Over Time Essay
    • Write a thesis that addresses the global issues in the question and covers the correct time period(s) (1 pt)
      • Is your thesis acceptable?
    • Address all parts of the question (2 pts)
      • Have you addressed all parts of the question, even if you have not done so completely or in a balanced fashion?
    • Support your thesis with appropriate historical evidence (2 pts)
      • Have you substantiated the thesis with appropriate historical evidence?
    • Show the change over time using relevant history. Include the characteristics of historical periods to explain the content of change (1 pt)
      • Have you made effective use of historical context to show the change over time?
    • Analyze the process of change and continuity. Describe what changed and how it changed, not just what the results of change were (1 pt)
      • Have you analyzed the process of change over time and/or continuity?
  • 6. Ancient Stuff Around 8000 B.C.E. to Around 600 C.E.
  • 7. In This Time Period...
    • Nomads
    • Neolithic Revolution
    • River Valley Civilizations
    • Mesoamerica and Andean South America
    • Classical Civilizations:
      • India
      • China
      • Mediterranean
  • 8. Major Belief Systems Through 600 C.E.
    • Polytheism
      • The vast majority of ancient civilizations were polytheistic. The religions of all of Mesopotamian and Mediterranean empires were polytheistic with the exception of Hebrews and Christians.
      • In the east, Aryan religions, Hinduism, and traditional Chinese systems were polytheistic. Some Buddhist sects were polytheistic, as were some Daoist sects.
      • Polytheism had a major impact on the development of civilization: it was the center or art and architecture in most civilizations, with many pieces and buildings dedicated to various gods.
      • Because the practice of polytheism was complicated and filled with rituals, it led to the rise of a priestly class, whose members controlled most of the communication between the people and their gods. These civilizations became dependent on an elevated group of people who shaped rigid social structures.
  • 9. Major Belief Systems Through 600 C.E.
    • Confucianism
      • Confucianism was developed specifically for the Chinese culture, and was widely practiced throughout China from around 400 B.C.E. onward.
      • Because Confucianism was an ethical, social, and political belief system, it was compatible with other religions. This flexibility allowed Confucianism to flourish.
      • Government leaders embraced Confucianism to create an orderly society.
      • Its widespread acceptance led to a distinctive Chinese culture in which communities became extremely tight-knit; members had duties and responsibilities to many others in the community from birth to death.
      • Confucianism only evolved within the context of the Chinese culture.
  • 10. Major Belief Systems Through 600 C.E.
    • Daoism
      • Some Chinese practiced Daoism, from around 500 B.C.E. onward.
      • Daoists advocated the formation of small, self-sufficient communities and served as a counterbalance to Confucian activism.
      • As an advocate of harmony with nature, Daoism promoted scientific discoveries and which therefore allowed Daoists to become great astronomers, chemists, and botanists.
      • Daoism is notable because it coexisted with Confucianism, Buddhism, and Legalism in China. It added to the complexity and uniqueness of China and other Eastern civilizations as separate and distinct from the Western world.
  • 11. Major Belief Systems Through 600 C.E.
    • Legalism
      • The Chinese, specifically during the Qin Dynasty, are the most notable practitioners of Legalism.
      • By adopting Legalism, the Qins were able to accomplish the unification of China swiftly could complete massive projects like the construction of the Great Wall.
      • Legalism also caused widespread resentment among the common people, who suffered under it, Legalism inadvertently led to wider acceptance of Confucianism and Daoism.
  • 12. Major Belief Systems Through 600 C.E.
    • Hinduism
      • The various cultures of the Indian subcontinent practice Hinduism.
      • Hinduism is both a religion and social system—the caste system. This explains why most faithful Hindus quietly accepted their station in life.
      • Its close links to the Indian social system have prevented other parts of the world to accept the religion.
      • Hinduism as a whole remains a powerful force—even regarding its adherents’ relationship to the animal kingdom, because Hindus believe they can be reincarnated as animals.
  • 13. Major Belief Systems Through 600 C.E.
    • Buddhism
      • Eastern civilizations, most notably in India, China, and Southeast Asia, practiced Buddhism.
      • Buddhists followed the four noble truths:
        • All life is suffering
        • Suffering is caused by desire
        • One can be freed of this desire
        • One is freed of desire by following the Eightfold Path
      • Buddhism rejected social hierarchies of castes and therefore appealed strongly to members of lower rank. It applies to almost anyone, anywhere and consequently spread rapidly to other cultures throughout Asia.
      • When Ashoka, the Mauryan Emperor, converted to Buddhism, the religion took off as a major force in Asia.
      • In India, Buddhism was reabsorbed into Hinduism
      • Buddhism spread throughout Asia via trade routes, intertwining numerous Asian cultures.
  • 14. Major Belief Systems Through 600 C.E.
    • Judaism
      • The Hebrews practiced Judaism.
      • Judaism was the first of the major monotheistic faiths; as such, it spawned the other two major monotheistic religions, Christian and Islam.
  • 15. Major Belief Systems Through 600 C.E.
    • Christianity
      • Originally a splinter group of Jews practiced the religion, but it quickly expanded into the non-Jewish community and throughout the Roman Empire.
      • In the early days, Christianity was spread by Jesus’ disciples and by Paul of Tarsus.
      • Emphasizes compassion, grace through faith, and the promise of eternal life regardless of personal circumstances.
      • Appealed largely to the lower classes and women. By the third century C.E., Christianity had become the most influential religion in the Mediterranean basin and was the official religion of the Roman Empire.
  • 16. Technology and Innovations
    • Farming tools, metallurgy, and the ability to manipulate the environment cause humans to transition from nomadic hunters and gatherers to builders of civilizations and empires.
    • The most important technologies developed by the early civilizations included farming tools and pottery to store surplus food in the off-season.
    • Copper was the first metal used and metallurgical techniques developed from there.
    • Iron technology helped create defense weapons for societies against one another.
    • New technology allowed further advancement in skills and crafts. Order was kept in society through the implementation of communication and record keeping.
  • 17. Major Themes
    • Civilizations
      • Agriculture, written language, and the use of metals all contributed to the growth of early civilizations.
      • Civilizations fell apart because they would grow too big, their own people would get restless, and foreign threats gained confidence and power.
  • 18. Major Themes
    • Sources of Change
      • Change occurred throughout civilizations through cultural diffusion by means of trade and conquest.
      • Belief systems followed the trade routes and military movements.
      • The use of the wheel and the use of iron dramatically changed societies and their technological abilities.
  • 19. Major Themes
    • Humans vs. Nature
      • The digging of canals and irrigation ditches, stone-cutting, plowing, and metal-working were implemented by civilizations to change their surroundings for their own benefits.
      • Calendars and sundials were significant in the human quest to predict and control nature for its own purposes.
      • As major belief systems developed, civilizations became less interested in appeasing the gods and more interested in internal peace. Their focus of concern shifted from the need for bodily protection to the need of internal protection.
  • 20. Really Old Stuff Around 600 C.E. To Around 1450
  • 21. In This Time Period...
    • Islam
    • Byzantine Empire
    • Developments in China, Japan, and India
    • Mongols
    • Developments in Africa
    • Developments in the Americas
  • 22. Review of Interactions Among Cultures
    • Trade Networks and Culture Diffusion
      • From 600 to 1450, trade exploded onto the world scene—so much that the world after 1450 is inseparable from global interaction. Important global trade routes:
        • The Mediterranean Trade
        • Hanseatic League
        • The Silk Road
        • The land routes of the Mongols
        • Trade between China and Japan
        • Trade between India and Persia
        • The Trans-Saharan trade routes
    • It is over trade routes that religions and languages spread. Art and literature and philosophies spread. Disease and plague sometime spread [such as the Bubonic Plague].
  • 23. Review of Interactions Among Cultures
    • Indian Ocean Trade
      • Throughout the period, the Persians and Arabs dominated the Indian Ocean Trade. Their trade routes connected ports in western India to ports in the Persian Gulf, which were in turn connected to ports in eastern Africa.
      • Since sailors often married local women, cultures began to intermix rapidly. Many sailors took foreign wives home and created bilingual and bicultural families.
  • 24. Review of Interactions Among Cultures
    • The Silk Road
      • The Silk Road connected China to the Mediterranean cultures in the early days of the Roman Empire. It was heavily used during the reign of the Mongols as well.
      • It carried silks, porcelains, papers, Buddhism, Islam, Christianity, and food. The East met West on the Silk Road.
    • The Hanseatic League
      • The Hanseatic Leauge was a collection of city-states in the Baltic and North Sea regions of Europe that banded together in 1241 to establish common trade practices, fight off pirates and foreign governments, and essentially establish a trade monopoly from the region to much of the rest of the world.
      • Resulted in a substantial middle class in northern Europe and set a precedent for large, European trading operations that affected the Dutch and English.
  • 25. Review of Interactions Among Cultures
    • Expansion of Religion and Empire: Culture Clash
      • One of the most significant influences on cultural interaction and diffusion has been the expansion of empires and the intentional diffusion of religion.
        • The Mongol Expansion into Russia, Persia, India, and China
        • The Germanic tribes into southern Europe and England
        • The Vikings’ expansion from Scandinavia into England and western Europe
        • The Magyars’ push from eastern Europe into western Europe
        • The Islamic Empire’s push into Spain, India, and Africa
        • The Crusades
        • Buddhist missionaries to Japan
        • Orthodox Christian missionaries into eastern Europe
  • 26. Review of Interactions Among Cultures
    • Crusades and Jihad
      • In the Middle Ages, the Islamic Empire expanded, and the Moors conquered much of Spain. The Christians felt threatened by the Muslim expansion, especially as Islam became entrenched in areas that Christians identified with historically.
      • In 1096, Pope Urban initiated the First Crusade in response to the success of the Seljuk Turks who took control of the Holy Land. The Pope wanted Jerusalem and was hoping that winning over the land would help reunite the Roman Catholic Church with the Eastern Orthodox Church in Constantinople which had spilt fifty years beforehand.
      • While the crusaders managed to capture the Holy Land, it quickly fell back into the Arabs’ hands. By 1204, four crusade failures pushed the two churches even further from each other.
      • The Crusades prove that even the efforts of conquest and expansion that fail to reach their goals still have a major impact on world history, leading to interaction between cultures that otherwise might not interact.
  • 27. Review of Interactions Among Cultures
    • Other Reasons People Were on the Move
      • As populations grew, people needed more room to spread out, causing Germanic tribes to spread into southern Europe, for example. It also led to more crowded conditions on the manor or in small towns.
      • Cities began to develop which attracted more and more people away from the countryside.
      • Pilgrimages were another reason why people were constantly on the move – heavy cultural diffusion occurred as result.
  • 28. Technology and Innovations
    • Interaction led to innovation:
    State-run factories Surgical instruments Magnetic compass Distilled alcohol Water clock Mechanical pendulum clock Cotton sails Guns and cannons Water-powered mills Modern soap formula Terrace farming Chess Porcelain Algebra Paper currency Astrolabe and sextant Moveable type Universities Gunpowder cannons Paper mills China Islamic World
  • 29. Old Stuff Approximately 1450 To Around 1750
  • 30. In This Time Period...
    • European Revolutions:
      • Renaissance
      • The Protestant Reformation
      • The Scientific Revolution
      • The Enlightenment
    • Russia out of Isolation
    • Islamic Gunpowder Empires:
      • Ottoman
      • Safavid
      • Mughal
    • Isolated Africa
  • 31. Technology and Innovations
    • Europe became a powerful force during this time period as they adapted through 3 key innovations: gunpowder weapons, navigation and ship-building technology, and the printing press.
    • The Chinese and Japanese returned to more traditional lifestyles in order to maintain stability, and the Muslims, allowed innovations in shipping and weaponry to pass them by as they retained powerful land-based empires.
    • The biggest impact of new technologies was the expanded knowledge of the world that resulted from exploration. Europeans established new overseas trading empires, transforming the interactions of the entire world.
    • Europeans fought wars with one another and with places they wished to conquer.
    • Increased contact meant the spread of new ideas and technology and exposure to even more new cultures, consequently transforming education and religion.
    • The establishment of new Protestant Churches in northern Europe increased the king’s and nation-state’s power.
    • Religious conflicts led to increased migrations from northern Europe and the resettlement of large numbers of colonists in the New World.
  • 32. Pulling It All Together
    • Europe
      • While European exploration was ultimately external, it was internal as well, with the Renaissance pushing Europe to explore its own history and the Protestant Reformation exploring Europe’s relationship with God. During the Scientific Revolution, Europe explored the universe and its laws. In the Enlightenment, Europe explored rights of man and the appropriate role of government. The Commercial Revolution led Europe to explore its potential.
      • Unlike China and Japan, which largely looked inward, and unlike the Islamic world, which didn’t take to the seas, Europeans were dynamic in this time period. Because they had the technology, political motivation, and financial structure, they were able to quickly explode onto the world scene.
      • European monarchs ruled absolutely during this time period, adopting controlling, ethnocentric attitudes with regard to the cultures they dominated.
  • 33. Pulling It All Together
    • Europe’s Impact on Non-Western Cultures
      • China and Japan were highly organized, confident civilizations. The contingencies of Europeans on their shores were modest. Japan and China desperately sought to preserve their own cultures.
      • In Africa, societies were fragmented. No centralized power existed, so the Europeans were harder to fend off. Europeans didn’t look to dominate the whole continent, and instead traded goods and abducted slaves one-by-one.
      • In the Americas, civilizations became quickly overwhelmed by European technology and disease.
      • In The Ottoman Empire and Arabia, interaction with Europe was limited because they weren’t as dependent on overland routes in their efforts to trade with India and China.
  • 34. Pulling It All Together
    • The Global Economy
      • Sailing, mercantilism, and private investment changed the global economy.
      • Improvements in sailing diminished the need for the Asian land routes and connected the world in new ways.
      • Mercantilism and its dependence on the establishment of imperialism married economic and political developments.
      • The establishment of joint-stock companies took major economic motivation out of the hands of government and put it into the hands of the private sector.
      • The benefits of economic prosperity were diffused among a larger group of individuals than ever before, meaning that governments began to lose their grip on controlling their own economies.

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