Precursors of the Renaissance What: Rediscovering of the human form, human emotion and the natural world and shunning of unrealistic, stiff, unsmiling Byzantine figures. When: The 14 th century (1300s) was the pivotal transitional period between Byzantine and Renaissance. Who and Where: Giotto and Cimabue from Florence Duccio, Martini and Lorenzetti from Sienna
FLORENCE ← The Florence Cathedral Florence was home to CIMBUE and GIOTTO
Cimabue Title: Virgin and Child Enthroned and Surrounded by Angels Location: Florence Cathedral Style: Typical Byzantine gold and frontal pose but innovative in drapery of robes (not flat anymore) and realistic poses of angels.
Giotto … he was taught by Cimbaue! Title: Madonna Enthroned Style: Typical Byzantine gold and lack of proportion but innovative in 3D throne and volume/form of bodies
More Giotto ← The Lamentation Innovative in use of human emotion and shadow… first hints of chairoscuro (dramatic contrast btwn light and dark) Giotto’s most famous works are a series of frescos in the Arena Chapel in Padua. They are a narrative of the story of Christ’s life. Arena Chapel ->
SIENNA Called itself the “Virgin’s ancient city” Palazzo Publico -> Sienna was home to DUCCIO, MARTINI and LORENZETTI
Duccio Famous for: The Maestá , a tempera on wood alterpiece that had about 50 panels, most notable one was the central panel depicting Virgin and Child in majesty (this is why it’s called Maestá) Byzantine Influence: Mary is Queen of Heaven, dressed in blue and proportion is hierarchical. Lots of GOLD.
Duccio Another panel from the same alterpeice, Betrayal of Christ , shows Renaissance influence in the ranges of human expression and the careful use of shading to give figures volume.
Simone Martini … believed to have assisted Duccio Title: Annunciation Style: very regal, lots of gold but different in the use of brilliant colors, lavish costumes and ornamental detail. Inspiration for: INTERNATIONAL STYLE
Lorenzetti Famous for: Peaceful City, which was innovative for it’s rigid depiction of the form of buildings and realistic perception and depth.
Early Renaissance What: Rebirth of classical ideals as lead by the humanists. When and Where: The 15 th century (1400s) mainly in Florence and other parts of Italy. Who : Brunelleschi, Ghiberti, Masaccio, Donatello, Pollaiuolo, Botticelli and, of course, the Medici family who commissioned a lot of the works.
Brunelleschi vs. Ghiberti The great Baptisery Competition: Brunelleschi and Ghiberti went at it for a competition to get their work on the doors of the Florence Cathedral. The winner was Ghiberti because his work was more elegant and classical (and nude)… the renaissance saw a clear revival of classical traits. LOSER WINNER
But Brunelleschi wasn’t a total failure…
He planned and created the Dome of the Florence Cathedral after studying Roman architectural principles. Many were baffled by the task of creating a massive dome to cover the Cathedral’s 138 ft opening without visible supports but Brunelleschi figured out that he could support the dome’s weight with ribbing. Brunelleschi
Brunelleschi knew his math and classical proportions, just look at his arches… The IOGGIA (continuous covered walkway) of the Ospedale degli Innocenti (Hospital of the Innocents) interior view of Santo Spirito Church
Last thing to note about Brunelleschi : he is said to be the father of LINEAR PERSPECTIVE. Sadly, the two paintings of his that were said to have first represented this are now lost, but we do have written records, specifically a book (De Pictura) by Alberti, that detail the theory of linear perspective, crediting it to Brunelleschi.
Though he was the winner, his repertoire isn’t nearly as fascinating as Brunelleschi’s. His most famous work was the doors of the Florence Catherdral. But then again, those were good enough for Michelangelo to call them the “Gates of Paradise”. Ghiberti
Masaccio Title: The Holy Trinity Nicknamed “the hole in the wall” because of its astoundingly realistic depth perception. Classical conventions clear in architecture and realistic forms, as well as the musculature of Christ. Thing to remember: Triangular Composition!
Masaccio Since everyone loved the Holy Trinity , Masaccio was commissioned to do half of a series of 12 frescos for the Brancacci Chapel. This fresco, Tribute Money , is a continuous narrative. It it significant because the figures are all solid and 3D, standing in the ever-popular contrapposto pose. There is a constant light source and use of chiaroscuro to create depth and volume. The story: Tax payer tells Christ to pay up. The apostles worry because they don’t have enough money. Christ calms their fears and tells Peter to go to the Sea where he will find gold coins. He’s uncertain at first, but finds gold!
Masaccio also did this piece…
Just a random interesting fact… Masaccio died at the young age of 27. Some speculate that his rivals got so jealous of him and his work that they poisoned him… no joke, my review book actually dedicated two whole sentences to this fact. Also worth mentioning: Michelangelo studied the paintings of Masaccio in the Brancacci Chapel as a part of his training.
The Many Works Commissioned by the Medici ↑ Birth of Venus by BOTTICELLI David by DONATELLO -> ↑ Hercules and Antaeus by POLLAIUOLO
High Renaissance What: The love for classicism at it’s peak.. Mastery of perspective and human form. When and Where: The late 15 th century (1400s) to mid 16 th century (1500s). Mainly dominated by Rome, but followed closely by Florence and Venice. Who : Da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Bellini, Giorgione and Titian
Let’s face it… Da Vinci was pretty much a genius. He was skilled in drawing, painting, anatomy, botany, geology, architecture, music, military science and so much more. Here’s a look at two of his most famous works.
Da Vinci The Last Supper -> Modeled after Castagno’s painting, only better. Perspective is much more realistic, vanishing point is behind Christ’s head. He broke away from tradition and depicted each of the 12 apostoles eating with Christ on the same side, seemingly exteding the meal to the audience. There is drama depicted- this is the moment Christ announces he knows someone will betray him and all the figures are reacting with emotion and gesture… Judas cloaks his face and hides. ← Castagno’s Last Supper
Da Vinci Mona Lisa -> Why it’s innovative: -three quarter pose -no lavish jewels typical of female portraiture -mysterious appeal of smile -SFUMATO: misty haziness of background as it disappears for perspective
Michelangelo La Pieta David
We all know these artists pretty well… So, let’s play a game! NAME THAT ARTIST
Good Job! Now just keep some things in mind about Raphael: you can single him out because of his really rounded figures, especially the babies or cherubs.
Good Job! Now just keep some things in mind about Gorgione: you can single him out because of his love of a natural setting and plump figures.
Good Job! Now just keep some things in mind about Titian: you can single him out because of his the RED and complex compositions. Also, notice how the first two painting were both offset by arches and have levels that represent each figures or group of figures level of importance. Note that Titian came after Gorgione and Raphael… his Venus of Urbino resembles Gorgione’s Sleeping Venus
Now For a Quick Review of the Italian Renaissance.
Group these artists… Giotto Titian Martini Duccio Cimabue Botticelli Pollaiuolo Donatello Masaccio Brunelleschi Ghiberti Giorgione Lorenzetti Bellini Rapheal Michelangelo Da Vinci Pre-Ren 14 th CE Ren 15 th CE High Ren 16 th CE
Who started the trend? Giotto Martini Linear Perspective Masaccio Chairoscuro International Style Brunelleschi Sfumato Triangular Composition Da Vinci
Mannerism What: With everything so dang perfect during the Renaissance, Mannerism gets little attention. They basically did the same thing, but with different values. When: Mid to late 16 th century (1500s) Who : Pontormo, Parmigianio, Bronzino, Tintoretto and Cellini
What made it different?
unnaturally elongated features
purposefully asymmetrical or unbalanced
unusual light sources
figura serpentina: twisting movement of body similar to that of a serpent’s
*can also be called il maniera (italian)
Descent from the Cross by Pontormo
Madonna of the Long Neck by Parmigianino
Venus, Cupid, Folly by Bronzino
The Last Supper by Tintoretto
Genius of Fontainebleau by Cellini
I think we get the gist of Mannerism. =] Let’s look at the Northern Renaissance. I honestly find this one a bit boring and hard… so let’s make it a GAME!
I painted this… who am I? Jan van Eyck!
I painted this… who am I? Limbourg Brothers!
Big thing in Mannerism: Alterpeices Let’s name some!
Name that Alterpiece! Robert Campin: Merode Altarpiece
Name that Alterpiece! Deposition by Rogier van der Weyden
Name that Alterpiece! Garden of Earthly Delights: Hieronymous Bosch
Name that Alterpiece! Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece
Well that was fun, but in all seriousness, we should review the big names of the Northern Renaissance and their style because, according to my review book, the AP likes to scare you shizless by asking you to discuss Renaissance and medieval conventions of art in this time period.
He liked hidden symbols and painted everything in great detail.
He was a flemish painter, so he painted in oil for luster. This luster could parallel what the Italians were doing with light and shading (chairoscuro) to give depth and sense of reality. Emotion is also a commonality.
BUT, the difference: the proportions Eyck uses are not idealized and thus, not Renaissance. His proportions hearken back to the medieval times.
First Big Name: Jan van Eyck
Called the Leonardo of the North. His art is influenced by his trips to Italy and he is most known for his engravings.
As he had seen classical Italian art, his figures were idealized just like those of the Italian Renaissance.
He develops shadow and light through cross-hatching and is also keen on portraying naturalism.
Lots and lots of use of religious symbolism.
There is one work of his that reflects medieval ideals: Knight, Death and the Devil. He depicts a dog with the Knight, which in the medieval age was symbolic of fidelity, something closely ties to chivalry.
Second Big Name: Albrecht Dürer
And now, we go for Baroque. According to my review book, this has been the most heavily stressed period so let’s learn the stylistic basics.
A style of persuasion: note that Baroque art was commissioned by the Catholic Church during the Reformation… like propaganda.
You’re supposed to be left with a sense of awe and that means…
When and where: Rome in the late 1500s then spread to Western Europe in the 1600s
Who: Bernini, Borromini, Caravaggio and Gentileschi
What it means to be Baroque…
I sculpted this… who am i? Bernini!
Met Pope Paul V, who appreciated his great talent, at the age of eleven!
His David is often called the first Baroque statue because of its emphasis on dramatic movement and asks of the viewer to interact with the work.
He creates illusions of space and extends space.
Baroque Architecture to Know Saint Peter’s Basillica Borromini’s Undulating Walls- San Carlo Facade
I painted this… who am I? Caravaggio! … it’s called the Calling of Saint Matthew
Style elements: ostentatious costumes, contemporary characters, drama from tenebrism (exaggerated chairuscuro) and light beams, deliberate naturalism