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SEWAGE MANAGEMENT IN JAMAICA
THE PAST, PRESENT AND THE FUTURE
A PERSPECTIVE OF ENGINEERS, DESIGNERS AND ENVIRONMENTALISTS

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Presentation anife

  1. 1. History 1893 – 1960s • 1893 – Construction of collection, conveyance and treatment systems in Kingston • 1960s – Start of construction of housing schemes needing centralized sewage services Kingston – one of the earliest cities in the New World to have constructed a centralized, municipal collection, conveyance, treatment and disposal system. This system served the Municipality of Kingston (demarcation) and sections of this system are still in use. The remaining sections of the City of Kingston were served by pit latrines and soak-away pits. The expansion of the City of Kingston create a demand for sewage capacity leading to expansion of the system with the construction of the 1. Western Treatment Works in the 1930s 2. Greenwich Treatment Works in the 1960s These facilities treatment modules consist of: • Grit Chamber • Primary Sedimentation Systems • Sludge Digester • Septage Collection The level of treatment attained was primary. 1
  2. 2. In other parts of the island during this time there was no other municipal sewerage system and package treatment systems could only be found in some of the hotels dotting the coast. Towards the end of the period a STP was built to serve a small section of the city of Montego Bay. This was a Trickling Filter type Secondary Treatment Plant with facility to receive septage. 1960s - 1997 1997 – Implementation of the new Sewage Regulation governing the construction, operations and maintenance of sewage collection conveyance treatment and disposal. Policies and Regulations • Regulation • Town & Country Act (1958) • NRCA Act (1996) • Government Policies Sewage Discharge Standards • BOD 30 mg/l • TSS 30 mg/l • Faecal Coliform 1000 MPM Main Players 1. Approval and Monitoring Agencies • EHU/MOH • NWC 2
  3. 3. • WRA • NRCA • Parish Councils 2. Developers • • NHT NWC • NHDC (HAJ) • Private Home Developers • Hotel Developers • MOH (Hospitals) 3. Engineering Services • NWC • Carib Engineering Ltd. • Private Engineers and Engineering Companies 4. Contractors • Private Entities 5. Operators • NWC • Hotel Owners and Operators • MOH Special Role of NWC • Involved in all aspects of process except construction • Set Policies, Regulation and Guidelines 3
  4. 4. • Only operator of domestic sewage systems • Only operator/owner/constructors of large sewage treatment systems • Only owner/operator of facilities for handling septage • In the process of building /commissioning into service major urban municipal systems 1. Negril 2. Montego Bay 3. Ocho Rios The National Water Commission (NWC) operates some 50 sewage (wastewater) treatment plants island wide. The types of sewage treatment facilities used include oxidation ditch, activated sludge, waste stabilization pond and primary treatment. Central sewerage facilities are located in Kingston and St. Andrew, South-east St. Catherine (Portmore), Montego Bay in St. James, Ocho Rios in St. Ann, and Negril in Westmoreland. In addition, the NWC has assumed responsibility for several small sewerage systems, which are associated with housing developments in various parts of the country. Packaged sewage treatment plants are used to provide treatment of the sewage collected in these small systems. Of all the 50 sewage treatment facilities, only Greenwich (built in the 1960’s), Western (built in the 1930’s) and the trickling filter systems were built by the NWC or its forerunners. All the other facilities were built by various housing developers and subsequently handed-over to the National Water Commission for operation and maintenance. 4
  5. 5. Types and Location of facilities (Please see attached map for locations) Mechanised or ponding systems were the order of the day 1. Primary Sedimentation/Chlorination systems 2. Waste Stabilization Ponds 3. Aerated lagoon System 4. Trickling Filter System 5. Package Plants 6. Oxidation Ditches 7. Extended Aeration Systems 8. Contact Stabilization Systems 9. Proprietorial Package Plant Systems Challenges 1. Lack of Governmental will in the implementation of policies or understanding of the problem of sewage management 2. Monopoly of NWC in domestic sewage operation stifled the development of sector 3. Lack of interest in O&M by NWC resulted in the deterioration/abandonment of systems without replacement 4. Lack of investment within the system 5. Lack of proper and frequent monitoring of systems effluent allowed for the deterioration of standards 6. Inability to force action from the NWC regarding O&M and Effluent Discharge 7. Little or no agitation from Civil Society for changes 5
  6. 6. Status: 1997 – Present 1997 – Implementation of the new Sewage Regulation governing the construction, operations and maintenance of sewage collection conveyance treatment and disposal. Policies and Regulations • Regulation No changes excepts for Sewage Regulations • Government Policies*** o Provision of services for Industrial Needs o Expansion/provision of services into high density areas o Improvement in services to protect the environment o Control industrial discharge Sewage Discharge Standards • BOD 20 mg/l • TSS 20 mg/l • Total nitrate 10 mg/l • Total Phoshate 4 mg/l • Faecal Coliform 100 MPM Main Players 1. Approval and Monitoring Agencies • EHU/MOH • NEPA • WRA • Parish Councils 6
  7. 7. 2. Developers • • NHT NWC • MOH • NHDC (HAJ) • Private Home Developers • Hotel Developers • MOH (Hospitals) 3. Engineering Services • NWC • Carib Engineering Ltd. • Private Engineers and Engineering Companies 4. Contractors • Private Entities 5. Operators • NWC • Private Operators o Rose Hall o DNM Ltd o White water • Hotel Owners and Operators • MOH 6. Others • Environmentalist • NGOs 7
  8. 8. • Community Based Organisations • End Users Type of Systems 1. Primary Sedimentation/Chlorination systems 2. Waste Stabilization Ponds 3. Reed Beds in various combinations 4. Biogas Digesters in combination with other treatment modules 5. Aerated lagoon System 6. Trickling Filter System 7. Package Plants 8. Oxidation Ditches 9. Extended Aeration Systems 10. Contact Stabilization Systems 11. Proprietorial Package Plant Systems 8
  9. 9. Maps & Locations 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. KINGSTON & ST ANDREW 11
  12. 12. ST CATHERINE 12
  13. 13. PORT & SPANISH TOWN SR 13
  14. 14. ST ANN & ST MARY 14
  15. 15. ST JAMES (MONTEGO BAY) ST J A 15
  16. 16. WESTMORELAND (NEGRIL) 16
  17. 17. Changes from 1997 - Present 1. Tighter Environmental Laws, Standards & Regulation 2. Greater interest and scrutiny by interested parties (Environmentalist, end users, etc,) 3. Breaking of monopoly 4. Introduction of new technologies and process especially aimed at reduction in energy usage and small to medium systems (EHU, SRC) o Special mention of Biogas Digester usage: Industrial Agricultural Domestic 5. Increase in the pool of engineers, designers and equipment suppliers 6. Greater awareness of role to be played by NWC 7. Attempt at introduction of new energy sources for sewage treatment 8. Increase in the number of small systems constructed and in operation 9. Trend towards sewering of major urban centres by the NWC/GOJ Role of NWC 1. Still the main player in the industry 2. Agitates for tariff increase 3. In the process of replacing/constructing sewage systems in major urban centres 4. Plans to sewer major urban centre 5. Is inefficient in O&M with the resultant problems 6. Constructed the Soap Berry Waste Stabilization and Wetlands 7. Closed the Greenwich and Western Treatment Works 8. Increase sewerage within the Kingston Metropolis 17
  18. 18. 9. Commissioned into service major systems in: i. Mo Bay ii. Ocho Rios iii. Negril 10. Plans the redirection of sewage from Portmore to Soapberry and decommissioning of three major STPs in Portmore 11. Construction of sewerage system for Port Antonio Role of other Operators • Rose Hall • DML Role of other Players 1. NEPA 2. EHU 3. SRC 4. Developers 5. Environmentalist et al. 6. End Users 18
  19. 19. The Way Forward The vision of Sewage management as an Industry, capable of being a major driver in the economic wellbeing of the nation. How? Viewing each component of the industry as being able to produce a profit or at least be self-sustaining. NB • Except for in the cases of sewering Urban Centres, the capital costs for the systems are borne by the end users and are paid at the front end of the deal. • Users in urban centres with existing dwellings would be expected to pay the capital costs via the tariffs. • The tariff being charged is payable by all end users, even those who paid the Capital Cost in the home purchase • There are no provisions for Replacement Cost which would become the responsibility of the Owner who in the majority of cases is the NWC i.e. Government of Jamaica i.e. the Taxpayer • Utilization of by-products of the treatment process does not affect tariff but will improve revenue 19
  20. 20. UTILIZATION OF PRODUCTS/BYPRODUCTS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT FACILITY Economic viability of: • • • • Collection Conveyance Treatment Reuse/Disposal o Sale of products and by-products Activated Sludge Process Primary Treatment Equalization Tank – Optional depending on size Pump Station – Optional depending on topography and powered by RENEWABLE ENERGY Bar Screen Grit Chamber - Grit to be washed with treated effluent, disinfected and used for landfill cover or base material for roads, etc. Primary Clarifier - Inorganic material to be washed with treated effluent, disinfected and used in the Construction Industry 20
  21. 21. Secondary Treatment ` Aeration Basin Secondary Clarifier Sludge Digester Tertiary Treatment Multiple methods of tertiary treatment 1. Lagoons with water lily (reaped and used in animal feeds or manure) 2. Reed Beds with various types of utile reeds: a. Nativa b. Sorghum Effluent Discharge Multiple uses for end product: 1. Reuse for washing of by-products during Primary Treatment 2. Cooling liquid in industries 3. Aquifer Recharge 4. Agricultural Irrigation 21
  22. 22. Sludge Digestion Sludge Digester – Various manner of digestion with different end products: Drying Beds – After drying will be used as manure in agriculture ` Energy Conversion – Decreasing the water content using hydraulic presses to remove the water, burning the sludge in a kiln and converting the heat energy to electrical energy for: 1. Use in the treatment process 2. Sale of excess to National Grid 3. The inorganic slag which remains after burning is to be used in landfills and road base. Utile Gas (methane) is produced and is also usable as an energy source for the treatment process and for sale 22
  23. 23. Earthen System 1. Reed Beds 23
  24. 24. 2. Tile Fields 24
  25. 25. 3. Polishing Ponds & Lagoons 25
  26. 26. 4. Biogas Digesters 26
  27. 27. Advantages 1. Used singularly as the secondary/tertiary module 2. Produce utile crops (Sativa Grass, Sorghum, etc.) 3. Gas production 4. Produce effluent of standards acceptable to the monitoring agencies 5. Minimum O & M costs 6. Minimum replacement costs Targeting energy efficiency Who? Driven by Investors, Engineers, Designers and Inventers of new technologies Main Problem Cost of energy supply Solutions 1. Design system without mechanised component a. More applicable for small systems 2. Use energy efficient mechanical components 3. Use renewable energy sources a. Wind b. Solar c. Biogas d. Sludge to electricity conversion 27
  28. 28. WIND ENERGY 28
  29. 29. SOLAR ENERGY FOR INDUSTRIAL USAGE 29
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. 31
  32. 32. The Economics of Sewage Management Who Pays? Capital Costs • Housing Development (new) o Capital Cost of system incorporated in the cost to home buyers • Existing Housing Scheme (Urban Sewering) o NWC/GOJ • Industrial and Trade Waste o New Development Developers/GOJ o Existing Development End Users/GOJ Tariff • Purpose of tariff o O&M Replacement of System after usefulness • Who pays for replacement of systems when the tariff does not include this component? o NWC adds a cess for the replacement/repair of systems 32
  33. 33. o Is this extended to other service providers and if not, how will the replacement of their system be financed? Operation and Maintenance Personnel and Training • Adequate Personnel and training levels O&M and equipment • Modern, easily operated and safe equipment, PPE Fines and Penalties • Enforceable Methodology of changing the paradigm shift • Buy-in of all members of the sector including Developers, Design Engineers, Operators, End Users and Environmentalists • Education of the End Users • Agitation of the Environmentalist • Inspiration of Design Engineers o Developing cheaper, more easily operated systems • Investment of the Developers • Increase in the pool of Designers and Engineers 33
  34. 34. 34

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