In the late 18th century, French General Jean Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval suggested that muskets could be manufactured faster and more economically if they were made from interchangeable parts
In 1818 Eli Whitney built his first milling machine which precisely shaped metal parts. His efficient methods, especially the use of interchangeable parts, revolutionized the small-arms industry, and gradually these production methods were applied to most types of manufacturing.
“… that many frequently desired machining operations have heretofore been impossible, or at best have required changing the set up of the work on it’s support table, an operation which greatly slows up production and increases the likelihood of inaccuracy in the finished work.” April 4, 1939
US Patent 2,275,291
MACHINE TOOL OPERATING AT UNIVERSAL ANGLES IN ALL LOCATIONS
Modular Vises "Low Profile Design" for added tool clearance. Available in 2" Grid Pattern Spacing. Uses STANDARD 6" wide jaw mounting on fixed and moveable jaws. Ideal for specialized applications
Soft Brick vises are a very economical solution
Stevens Soft-Brick Vise eliminates the need for changing jaws on soft jaw vises.
The vise needs no soft jaws because the vise itself is a soft jaw.
Made from 6061 aluminum, the low-cost vise can be machined by users with cavities to fit specific workpieces.
5 Axis machines require 5 Axis Fixtures With the advent of Mill-Turn machines and tighter tolerance work a new type of fixturing is being required
Magnetomotive Force -- The quantity of magnetic field force, or "push." Analogous to electric voltage (electromotive force).
Field Flux -- The quantity of total field effect, or "substance" of the field. Analogous to electric current.
Field Intensity -- The amount of field force (mmf) distributed over the length of the electromagnet. Sometimes referred to as Magnetizing Force .
Flux Density -- The amount of magnetic field flux concentrated in a given area.
Reluctance -- The opposition to magnetic field flux through a given volume of space or material. Analogous to electrical resistance.
Permeability -- The specific measure of a material's acceptance of magnetic flux, analogous to the specific resistance of a conductive material (ρ), except inverse (greater permeability means easier passage of magnetic flux, whereas greater specific resistance means more difficult passage of electric current).