RES 60102 Research
Methodology
189
Here you can find relevant indicators about articles
published in several prominent scientific journals in the
field o...
190
*tourismandregionaldevelopment*sustainabletourism*South
Africa
Enclave tourism and its socio-economic impacts in the
O...
191
* tourism and philosophy
Reconceptualizing object authenticity / Yvette Reisin-
ger, Carol J. Steiner // Annals of Tou...
192
* tourism and informatics - other * surveys * Austria
Determinants of response to customer e-mail enquiries
to hotels:...
193
* tourism for the handicapped
Personal and societal attitueds to disability / Pheroza
Daruwalla, Simon Darcy // Annals...
ECOTOURISM AND SUSTAINABLE
TOURISM GUIDELINES
AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Written by Dave Twynam, Margaret Johnston, Bob Pay...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
i
Introduction
This annotated bibliography contai...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
ii
include industry standards, environmental audi...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
1
Reference Anderson, E. M. (1994). Towards Self-...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
2
Reference Beck, P. J. (1990). Regulating one of...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
3
Reference Boo, E. (1994). The Ecotourism Boom: ...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
4
Reference Borja, J.F.C. and Sanchez, M.M. (1993...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
5
Reference Bottrill, C. G., and Pearce D. G. (19...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
6
Reference Brandon, K., and Margoluis R. (1996)....
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
7
Reference Briassoulis, H. (1995). The environme...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
8
Reference Buhalis, D., and Fletcher J. (1995). ...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
9
Reference Cater, E., and Lowman, G. (1994). Eco...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
10
Reference Conlin, M.V. (1996). Revitalizing Be...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
11
Reference Consulting and Audit Canada (1996). ...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
12
Reference D’Amore, L. J. (1993). A code of eth...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
13
Reference Davis, P. B. (1995). Antarctic visit...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
14
Reference Dickinson, G. (1995). Environmental ...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
15
Reference Driml, S. and Common, M. (1996). Eco...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
16
Reference Eagles, P. F. J. (1995). Management ...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
17
Reference Eagles, P. F. J., and Nilsen P. (199...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
18
Reference Edwards, F., editor, (1988). Environ...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
19
Reference Edwards, J. (1996). Visitor manageme...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
20
Reference Farrell, T. (1995). A research frame...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
21
Reference German Federal Agency for Nature Con...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
22
Reference Harris, R., and Leiper, N. (1995). S...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
23
Reference Holder, J.S. (1996). Maintaining com...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
24
Reference Hunter, C. (1997). Sustainable touri...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
25
Reference Hunter, C. and Green, H. (1995). Tou...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
26
Reference International Fund for Animal Welfar...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
27
Reference Johnston, M. E. (1997). Polar touris...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
28
Reference Lake Superior Bi-National Program (1...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
29
Reference Leon, C., and Gonzalez M. (1995). Ma...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
30
Reference Lindberg, K., and Hawkins D.E. (1993...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
31
Reference Mason, P. (1994). A visitor code for...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
32
Reference Mason, P. (1997). Tourism codes of c...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
33
Reference Mason, P., and Mowforth, M. (1996). ...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
34
Reference Mihalic, T. (1996). Ecological label...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
35
Reference Nitsch, B., and Straaten J. (1995). ...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
36
Reference Orams, M. B. (1995). Towards a more ...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
37
Reference Orams, M. B. (1996). Using interpret...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
38
Reference Parks Canada (1996). Best Practices ...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
39
Reference Place, S.E. (1998). How sustainable ...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
40
Reference Saleh, F., and Karwacki J. (1996). R...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
41
Reference Sirakaya, E. (1997). Attitudinal com...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
42
Reference Sirakaya, E. And Muzaffer, U. (1997)...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
43
Reference Splettstoesser, J. and Folks, M. C. ...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
44
Reference Stabler, M. J., and Goodall, B. (199...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
45
Reference Sweeting, J. (n.d.). Marine Ecotouri...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
46
Reference The Ecotourism Society (n.d.). A Col...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
47
Reference The Ecotourism Society (n.d.). The E...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
48
Reference Thomlinson, E., and Donald G. (1996)...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
49
Reference Todd, S. E., and Williams P. W. (199...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
50
Reference United Nations Environment Programme...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
51
Reference Wahab, S. and Pigram, J.J. (1997). T...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
52
Reference Wilkinson, P.F. (1996). Graphical im...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
53
Reference Williams, P. W. (1992). Tourism and ...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
54
Reference World Tourism Organization (1995). S...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
55
Reference Ziffer, K. A. (1989). Ecotourism: Th...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
56
Reference Azkarate, T. (1995). One Europe Maga...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
57
Reference Conservation International (n.d.). C...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
58
Reference The Earth Pledge Foundation (n.d.). ...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
59
Reference Educational Communications (n.d.). P...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
60
Reference The Ecotourism Association of Austra...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
61
Reference Great Outdoor Recreation Pages (n.d....
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
62
Reference The GreenMoney Journal (1995). Ecotr...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
63
Reference Hill, C. (1998). Eco-Source: Informa...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
64
Reference Island Resources Foundations (1996)....
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
65
Reference The Latin American Alliance (1997). ...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
66
Reference Lewis, S. (1996). Analysis of ISO 14...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
67
Reference Mader, R. (1998). Eco Travels in the...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
68
Reference Mader, R. (1998). Sustainable Develo...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
69
Reference National Audubon Society (1989). The...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
70
Reference Norman, W. C., Frauman E., Toepper L...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
71
Reference Office of National Tourism (1995). B...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
72
Reference Oostdam, B. L., & Billeter, P. A. (n...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
73
Reference Sierra Club (1993). Sierra Club Poli...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
74
Reference Stringer, L. (1994). Tourism and Cos...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
75
Reference The Ecotourism Society (1997). Ecoto...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
76
Reference Thefox’s Home Page (1998). Hanfox Ho...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
77
Reference Wallace, G. N. (n.d.). Toward a Prin...
Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines:
An Annotated Bibliography
78
Reference World Travel and Tourism Council. (n...
Resource Guide in Extraordinary Experiences: Understanding and
Managing the Consumer Experience in Hospitality, Leisure, E...
through treating 'work as theatre and every business a stage'. As this guide will
show, this draws on Schechner's (1988) P...
The common goal
Both strands of literature also come together in seeing the consumer as the product
(Pine and Gilmore) but...
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  1. 1. RES 60102 Research Methodology
  2. 2. 189 Here you can find relevant indicators about articles published in several prominent scientific journals in the field of tourism according to the following main topics: tourism and theory, research and education; tourism and economy; tourism market; tourism and society; tourism and space; tourism policy and organization; statistics and forecasting in tourism; types of tourism. ANATOLIA (ISSN 1300-4220) ACTA TURISTICA (ISSN 0353-4316) ANNALS OF TOURISM RESEARCH (ISSN 0160-7383) CHINA TOURISM RESEARCH (ISSN 1812-688X) EVENT MANAGEMENT (ISSN 1525-9951) ESTUDIOS Y PERSPECTIVAS EN TURISMO (ISSN 0327-5841) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY & TOURISM ADMINISTRATION* (ISSN 1525-6480) JAHRBUCH FÜR FREMDENVERKEHR (ISSN 0075-2649) JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY & LEISURE MARKETING* (ISSN 1050-7051) JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY, LEISURE, SPORT AND TOURISM EDUCATION (ISSN 1473-8376) JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL HOSPITALITY, LEISURE & TOURISM MANAGEMENT* (ISSN 1092-3128) JOURNAL OF QUALITY ASSURANCE IN TOURISM & HOSPITALITY* (ISSN 1528-008X) JOURNAL OF TRAVEL RESEARCH (ISSN 0047-2875) JOURNAL OF TRAVEL & TOURISM MARKETING* (ISSN 1054-8408) JOURNAL OF TEACHING IN TRAVEL & TOURISM* (ISSN 1531-3220) PROBLEMS OF TOURISM (ISSN 1230-1035) TOURISM ANALYSIS (ISSN 1083-5423) TOURISM ECONOMICS (ISSN 1354-8166) TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT (ISSN 1330-7533) TOURISMUS JAHRBUCH (ISSN 1434-5676) TOURISM MANAGEMENT (ISSN 0261-5177) TOURISM REVIEW (ISSN 1332-7461) TOURISM RECREATION RESEARCH (ISSN 0250-8281) TRAVEL AND TOURISM ANALYST (ISSN 0959-6186) TOURISM : visâo e açâo (ISSN 1415-6393) *copies are available from: HAWORTH DOCUMENT DELIVERY CENTER; The Haworth Press, Inc.: 10 Alice Street; Binghamton, NY 13904; USA Bibliographic description is given in this form: * detailed descriptions Title / Author(s) // Journal’s name. Volume (year), No., pages from-till Tourism - selected bibliography B i b l i o g r a p h yB i b l i o g r a p h yB i b l i o g r a p h yB i b l i o g r a p h yB i b l i o g r a p h y TOURISM AND THEORY, RESEARCH AND EDUCATION *employees*internalorganizationofcateringenterprise*Austra- lia and Oceania An agency theory perspective on the owner/manager relationship in tourism-based condominiums / Chris Guilding... [et al.] // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 409-420 * guides, interpreters * East Asia and the Pacific Human resources development in China / Abby Liu, Ge- offrey Wall // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Scie- nces Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 689-710 TOURISM AND ECONOMY * cruising * catering - nonaccommodation facilities The McDonaldization thesis and cruise tourism / Adam Weaver // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 2, 346-366 * cruising * perceptions * satisfaction The role of affective factors on perceived cruise vaca- tion value / Teoman Duman, Anna S. Mattila // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 311-323 * efficiency of catering enterprise * hotel industry Measuring efficiency in the hotel sector / Carlos Pestana Barros // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 2, 456-477 * employees Investigating structural relations affecting the effe- ctiveness of service management / Inwon Kang... [et al.] // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 301-310 * management of catering enterprise Knowledge management and tourism / Chris Cooper // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 47-64 * tourism and regional development * state and tourism - general and implementation * sustainable tourism Collaborative policymaking : local sustainable projects / Jon Vernon... [et al.] // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 2, 325-345
  3. 3. 190 *tourismandregionaldevelopment*sustainabletourism*South Africa Enclave tourism and its socio-economic impacts in the Okavango Delta, Botswana / Joseph E. Mbaiwa // Touri- sm management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 157-172 * tourism and regional development * tourism and culture, arts * host population attitudes Heritage, local communities and economic develop- ment / Mark P. Hampton // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 735-759 * tourism and social aspects Tourism and amenity migration : a longitudinal analy- sis / Walter F. Kuentzel, Varna Mukundan Ramaswamy // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 2, 419-438 * tourism satellite account (TSA) * East Africa and Indian Ocean islands Tourism satellite accounts : implementation in Tanza- nia / Amit Sharma, Michael D. Olsen // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 2, 367-385 TOURISM MARKET * consumer behaviour * tourism destination - diverse aspects Destination appraisal : an analysis of critical incidents / Mark P. Pritchard, Mark E. Havitz // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 25-46 * consumer safety and security Risk and responsibility in tourism: promoting sun- safety / Sue Peattie, Philip Clarke, Ken Peattie // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 399-408 * marketing in tourism - instruments * tourist supply - general and characteristics * sustainable tourism Eco-resorts vs. mainstream accommodation providers: an investigation of the viability of benchmarking envi- ronmental performance/ Jan Warnken, Melanie Bradley, Chris Guilding // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 367-379 * tourism destination - diverse aspects Destination stakeholders : exploring identity and salience / Lorn R. Sheehan, J. R. Brent Ritchie // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 711-734 * tourist demand - general and characteristics * factors of tourist demand Factors affecting bilateral tourism flows / Bruce Pride- aux // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Jour- nal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 780-801 Factors affecting bilateral tourism flows / Bruce Pride- aux // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Jour- nal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 780-801 * tourist demand - general and characteristics * tourism statistics - theory and methodological problems * world Modelling multivariate international tourism demand and volatility / Felix Chan, Christine Lim, Michael Mc- Aleer // Tourism management : research - policies - prac- tice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 459-471 * tourist expenditure - general and characteristics * outbound tourism * United Kingdom Interventions on UK earnings and expenditures overse- as / John Coshall // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 592-609 TOURISM AND SOCIETY * decisions * market research A grounded typology of vacation decision-making / Alain Decrop, Dirk Snelders // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 121- 132 * image * mega-events * East Asia and the Pacific Change of images of South Korea among foreign tou- rists after the 2002 FIFA World Cup / Samuel Seongseop Kim, Alastair M. Morrsion // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 233- 247 * motivations * tourist demand - general and characteristics * East Asia and the Pacific Marketingimplicationsarisingfromaacomparativestudy of international pleasure tourist motivations and other travel-relatedcharacteristicsofvisitorstoKorea/Samuel Seongseop Kim, Bruce Prideaux // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 347-357 * psychology of tourism * surveys The managementof emotion in collaborative tourism research settings / Lisa Beesley // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 261-275 * sociology of tourism Sociological impressionism in a hospitality context / Paul A. Lynch // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 527-548
  4. 4. 191 * tourism and philosophy Reconceptualizing object authenticity / Yvette Reisin- ger, Carol J. Steiner // Annals of Tourism Research : a So- cial Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 65-86 * tourism and social aspects * sociology of tourism * volunteer tourism Social change, discourse and volunteer tourism / Nancy Gard McGehee, Carla Almeida Santos // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 760-779 TOURISM AND SPACE * climate * recreation Weather, climate and tourism : a geographical perspec- tive/BelenGomezMartin//AnnalsofTourismResearch:a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 571-591 * historic parks, gardens * United Kingdom Managing gardens for visitors in Great Britain: a story of continuity and change / Joanne Connell // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 185-201 * host population * East Asia and the Pacific Community decisionmaking : participation in develop- ment / WenJun Li // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 132-143 * national parks and specific categories of protection * destination marketing * United Kingdom Relationships, networks and the learning regions: case evidence from the Peak District National Park / Gunjan Saxena // Tourism management : research - policies - pra- ctice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 277-289 * national parks and specific categories of protection * satisfac- tion* East Asia and the Pacific The relationship among tourists’ involvement, place attachment and interpretation satisfaction in Taiwan’s national parks / Shiuh-Nan Hwang, Chuan Lee, Huei-Ju Chen // Tourism management : research - policies - practi- ce. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 143-156 * physical (regional) planning - examples * leisure time * East Asia and the Pacific Spatial modeling : suburban leisure in Shanghai / Bihu Wu, Liping A. Cai // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 179-198 * social environment and pollution (impacts) * urban tourism * United Kingdom The local impacts of tourism : a case study of Bath, UK / A. J. Haley, Tim Snaith, Graham Miller // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 647-668 * specific attractions * North America Beer tourism in Canada along the Waterloo-Wellington Ale Trail / Ryan Plummer... [et al.] // Tourism manage- ment : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 447-458 TOURISM POLICY AND ORGANIZATION * other methods * cruising A dynamic game model of strategic capacity invest- ment in the cruise line industry / Byung-Wook Wie // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 203-217 * sojourn taxes * elasticity of tourist demand * Spain The short-term price effect of a tourist tay through a dynamic demand model. The case of the Balearic Islands / Eugeni Aguilo, Antoni Riera, Jaume Rossello // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 359-365 * state and tourism - general and implementation * Australia and Oceania Tourism policy in the making : an Australian network study / Christof Pforr // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 87-108 * taxation * East Africa and Indian Ocean islands Economics of tourism taxation : evidence from Mauri- tius / Nishaal Gooroochurn, M. Thea Sinclair // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 2, 478-498 STATISTICS AND FORECASTING IN TOURISM *socialandeconomicalplanningandforecasting,trends-general * employees Tourism and glocalization : “local” tour guiding / Noel B. Salazar // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 628-646
  5. 5. 192 * tourism and informatics - other * surveys * Austria Determinants of response to customer e-mail enquiries to hotels: evidence from Austria / Kurt Matzler... [et al.] // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 249-259 TYPES OF TOURISM * adventure tourism * consumer safety and security * United Kingdom Scoping the nature and extent of adventure tourism operations in Scotland: how safe are they? / Stephen J. Page, Tim A. Bentley, Linda Walker // Tourism manage- ment : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 381-397 * adventure tourism * terrorism * South and Central Asia Tourism, terrorism and turmoil in Nepal / Keshav Bhat- tarai, Dennis Conway, Nanda Shrestha // Annals of Tou- rism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 669-688 * heritage tourism * host population attitudes * sustainable tourism * Central America and the Caribbean Hospitality and reciprocity : working tourists in Do- minica / Daniel Heuman // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 2, 407-418 * heritage tourism * image * Eastern Europe * Central Europe Cultural tourism in Central and Eastern Europe: the views of ‘induced image formation agents’ / Howard Hughes, Danielle Allen // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 173-183 * heritage tourism * perceptions * the Netherlands Heritage management : motivations and ecpectations / Yaniv Poria, Arie Reichel, Avital Biran // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 162-178 * heritage tourism * tourism and culture, arts * North America Coconstructing heritage at the Gettysburg storyscape / Athinodoros Chronis // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 2, 386-406 * heritage tourism * urban tourism * North America Streetscape improvements in an historic tourist city a second visit to King Street, Charleston, South Carolina / Stephen W. Litvin // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 421-429 * mass tourism * summer-holiday tourism * sustainable tourism The persistence of the sun and sand tourism model / Eugeni Aguiló, Joaquín Alegre, Maria Sard // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 219-231 * mega-events * sports * Australia and Oceania Event business leveraging : the Sydney 2000 Olimpic Games / Danny O’Brien // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 240-161 * mountain tourism * destination marketing * North America The responsible marketing of tourism: the case of Cana- dian Mountain Holidays / Simon Hudson, Graham A. Miller // Tourism management : research - policies - prac- tice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 133-142 * rural tourism * market research * United Kingdom A benefit segmentation of tourists in rural areas: a Scot- tish perspective / Isabelle Frochot // Tourism mana- gement : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 335-346 * senior citizens’ tourism * tourism destination - diverse aspects * tourism publicity and information - forms and instruments Destination advertising : age and format effects on memory / Kelly J. Mackay, Malcolm C. Smith // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 7-24 * sustainable tourism * carrying capacity Development of a tourism sustainability assessment procedure: a conceptual approach / Tae Gyou Ko // Tou- rism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 431-445 * sustainable tourism * social costs * West and Central Africa with islands Community-based ecotourism : the significance of soci- al capital / Samantha Jones // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 2, 303-324 * sustainable tourism * tourism and social aspects * Central America and the Caribbean Social adaptation : ecotourism in the Lacandon Forest / Rosa E. Hernandez Cruz... [et al.] // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 610-627 * sustainable tourism* tourism and social aspects* tourism and culture, arts Conceptualizing yield : sustainable tourism mana- gement / Jeremy Northcote, Jim Macbeth // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 199-220 * sustainable tourism Comprehensive and minimalist dimensions of eco- tourism / David B. Weaver // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 2, 439-455
  6. 6. 193 * tourism for the handicapped Personal and societal attitueds to disability / Pheroza Daruwalla, Simon Darcy // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 549-570 *urbantourism*touristexpenditure-generalandcharacteristics* East Asia and the Pacific Preferences and trip expenditures - a conjoint analysis of visitors to Seoul, Korea / Yong Kun Suh, Leo McAvoy // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 325-333 * youth tourism* East Asia and the Pacific Backpacking Southeast Asia : strategies of “looking local” / Hamzah Muzaini // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 144-161 * youth tourism* perceptions The mutual gaze / Darya Maoz // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 221-239 * youth tourism* tourism and culture, arts A postcolonial analysis of backpacking / Peggy Teo, Sandra Leong // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 109-131 T. Hitrec, K. Tokić T. Hitrec, K. Tokić
  7. 7. ECOTOURISM AND SUSTAINABLE TOURISM GUIDELINES AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Written by Dave Twynam, Margaret Johnston, Bob Payne, and Steve Kingston of Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada Funded by Royal Caribbean International and Celebrity Cruises’ Ocean Fund Prepared for The Ecotourism Society, Marine Ecotourism Guidelines Project © 1998 PO Box 755 North Bennington, VT USA Tel: 802-447-2121, Fax: 802-447-2122, Email: ecomail@ecotourism.org; URL: http://www.ecotourism.org
  8. 8. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography i Introduction This annotated bibliography contains information about published literature and other sources with relevance to Caribbean ecotourism and sustainable tourism guidelines. The general theme of the bibliography is the management of tourism through sustainable tourism frameworks with a focus on references applicable to the Caribbean guidelines project coordinated by The Ecotourism Society and funded by Ocean Fund in 1998. The practical element of sustainable tourism, which involves moving from theoretical constructs to application in particular situations, has spurred a number of initiatives to define, to encourage and to monitor sustainability. These approaches to application can be divided into three groups: principle-based, managerial and scientific. Principle-based approaches in sustainable tourism/ecotourism require all activities, regardless of their scale, to respect the principles and to follow guidelines or codes of conduct where they exist. The Charter on Sustainable Tourism is an example of this kind of approach. The bibliography identifies several relevant examples and also collections which contain examples of environmental principles, guidelines and codes of conduct. While principles are the foundational statements of belief about what tourism should be, guidelines indicate expectations about behaviour and codes of conduct set out specific actions that should be taken to comply with the principles. Given that The Ecotourism Society intends to develop a set of guidelines for marine ecotourism in the Caribbean, with potential for wider applications, this bibliography highlights the principle-based approach. Managerial initiatives comprise those that focus upon standards of practice which, if followed, will assure achievement of sustainable tourism/ecotourism goals. The focal point of all managerial initiatives is the individual organization which is expected to manage its environmental impact throughout all of its activities. Examples discussed in the bibliography
  9. 9. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography ii include industry standards, environmental audits and “best practices” management. The scientific perspective recognizes that if sustainability is to be a policy or legislative goal, it will require not only a definition, but also an understanding of cause and effect relationships in ecosystems. This category is covered least in this bibliography and appears in references to sustainability indicators. Also included are other items of relevance generally to questions about controlling environmental and social costs of tourism, and environmental management in the Caribbean. While most of the sources cited have been published in traditional formats, the bibliography also includes several Web sites. The authors wish to thank Steve Kingston for his assistance in compiling records, and Elizabeth Halpenny of The Ecotourism Society and Peter Mason of Massey University, New Zealand for their careful reviews of the document. Also Royal Caribbean International and Celebrity Cruises should be acknowledged for their financial sponsorship of this project via Ocean Fund.
  10. 10. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 1 Reference Anderson, E. M. (1994). Towards Self-regulation for Sustainable Tourism. Proceedings from the Ecodollars Management Industry. Association of Australia, Queensland, 1994. Key Words tourism, sustainable, regulation, code of practice Purpose C to discuss the role of the tourism industry in providing environmental protection through a regulatory practice shared between industry and government Content C a list of the Principles of Environmental Management published by the Business Council of Australia C a discussion of the systematic approach to environmental management, with the major focus on best practice environmental management, specification for environmental management systems, and accredited licensee C a discussion of the challenge this presents for the tourism industry Other
  11. 11. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 2 Reference Beck, P. J. (1990). Regulating one of the last tourism frontiers: Antarctica. Applied Geography 10, 343-356. Key Words tourism, regulation, Antarctica Purpose C to provide an outline of the current regulations for and management of tourism and the debates over approaches to future tourism guidelines in Antarctica Content C a discussion of the current Antarctic regulations and guidelines for tourist activities C an outline of the weaknesses of the existing code of behaviour C a discussion of the respective merits of either the adoption of more comprehensive national legislation or the introduction of an international Antarctic tourism regime Other
  12. 12. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 3 Reference Boo, E. (1994). The Ecotourism Boom: Planning for Development and Management. Wildlands and Human Needs Technical Paper Series (Paper #2). Washington D.C., U.S.A.: World Wildlife Fund. Key Words ecotourism, guidelines, management Purpose C to review general issues and components of ecotourism C to create an ecotourism strategy for protected areas to better manage tourists Content C a review of ecotourism to date C a description of potential benefits and costs of ecotourism C an outline of the role of conservationists in ecotourism C a description of guidelines to assist park managers develop an ecotourism strategy Other
  13. 13. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 4 Reference Borja, J.F.C. and Sanchez, M.M. (1993). Geoecodynamic assessment to improve the landscape tourist resources in Cancun, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. In P.P. Wong, Tourism vs Environment: The Case for Coastal Areas (pp. 55-65). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Key Words coastal zone, planning Purpose C to examine the coastal environment of Cancun in order to present opportunities and barriers for tourism planning Content C a description of the development of tourism and the regional setting of Cancun C an examination of the features of the coastal environment C a discussion of the proposed master plan and policies to protect the environment from tourism Other
  14. 14. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 5 Reference Bottrill, C. G., and Pearce D. G. (1995). Ecotourism: Towards a key elements approach to operationalising the concept. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 3(1), 45-54. Key Words ecotourism Purpose C to operationalize the concept of ecotourism Content C a classification based on a set of measurable key elements covering the participant, operator, and resource management perspectives C a description of the survey of 22 nature-based tourism operators in British Columbia C the results and highlights from the study (eg. only five of the 22 ventures surveyed were classified as providing ecotourism; the majority of ventures were excluded based on a protected area criterion) Other
  15. 15. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 6 Reference Brandon, K., and Margoluis R. (1996). Structuring ecotourism success: Framework for analysis. Plenary paper presented at “The Ecotourism Equation: Measuring the Impacts” International Society of Tropical Foresters, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, April 12-14, 1996. Key Words ecotourism, conservation, benefits Purpose C to argue that the distinguishing feature of ecotourism should be that it benefits biodiversity conservation Content C an outline of five benefits to conservation which should be evident in any tourism activity which claims to be ecotourism C an outline of steps which need to be undertaken during project design which help identify links between project design and project evaluation Other
  16. 16. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 7 Reference Briassoulis, H. (1995). The environmental internalities of tourism: Theoretical analysis and policy implications. In H. Coccossis, and P. Nijkamp, Sustainable Tourism Development (pp.25-39). Brookfield, U.S.A.: Avebury. Key Words tourism policy, sustainable tourism Purpose C to conceptualize the issue of tourism’s internalities C to offer a theoretical analysis of the tourism- environment relationship C to suggest appropriate planning and policy approaches to achieve sustainable tourism development Content C a discussion of tourism’s features and its differences from other economic sectors C an analysis of the tourism-environment relationship and clarification of the distinction between the environmental externalities and internalities of tourism C an outline of public and private sector policies needed for effective tourism planning and management C a discussion of future research directions Other
  17. 17. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 8 Reference Buhalis, D., and Fletcher J. (1995). Environmental impacts on tourist destinations: An economic analysis. In H. Coccossis, and P. Nijkamp, Sustainable Tourism Development (pp.3-24). Brookfield, U.S.A.: Avebury. Key Words tourism, impacts, sustainable development Purpose C to argue that environmental impacts of tourism can be generated within sectors directly or indirectly related to the tourism industry C to assess the environmental impacts of tourism with an input-output model Content C a discussion of the relationship between tourism and the environment C an illustration of the major factors which affect the environmental assets at a destination level, namely local people, tourists, local enterprises, tour operators, and national tourist organizations C an outline of the major economic factors which influence the environment in the tourism destination C an outline of some of the major tourism trends and strategies worldwide Other
  18. 18. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 9 Reference Cater, E., and Lowman, G. (1994). Ecotourism: A Sustainable Option? Toronto, Canada: John Wiley & Sons. Key Words ecotourism, sustainable development Purpose C provide a compilation of papers mainly from the proceedings of a Royal Geographical Society conference on ecotourism Content C definitions of ecotourism and sustainability C a description of the four possible outcomes (win-win, win-lose, lose-win, and lose-lose) between environmental and developmental interests C several papers on the state of ecotourism in the world C a paper on environmentally responsible marketing of tourism C several papers on ecotourism in various destinations around the world, including the Caribbean basin (chapter 10) Other C description of contributors
  19. 19. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 10 Reference Conlin, M.V. (1996). Revitalizing Bermuda: Tourism policy planning in a mature island destination. In L.C. Harrison and W. Husbands, Practicing Responsible Tourism: International Case Studies in Tourism Planning, Policy and Development (pp. 80-102). Toronto, Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Key Words planning, policy, tourism growth, Bermuda Purpose C to examine planning and policy issues related to small island destinations Content C a discussion of a variety of planning theories and C a history of tourism development and policy in Bermuda, including the work of the Tourism Planning Committee C a discussion of future growth strategies and the potential for inclusive community planning Other
  20. 20. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 11 Reference Consulting and Audit Canada (1996). What Tourism Managers Need to Know: A Practical Guide to the Development and Use of Iindicators of Sustainable Tourism. Madrid, Spain: World Tourism Organization. Key Words tourism, indicators, sustainable tourism Purpose C to facilitate the development of practical indicators for the sustainable management of tourist destinations C to guide managers and administrators in the use of indicators in decisions regarding tourism and the environment Content C a description of core indicators of sustainable tourism (site protection, stress, use intensity, social impact, development control, waste management, planning process, critical ecosystems, consumer satisfaction, local satisfaction, tourism contribution to local economy, carrying capacity, site stress, and attractivity) C a short description of supplementary of destination- specific indicators, including ecosystem-specific indicators and site-specific management indicators Other C supplementary indicators of sustainable tourism C summaries of pilot studies C key barriers to sustainable tourism C glossary of indicator types
  21. 21. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 12 Reference D’Amore, L. J. (1993). A code of ethics and guidelines for socially and environmentally responsible tourism. Journal of Travel Research 31,64-66. Key Words ecotourism, code of ethics Purpose C to describe efforts at the global scale, and particularly in Canada, to develop guidelines and codes of ethics to shape ecotourism Content C general data on global environmental changes C a description of responses of the world tourism industry and Canada to the challenge outlined by the Brundtland Commission C examples of realized benefits to companies demonstrating environmental responsibility Other C contact address for Tourism Industry Association of Canada
  22. 22. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 13 Reference Davis, P. B. (1995). Antarctic visitor behaviour: Are guidelines enough? Polar Record 31(178), 327-334. Key Words tourism, guidelines, visitor management, Antarctic Purpose C to provide results from a visitor survey on tourists’ assessments of their own behaviour and that of other tourists C to discuss the effectiveness of voluntary visitor guidelines developed by an industry association (International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators) Content C a general discussion of visitor management in the Antarctic C a description of the effects of sex, age, educational level, and cruise trip on guideline violation or adherence C a discussion of the management challenges presented by potential passenger violations of guidelines Other
  23. 23. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 14 Reference Dickinson, G. (1995). Environmental impacts in the Loch Lomond area of Scotland. In H. Coccossis, and P. Nijkamp, Sustainable Tourism Development (pp.159-168). Brookfield, U.S.A.: Avebury. Key Words tourism, impacts, case study, management Purpose C to examine the nature of recreational impacts, their role in overall environmental change in the area, and resource management strategies for the Loch Lomond region Content C an examination of recreation and tourism in the Loch Lomond area, environmental impacts, recreation and other factors causing environmental degradation, and recreation and conservation management strategies and systems Other
  24. 24. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 15 Reference Driml, S. and Common, M. (1996). Ecological economics criteria for sustainable tourism: Application to the Great Barrier Reef and Wet Tropics World Heritage Areas, Australia. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 4(1), 3-16. Key Words tourism, sustainable, Australia Purpose C to examine the extent to which tourism in the Great Barrier Reef and Wet Tropics World Heritage Areas is sustainable Content C definitions of sustainable tourism and protected areas C an outline of principles and characteristics of sustainable tourism C a description of tourism and its management in the two heritage areas Other
  25. 25. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 16 Reference Eagles, P. F. J. (1995). Management in parks: The experience in Australia. Paper presented to State of Western Australia Annual Tourism Conference on June 9, 1995: Perth, Australia. Key Words ecotourism, issues, management Purpose C to discuss the most important issues regarding existing management structure of nature-based tourism in parks Content C an outline of travel motives and motivations of Canadian tourists C a discussion of limits of acceptable change and park zoning, management of tourist use, allocation of tourism access, market specialization, management of recreation conflict, enforcement and monitoring of policies and programmes, consumer assurance of quality, facility design, community development, financial viability, and public and private sector cooperation Other C list of references
  26. 26. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 17 Reference Eagles, P. F. J., and Nilsen P. (1997). Ecotourism: An Annotated Bibliography for Planners and Managers. (4th edition) North Bennington, Vermont: The Ecotourism Society. Key Words ecotourism, bibliography, planning, management, development, infrastructure, economics, conservation, marketing Purpose C an annotated bibliography reflecting growing interest in ecotourism as a global conservation and sustainable development tool Content C list of 384 ecotourism related publications and presentations Other
  27. 27. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 18 Reference Edwards, F., editor, (1988). Environmentally Sound Tourism in the Caribbean. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environmentally Sound Tourism Development, April 1987, Barbados. Calgary, Alberta: The University of Calgary Press. Key Words environmentally sound tourism, Caribbean, management Purpose C objectives of the conference were to identify and strengthen strategies for intergrating tourism and the environment and to promote better coordination between tourism development and management of the environment Content C nine chapters plus an introduction (not annotated separately) C an emphasis on understanding tourism patterns in the Caribbean and the planning challenges faced in the region Other C list of conference participants C report on a related conference (1985) C synthesis of workshop findings
  28. 28. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 19 Reference Edwards, J. (1996). Visitor management and the sustainable tourism agenda. In L. Briguglio, B. Archer, J. Jafari, and G. Wall, Sustainable Tourism in Islands and Small States: Issues and Policies (pp. 137-147). New York, U.S.A.: Pinter. Key Words sustainable tourism, visitor management Purpose C to discuss the role of visitor management in ameliorating the undesirable impacts of tourism and the potential for moving tourism towards a more sustainable approach Content C a brief discussion of the concept of sustainability C a review of various visitor management approaches from a range of clearly-defined destinations C a discussion of the balance between the needs of the visitor and the needs of the resource C a discussion of managing tourists on islands Other
  29. 29. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 20 Reference Farrell, T. (1995). A research framework to assess the biophysical impacts of nature-based tourism: A thesis project. In Proceedings of the 1995 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (General Technical Report NE-218, pp.267-273). Saratoga Springs, New York: United States Department of Agriculture. Key Words ecotourism, impacts, management Purpose C to propose a general research framework to set nature-based tourism industry standards, influence policy decision making, and establish linkages between biophysical impacts and the activities of nature tour operators, guides, and tourism Content C a discussion of the positive and negative biophysical impacts linked to tourism activities C a description of the general research framework design C an examination of a case study in Belize, Central America, to determine the availability of research related resources and consider factors affecting the proposed framework’s ability to establish linkage between impacts and activities C recommendations for the general research framework
  30. 30. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 21 Reference German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation. (1997). Biodiversity and Tourism: Conflicts on the World’s Seacoasts and Strategies for their Solution. Berlin, Germany: Springer- Verlag. Key Words biodiversity, tourism protocol, sustainable development Purpose C to outline problems associated with tourism development along seacoasts and to present solutions to these problems Content C case studies examining tourism uses and solutions to problems C a discussion of legal aspects and the need for regulations C a review of the global situation regarding tourism and coastal biodiversity C a focus on European marine and coastal ecosystems Other C Appendices include tourism statistics for the Caribbean (Appendix E) and several relevant documents
  31. 31. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 22 Reference Harris, R., and Leiper, N. (1995). Sustainable Tourism: An Australian Perspective. Newton, U.S.A.: Butterworth- Heinemann. Key Words ecotourism, sustainable development Purpose C to examine how tourism industry businesses and organizations are responding to the challenge of linking development, environment, and society to promote the goal of sustainable development C to provide examples of how selected tourism industry associations, government departments, and conservation bodies have facilitated this response Content C an overview of sustainable development within the tourism industry C a description of 19 case studies to detail how selected firms and organizations have responded to the challenge of sustainable tourism development C case studies were selected to represent either a natural attraction and management authority, organization, accommodation provider, or tour operator Other C a suggested reading list on sustainable development and tourism
  32. 32. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 23 Reference Holder, J.S. (1996). Maintaining competitiveness in a new world order: Regional solutions to Caribbean tourism sustainability problems. In L.C. Harrison and W. Husbands, Practicing Responsible Tourism: International Case Studies in Tourism Planning, Policy and Development (pp. 145-173). Toronto, Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Key Words carrying capacity, waste disposal, coastal pollution, Caribbean Purpose C to examine issues related to the sustainability of tourism in the Caribbean C to address sustainability in a regional framework Content C a description of the history of tourism in the Caribbean region C an outline of current issues and perspectives C a discussion of product quality, profitability, regional promotion, transportation, security and linkages Other
  33. 33. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 24 Reference Hunter, C. (1997). Sustainable tourism as an adaptive paradigm. Annals of Tourism Research 24(4), 850-867. Key Words tourism, sustainable, principles and practices Purpose C to show that the concept of sustainable tourism has evolved in isolation from that of sustainable development, resulting in the emergence of a simplistic and inflexible paradigm of sustainable tourism which fails to account for specific circumstances Content C a discussion of reconnecting the concerns of sustainable tourism with those of sustainable development C a review of the foundations of sustainable development and a discussion of the implications for the principles and practice of sustainable tourism Other
  34. 34. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 25 Reference Hunter, C. and Green, H. (1995). Tourism and the Environment. New York, NY: Routledge. Key Words tourism, environment, sustainability, management Purpose C to provide an analysis of the relationship between tourism development and environmental quality, with sustainable tourism development as the central theme C to review relevant tourism and environmental management literature and discussions held at international conferences Content C a review of the impacts of tourism on the quality of the natural, built, and cultural resources which support tourism C a discussion of sustainable development and the principles and implications of sustainable tourism development C an outline of appropriate policy directions for sustainable tourism development C a discussion of land use planning and Environmental Impact Assessment as instruments in putting the principles of sustainable tourism development into practice Other
  35. 35. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 26 Reference International Fund for Animal Welfare, Tethys Research Institute, and Europe Conservation (1996). Report of the Workshop on the Scientific Aspects of Managing Whale Watching in Montecastello di Vibio, Italy 30 March - 4th th April 1995. East Sussex, United Kingdom: International Fund for Animal Welfare. Key Words whale watching, management Purpose C to develop a framework to guide the process of defining new rules and modifying existing rules for whale watching C to provide a list of recommendations for further research Content C an outline of the variables associated with whale- watching impacts C a list of parameters that can be used to measure the impacts of whale watching C a description of short-term and long-term impacts of whale watching and possible causal links C rules and recommendations for whale watching Other C list of workshop participants
  36. 36. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 27 Reference Johnston, M. E. (1997). Polar tourism regulation strategies: Controlling visitors through codes of conduct and legislation. Polar Record 33(184), 13-20. Key Words tourism, visitor management, Arctic, Antarctic Purpose C to summarize several approaches to visitor regulation in polar regions in order to illustrate the ways in which concerns about tourist impacts are being addressed Content C a description of tourist behaviour regulation and general issues of strategy effectiveness C an examination of the approaches to visitor regulation used in the Antarctic and on Svalbard as examples that may be of use in the further development of strategies in the Arctic C a discussion of an evolving strategy for control in the Northwest Territories, Canada Other
  37. 37. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 28 Reference Lake Superior Bi-National Program (1995). Ecosystem Principles and Objectives: Indicators and Targets for Lake Superior. Discussion Paper. Key Words ecosystem, principles, indicators, Lake Superior Purpose C to expand the broad objectives of ‘A Vision for Lake Superior’ into more specific principles and objectives C to facilitate progress towards a set of information ecosystem indicators with quantitative targets C to provide guidance for land and water management in Lake Superior ecosystems Content C a description of the general objectives and targets of the Lake Superior Work Group C a detailed outline of indicators and targets to meet the objectives for terrestrial wildlife, habitat, human health, sustainability, social infrastructure, and cultural values Other C list of contributors
  38. 38. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 29 Reference Leon, C., and Gonzalez M. (1995). Managing the environment in tourism regions: The case of the Canary Islands. European Environment 5, 171-177. Key Words tourism, environment, management, Canary Islands Purpose C to focus on the main environmental problems in the Canary Islands resulting from the development process and to show how local authorities are dealing with these problems Content C a list of the local and regional sources of environmental problems with respect to social, economic, geographical, and ecological aspects C a discussion of the main environmental issues faced by managers within the Canary Islands (e.g., waste management, water resources, water management, water legislation, land resources, land regulation, tourism act, and energy and transportation demands) C an outline of the Canary Islands Environmental Action Plan Other
  39. 39. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 30 Reference Lindberg, K., and Hawkins D.E. (1993). Ecotourism: A Guide for Planners and Managers. North Bennington, Vermont: The Ecotourism Society. Key Words ecotourism, principles, planning, management Purpose C to fill the void in the practical aspects of ecotourism planning and management Content C an outline of challenges in the field of ecotourism and advice on addressing them, including the tools to look at demand, use and impact, income distribution, resource inventory, policy formulation, planning, management, training, and local participation Other C list and description of editors and contributors C country and site index
  40. 40. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 31 Reference Mason, P. (1994). A visitor code for the Arctic. Tourism Management 15(2), 93-97. Key Words tourism, codes of conduct, visitor management, Arctic Purpose C to investigate the use of visitor codes as a technique in tourism management Content C a discussion of the development of ecotourism in the context of the use of codes C a discussion of the nature and use of visitor codes in a number of developed and developing countries, including a critique of the use of the codes C a suggested draft of visitor codes for the Arctic that includes some ideas obtained from the author’s own experiences and from the World Wide Fund for Nature Arctic Programme Director Other
  41. 41. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 32 Reference Mason, P. (1997). Tourism codes of conduct in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic Region. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 5(2), 151- 165. Key Words tourism, codes of conduct, Arctic Purpose C to investigate the nature and use of tourism codes of conduct in the Arctic and sub-Arctic region within the context of the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy and the recently created Arctic Council C to consider tourism codes in relation to the World Wide Fund for Nature’s initiative to develop Arctic tourism guidelines Content C a discussion of the scale and nature of tourism activities in the region and the environmental and socio-cultural impacts of tourism C a review of Arctic and sub-Arctic tourism codes of conduct with particular reference to aims, authorship, audience, and content C a discussion of issues in relation to the use, limitations, and potential for codes of conduct; including suggestions on overcoming problems Other
  42. 42. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 33 Reference Mason, P., and Mowforth, M. (1996). Codes of conduct in tourism. Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research 2 (2), 151-166. Key Words tourism, codes of conduct Purpose C to outline the types of organizations which have produced codes of conduct for use in the tourist industry Content C a discussion of codes of conduct aimed at the tourist, industry, and hosts C a presentation of the essential elements of each type of code C a disacussion of issues C essential elements include: monitoring and evaluation of codes of conduct, use of codes as a form of marketing, the regulation or voluntary self-regulation of the use of codes, and the variability between codes and the resulting need for coordination Other
  43. 43. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 34 Reference Mihalic, T. (1996). Ecological labeling in tourism. In L. Briguglio, B. Archer, J. Jafari, and G. Wall, Sustainable Tourism in Islands and Small States: Issues and Policies (pp. 197-205). New York, U.S.A.: Pinter. Key Words tourism, marketing, label Purpose C to discuss labelling of the tourist product from the ecological view point Content C definitions of the nature of the tourist product and the meaning of ecological labels C a description of the distinction between labels used for industry and those used for tourism C a discussion of the importance of labelling to small- island states Other
  44. 44. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 35 Reference Nitsch, B., and Straaten J. (1995). Rural tourism development: Using a sustainable tourism development approach. In H. Coccossis, and P. Nijkamp, Sustainable Tourism Development (pp.169-185). Brookfield, U.S.A.: Avebury. Key Words tourism, case studies, sustainable tourism Purpose C to investigate the implementation of sustainable tourism in La Sierra in La Rioja in Spain, and in the Northern Pennines in the United Kingdom Content C a description of previous field studies undertaken in La Sierra and the Northern Pennines in 1992 and 1993 C an investigation of how effectively sustainable tourism could be realized in these regions, the initiatives of regional authorities, and the role of the European Union in these regions C a discussion of the obstacles and barriers for attaining sustainable tourism in these regions Other
  45. 45. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 36 Reference Orams, M. B. (1995). Towards a more desirable form of ecotourism. Tourism Management 16(1), 3-8. Key Words ecotourism, definition Purpose C to review definitions of the term ecotourism and present them as a continuum where, at one pole, all tourism can be viewed as ecotourism and, at the other, no tourism can be viewed as ecotourism Content C a discussion of the origins and definitions of the term ecotourism C an outline of a conceptual framework describing the transition and form that ecotourism should take C a description of indicators which can be used to measure progress towards a more desirable state of ecotourism Other
  46. 46. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 37 Reference Orams, M. B. (1996). Using interpretation to manage nature- based tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 4(2), 81-94. Key Words tourism, impact, management Purpose C to provide an argument for educating tourists as an effective means of reducing negative impacts on nature-based tourism Content C a discussion of the rapid growth of nature-based tourism and outline of concerns being expressed over the impacts of this industry C arguments for interpretation-based management strategies C an outline of several specific educational techniques C a list of questions for empirical research in the area of tourism management Other
  47. 47. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 38 Reference Parks Canada (1996). Best Practices for Parks Canada Trails: A Spectrum of Appropriate Trail Activities, Services, and Facilities. Canada: Parks Canada. Key Words parks, trails, best practice, guidelines Purpose C to provide a snapshot of appropriate visitor activities and services under the jurisdiction of Parks Canada that must be supported by trails and their associated facilities Content C an analysis of information on trail-related visitor activities, services, and facilities in National Parks, Historic Sites, and Canals C a description of guidelines for existing trail standards and for future trail installations and recapitalization of older trails C a presentation of a spectrum of best practice examples and standards that reflect harmony among protection of heritage values, public safety, visitor activity requirements, and aesthetics (such as scale, form, and texture) in ways that are appropriate to the setting Other
  48. 48. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 39 Reference Place, S.E. (1998). How sustainable is ecotourism in Costa Rica?. In C.M.Hall and A.A. Lew, Sustainable Tourism: A Geographical Perspective (pp. 107-118). New York, U.S.A.: Longman. Key Words ecotourism, parks, impacts, local people Purpose C to explore whether ecotourism is playing a role in economic development and providing benefits to local people Content C a description of ecotourism, park-based tourism and tourism generally in Costa Rica C a case study of the development of tourism in Tortuguero, on the Caribbean coast C an assessment of the sustainable tourism potential of Tortuguero Other
  49. 49. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 40 Reference Saleh, F., and Karwacki J. (1996). Revisiting the ecotourist: The case of Grasslands National Park. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 4(2), 61-80. Key Words ecotourism, profile, Grasslands National Park Purpose C to define the demographic, sociographic, and psychographic attributes of ecotourists, especially those who travel independently C to provide insight into travel motivations, preferences, and satisfaction pertaining to the ecotourist C to develop recommendations for ecotourism planners and managers Content C a review of recent literature on ecotourists C a summary of the results of two studies conducted in Grasslands National Park and comparison to existing knowledge on attributes of ecotourists C a discussion of the managerial implications that emerge from the two studies Other
  50. 50. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 41 Reference Sirakaya, E. (1997). Attitudinal compliance with ecotourism guidelines. Annals of Tourism Research 24(4), 919-950. Key Words ecotourism, guidelines Purpose C to examine the compliance attitudes of ecotourism operators with industry codes of conduct delineated in The Ecotourism Guidelines for Nature Based Tour Operators Content C a discussion of positive and negative influences of ecotourism C a discussion of the regulations, guidelines, and compliance of ecotourism operators including a summary of The Ecotourism Society’s Ecotourism Guidelines for nature tour operators C a description of compliance theory and the research methodology Other
  51. 51. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 42 Reference Sirakaya, E. And Muzaffer, U. (1997). Can sanctions and rewards explain conformance behaviour of tour operators with ecotourism guidelines? Journal of Sustainable Tourism 5(4), 322-11. Key Words ecotourism, guidelines, compliance Purpose C to explore the value of sanctions and rewards as potential predictors of compliance behaviour among ecotourism operators Content C a discussion The Ecotourism Society guidelines for nature based tour C a description of utility theory, rewards and sanctions and their application to ecotourism operators C a discussion of the implications of results for management and policy options Other
  52. 52. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 43 Reference Splettstoesser, J. and Folks, M. C. (1994). Environmental guidelines for tourism in Antarctica. Annals of Tourism Research 21(2), 231-244. Key Words tourism, impact, guidelines, Antarctica Purpose C to discuss the need for and the current environmental guidelines for tourism in Antarctica Content C a discussion of the history of tourism in Antarctica C a discussion of the need for tourism guidelines C an outline of guidelines for Antarctic Tour Operators, Antarctic Visitors, and Conservation Other
  53. 53. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 44 Reference Stabler, M. J., and Goodall, B. (1996). Environmental auditing in planning for sustainable island tourism. In L. Briguglio, B. Archer, J. Jafari, and G. Wall, Sustainable Tourism in Islands and Small States: Issues and Policies (pp. 170-196). New York, U.S.A.: Pinter. Key Words sustainable tourism, planning, case studies Purpose C to examine how sustainable tourism might contribute to the introduction of environmental auditing by the industry in small island destinations, including the procedures for its conduct and the subsequent monitoring of its effects Content C a discussion of the role of planning in pursuing sustainable development and tourism’s relationship to it C an outline of the tourism base and examination of environmental auditing within the context of small islands C examples to illustrate the current situation and the potential for implementing environmental auditing within existing planning structures C the identification of the organization and structure for developing auditing and the required private sector responses to ensure sustainable tourism development
  54. 54. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 45 Reference Sweeting, J. (n.d.). Marine Ecotourism Information Package. North Bennington, U.S.A.: The Ecotourism Society. Key Words ecotourism, marine, coral reefs Purpose C to present guidelines for responsible marine ecotourists Content C a description of coral reef and ecosystem destruction and the challenge facing marine ecotourism C an outline of general rules a responsible marine ecotouist should follow for wildlife viewing, recreational boating, and snorkeling/scuba diving C a description of how ecotourists can help ameliorate the problem of marine ecosystem degradation Other C list of marine organizations
  55. 55. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 46 Reference The Ecotourism Society (n.d.). A Collection of Ecotourism Guidelines. North Bennington, U.S.A.: The Ecotourism Society. Key Words ecotourism, travel ethics, code of conduct/ethics, principles and practices Purpose C to provide a collection of papers outlining general guidelines and ethics with respect to travelers, tour operators, wildlife watchers, and people participating in ecotourist activities Content C lists of codes of conduct and ethics for ecotourists C an outline of principles and practices of ecotourism C guidelines for viewing wildlife, with specific papers on birding and protecting manatees C guidelines for specific ecotourist activities (recreational boating, diving, plant collecting, hiking and camping) C case studies of guidelines and codes of conduct in Antarctica and Gwaii Haanas/South Moresby National Park Other
  56. 56. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 47 Reference The Ecotourism Society (n.d.). The Ecotourism Society Fact Sheet Collection. Vermont, U.S.A.: The Ecotourism Society: North Bennington. Key Words ecotourism, ecotourist profile Purpose C to provide general ecotourism information and increase the understanding of patterns of ecotourism Content C a fact sheet on the importance of ecotourism in the global market C a profile of the general ecotourist C an outline of criteria helpful in seeking a responsible ecotourism operator C a list of rules to follow when participating in marine ecotourism activities C an inventory of ecotourism or nature-based tourism courses offered by universities in the U.S.A. and a description of the educational format and focus of these courses Other
  57. 57. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 48 Reference Thomlinson, E., and Donald G. (1996). The question of scale in ecotourism: Case study of two small ecotour operators in the Mundo Maya region of Central America. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 4(4), 183-200. Key Words ecotourism, scale, case study, Central America Purpose C to address the issue of scale in ecotourism with specific reference to the costs and benefits of large versus small-scale development, tour groups, and tour operators Content C a case study of two small ecotourism businesses operating in the Mundo Maya region of Central America C a discussion of comparisons based on organization, tours offered, owners’ opinions, impacts, and issues pertaining to the Mundo Maya business environment C discussions of important policy, planning and marketing questions related to ecotourism and sustainable development in this destination, and on the general issue of scale Other
  58. 58. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 49 Reference Todd, S. E., and Williams P. W. (1996). From white to green: A proposed environmental management system framework for ski areas. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 4(3), 147-173. Key Words tourism, management, code of conduct, sustainable tourism Purpose C to describe the evolution of sustainable tourism from its concept to practice Content C a description of three phases to the evolution of sustainable tourism: development of principles, translation of principles into practice, and creation and implementation of environmental auditing or monitoring programmes C a discussion of the need for a systematic approach to managing the ski area industry in a sustainable fashion C a description of how managers may achieve an environmental management system C reports on the findings of a survey of Canadian and United States ski area managers concerning environmental management system activities in their operations Other
  59. 59. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 50 Reference United Nations Environment Programme (1995). Environmental Codes of Conduct for Tourism: Technical Report NE29. Paris, France: United Nations Environment Programme. Key Words tourism, codes of conduct Purpose C to make available to governments, industry, and other parties a summary of tourism codes, and to provide those who wish to create new codes some guidance as to how this is best done Content C a review of existing codes of conduct at the national and international levels which relate to the industry as a whole and to particular sectors of the industry C a review of codes related to tourists and to host populations C suggestions of the key areas to be covered in developing codes of conduct for the industry and examples of clauses from existing codes which cover these areas C examples of programmes and initiatives carried out by governments, industry associations, companies, and Non-Governmental Organizations in support of sustainable tourism practices Other C list of references, useful addresses, and abbreviations C appendix on the World Tourism Organization’s tourism bill of rights and tourist code
  60. 60. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 51 Reference Wahab, S. and Pigram, J.J. (1997). Tourism Development and Growth:The Challenges of Sustainability. London, England: Routledge. Key Words sustainable tourism Purpose C to examine the concept of sustainability as related to tourism Content C 16 chapters discussing sustainability and tourism C sections on trends in tourism and limits to growth; balancing growth with sustainability; opportunities and challenges; and perspectives on sustainable tourism Other
  61. 61. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 52 Reference Wilkinson, P.F. (1996). Graphical images of the Commonwealth Caribbean: The tourist area cycle of evolution. In L.C. Harrison and W. Husbands, Practicing Responsible Tourism: International Case Studies in Tourism Planning, Policy and Development (pp. 16-40). Toronto, Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Key Words cycle, destination, graphical images Purpose C to explore the usefulness of the cycle approach in understanding tourism patterns in the Commonwealth Caribbean C to use graphical images as illustration of the cycle concept Content C an outline of three models of tourist area cycle of evolution and a discussion of problems associated with these C a description of six case studies using data such visitor expenditures, stay over visitor numbers, total visitor arrivals and annual tourist nights C a discussion of the issues for destinations based on the data exploration Other
  62. 62. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 53 Reference Williams, P. W. (1992). Tourism and the environment: No place to hide. World Leisure and Recreation 34(2), 12-17. Key Words tourism, sustainable development Purpose C to outline some of the current environmental issues with an effect on the tourism industry and tourism’s role in these C to recommend policy actions for the tourism industry to move toward a strategy of sustainable development Content C a discussion of the major environmental problems of today (i.e., atmospheric pollution, water pollution, deforestation, wildlife depletion, and soil erosion) C a discussion of policy and principles of environmental planning and management for tourism development Other
  63. 63. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 54 Reference World Tourism Organization (1995). Strategy for survival: Agenda 21 for the travel and tourism industry. World Tourism Organization News 5, 9-12. Key Words tourism, sustainable development, principles, goals Purpose C to provide an in-depth look at travel and tourism’s new approach to implementing the environmental action plan of the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 (i.e. Agenda 21) Content C an outline of three basic approahces to developing sustainable tourism (introduction of new regulations, use of free-market mechanisms, and industry-led voluntary programmes) C an outline of 12 principles of sustainable development C a discussion of the nine priorities for governments, NTAs and trade associations to follow in drafting and implementing their sustainable tourism programme C a discussion of ten priority action areas for private enterprises in the travel and tourism industry Other C information on obtaining a copy of the 78 page booklet of Agenda 21 for the Travel & Tourism Industry
  64. 64. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 55 Reference Ziffer, K. A. (1989). Ecotourism: The Uneasy Alliance. Conservation International: Ernst & Young. Key Words ecotourism, policy, strategies Purpose C to provide background for an evaluation of ecotourism’s viability in promoting and financing conservation and economic development in less developed countries C to focus on the market for nature-based travel in the U.S. and the variables which determine the impact of travel on the destination Content C a definition of ecotourism C a description of markets for ecotourism C an outline of ecotourism market size and growth C a profile of ecotourists C a discussion of promoting and financing both conservation and economic development C a list of key success factors for an ecotourism program Other C bibliography
  65. 65. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 56 Reference Azkarate, T. (1995). One Europe Magazine: World Conference on Sustainable Tourism [WWW page]. URL http://www.informatic.rwth-aachen.de/AEGEE/articles/oe8/t- worldc.html Key Words sustainable tourism Purpose C to describe highlights from the First World Conference on Sustainable Tourism in Lanzarote Island Content C general facts on world tourism industry C a description of the main objectives of the conference (i.e., draw up bases for sustainable tourist development - with regard to natural resources, natural and cultural heritage and socio-economic development - and to promote the search for alternatives and new tourist products which respects the environment and cultural heritage) C a discussion of the charter, conclusions, and recommendations from the conference Other
  66. 66. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 57 Reference Conservation International (n.d.). Conservation International Field Reports: Ecotourism [WWW page]. URL http://www.conservation.org/web/fieldact/c- c_prog/Ecotouri.htm Key Words ecotourism, web site links Purpose C to promote ecotourism through education on conservation and sustainable development Content C discussions on ecotourism as a tool for conservation, history of Conservation International (CI), and CI’s commitment to ecotourism as a tool for ecosystem conservation C examples of CI involvement in world conservation projects (e.g., Guatemala, Brazil, Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea) C a list of web site links (e.g., ecotourism highlights) Other C link to Conservation International home page
  67. 67. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 58 Reference The Earth Pledge Foundation (n.d.). Sustainable Tourism: What is it? [WWW page]. URL http://www.earthpledge.org/about/tourism.html Key Words sustainable tourism, web site links Purpose C to promote sustainable tourism Content C a discussion of what sustainable tourism is C web site links to various sustainable tourism articles (e.g., Overview of sustainable tourism, Regional solutions to Caribbean tourism, Marketing sustainable tourism, etc.) Other C Earth Pledge Foundation discussion on books about sustainable tourism
  68. 68. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 59 Reference Educational Communications (n.d.). Project Ecotourism [HOME page]. URL http://home.earthlink.net/~dragonflight/ecotour.htm Key Words ecotourism, responsible travel Purpose C to increase awarness of Project Ecotourism, an organization that promotes ecotourism to conserve ecosystems and wildlife and to assist local communities through responsible travel that preserves cultures and natural environments Content C a definition of ecotourism and description of the organization’s goals and services C a description of ways to be responsible and ecological including a list of DOs and DON’Ts and questions for consumers to ask a tour company Other C link to the Educational Communications home page
  69. 69. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 60 Reference The Ecotourism Association of Australia (n.d.). The Ecotourism Association [LORENZ page]. URL http://lorenz.mur.csu.edu.au/ecotour/EAAHome.html Key Words ecotourism, codes of conduct, association, Australia, web site links Purpose C to provide an opportunity for members to get involved in all aspects of ecotourism and to develop an understanding of the ecotourism industry and of natural and cultural area management needs Content C a discussion of reasons why organizations should join the Ecotourism Association of Australia, the association’s aim, goals of the association, donations and sponsorships, and services provided by the association C web site links to newsletters, codes of practice, conferences and workshops, contacts, research trends and case studies, and others Other
  70. 70. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 61 Reference Great Outdoor Recreation Pages (n.d.). Ecotourism: Achieving a Balance [WWW page]. URL http://www.gorp.com/gorp/features/misc/ecotour.htm Key Words ecotourism, guidelines, web site links Purpose C to promote ecotourism and provide seven principles of ecotourism that illustrate the foundation required for ecotourism to reach its potential for travelers, indigenous peoples, local business, and the community Content C a description of the seven principles developed by Kirk Hoessle (i.e., remote and relatively unaltered natural environments, low impact on the natural environment, educational emphasis, benefit to the local economy and local inhabitants, development must willingly subject limitations, contribute to local non-profit efforts for environmental protection, and have spirit of appreciation, participation, and sensitivity) Other C web site links to other GORP pages (e.g., attractions, activities, locations, books & media, travel)
  71. 71. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 62 Reference The GreenMoney Journal (1995). Ecotravel: The Adventurous Journey Towards Sustainability [WWW page]. URL http://www.greenmoney.com/gmj/ecotrav1.htm. Key Words ecotourism, sustainable tourism, code of ethics, web site links Purpose C to provide a general information package on global ecotravel Content C general information on ecotourism, including definition, top destinations, monetary value, and potential impacts C short descriptions of ecotour operators, travel ideas, and travel resources C a description of The Ecotourism Society C a discussion of ethical travel including an ecotourism code of ethics for both ecotourists and ecotour operators Other C list of numerous links to other ecotravel publications and resources: recent articles, books and guidebooks, magazines and newsletters, research expeditions and volunteer opportunities, ecotravel companies, and ecotravel organizations
  72. 72. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 63 Reference Hill, C. (1998). Eco-Source: Information and Services Regarding Ecotourism and Sustainable Development [WWW page]. URL http://www.podi.com/ecosource/ Key Words ecotourism, sustainable development, web site links Purpose C to provide links to sustainable development and ecotourism for tourists, students, professionals, professors, researchers, and policy-makers Content C web site links to the global ecotourism community (e.g., destinations, ecotours and tour operators), research and resources (e.g., conservation, design guidelines, statistics, policy), environmental education (e.g., the ecotourism industry and marketplace, environmental issues, biodiversity loss, travelindustry), eco-related web sites (e.g., ecotourism, eco- publications, link list sites), job and career information, and others Other C web site statistics on the eco-source site
  73. 73. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 64 Reference Island Resources Foundations (1996). Guidance for Best Management Practices for Caribbean Coastal Tourism [WWW page]. URL http://www.irf.org/ir_bmp.html Key Words tourism, impacts, best practices, Caribbean, web site links Purpose C to promote action to minimize land-based sources of pollution caused by the tourism industry which negatively impact coastal and marine resources C to determine the level of coastal degradation, the best approaches and practices available, and effective public awareness and training activities Content C an overview of coastal degradation and a three- dimensional framework for analyzing the environmental effects of coastal tourism C a discussion of requirements for management practices to be addressed by the tourism industry C guidance for private and public planners, managers, and policy makers in the Caribbean for the adoption of best management practices by tourism facilities and support services C list of references Other C guide to using the web to find best management practices C web site links C contact address for Island Resources Foundation
  74. 74. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 65 Reference The Latin American Alliance (1997). Ecotourism Reference Links [WWW page]. URL http://www.latinsynergy.org/ecotourism2.htm Key Words ecotourism, web site links Purpose C to promote ecotourism and provide an extensive list of web site links on ecotourism in Latin America Content C an extensive list of web site documents on ecotourism articles and travel information sources in Latin America Other C web site link to The Latin American Alliance
  75. 75. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 66 Reference Lewis, S. (1996). Analysis of ISO 14000 Management Systems: A Community Environmental Perspective [WWW page]. URL http://www.envirolink.org/envlib/orgs/gnp/iso1.html Key Words environment, management, guidelines, web site links Purpose C to evaluate the significance of the ISO 14000 standard from a community environmental perspective Content C a discussion of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and criticisms of the programme C an overview of the ISO 14000 series of environmental management standards C a discussion of the potential of and limits to ISO 14000 as a stand-alone process, including the value of a management and auditing process, the shortcomings of a goal-less management process, lack of public accountability system, shortcomings of the certification process, and international preemption concerns C a discussion of regulatory system linkages Other C a description of the author C web site links
  76. 76. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 67 Reference Mader, R. (1998). Eco Travels in the Caribbean [WWW page]. URL http://www2.planeta.com/mader/ecotravel/carib/carib.html Key Words ecotourism, Caribbean, web site links Purpose C to promote ecotourism and review environmental issues and tourism in the Caribbean Content C an extensive list of web site links on ecotourism in the Caribbean including links to specific destinations (e.g., Aruba, Bahamas, Bermuda, Belize, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Tobago, and others) C a list of ecotourism resource links Other
  77. 77. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 68 Reference Mader, R. (1998). Sustainable Development and the Americas: Exploring Ecotourism [WWW page]. URL http://www.txinfinet.com/mader/ecotravel/etour.html Key Words ecotourism, sustainable development, Latin America, web site links Purpose C to provide specific links to ecotourism materials on the Eco Travel site and other internet resources of use to travelers, researchers, and entrepreneurs Content C a description of ecotourism and its definition C an extensive list of web site links to conferences and congresses, environmental travel contacts, ecotourism surveys, general background on what ecotourism is, problems with ecotourism, other academic work, etc. C a list of web site links to specific areas (e.g., Honduras, Costa Rica, Mexico, Ecuador) C a list of web site links to other ecotourism organizations Other C link to Eco Travels in Latin America web site (http://www.planeta.com/)
  78. 78. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 69 Reference National Audubon Society (1989). The National Audubon Society Travel Ethic for Environmentally Responsible Travel [WWW page]. URL http://www.ecotourism.org/textfiles/audubon.txt Key Words tourism, ethics, guidelines Purpose C to encourage all tour operators promoting exploration in wilderness areas to adopt appropriate guidelines Content C a general discussion of the potential and actual conflict between tourism development and the natural environment C a list of seven guidelines for tour operators to follow C a discussion of and examples for each guideline Other
  79. 79. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 70 Reference Norman, W. C., Frauman E., Toepper L., and Sirakaya E. (1997). Green Evaluation Program and Compliance of Nature Tour Operators [WWW page]. URL http://www.ecotourism.org/textfiles/sirak.txt Key Words ecotourism, guidelines, codes of conduct, monitoring Purpose C to develop and analyze a method for examining compliance behaviour of nature tour operators with The Ecotourism Society’s (TES) guidelines Content C a general discussion of ecotourism’s growth and development, with a focus on the formation of codes of conduct, standards, and guidelines to aid in the management of the ecotourism product C a description of TES ecotourism guidelines for nature operators C a description of an Ecuadorian ecotourism survey: the specific goals were to develop an evaluation process for the performance of nature tour operators using TES guidelines; to provide information enabling TES to market ecotourism guidelines; and, to implement the consumer evaluation program in Ecuador C in-depth results and discussion sections C outline of the future use of green evaluations and recommendations Other
  80. 80. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 71 Reference Office of National Tourism (1995). Best Practice Ecotourism: A Guide to Energy and Waste Minimisation [WWW page]. URL http://www.dist.gov.au/tourism/publications/BPE/Start.html Key Words ecotourism, best practice, guidelines, web site links Purpose C to provide a means of assessing energy consumption and waste generation and offer suggestions for improving energy and waste management for 25 specific activities Content C discussions of general issues of energy consumption and waste generation minimisation (e.g., current industry practices, towards best practices, assessing costs and benefits, principles) C a comprehensive list of guidelines for a variety of ecotourism activities and waste management C a list of links for assistance and advice Other
  81. 81. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 72 Reference Oostdam, B. L., & Billeter, P. A. (n.d.). Integrated Coastal Area Management and Public Perceptions in the Caribbean Islands [WWW page]. URL http://www.millersv.edu/~ccs/tcontents.html Key Words tourism, management, perceptions, Caribbean Islands, web site links Purpose C to describe public perceptions of the hazards of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, floods and landslides, as well as the human-caused problems of marine pollution, beach mining, coastal erosion and degradation of vulnerable coastal environments Content C a description of the integrated coastal area management in the Caribbean Islands C discussion of several major topics: natural hazards, anthropogenic problems, coastal resources, laws and regulations of Coastal Area Management (CAM), and CAM adjuncts Other C links and other information on separate study projects and conferences on the Caribbean Islands C links to additional tourism/ecotourism information
  82. 82. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 73 Reference Sierra Club (1993). Sierra Club Policy: Ecotourism [WWW page]. URL http://www.sierraclub.org/policy/722.html Key Words ecotourism, policy, principles, management Purpose C to provide principles for ecotourism planning and management which governmental agencies, planners, and environmental groups promoting or supporting tourism should follow Content C a description of 11 planning and management principles Other C link to Sierra Club home page
  83. 83. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 74 Reference Stringer, L. (1994). Tourism and Costa Rica: Vanguard or old guard? [Gopher page]. URL gopher://csf.colorado.edu/00/envir.../ecotourism-Costa- Rica.LStringer94 Key Words ecotourism, case study, principles, sustainable tourism Purpose C to present a critical analysis of ecotourism in Costa Rica Content C a general description of the problems of the conventional tourism in order to create a context by which to view ecotourism C a description of the ideal of ecotourism C an examination of some problems that confront ecotourism in the progress from ideal to reality C an analysis of the Costa Rican tourist industry toassess its implementation of the ideals of ecotourism into practice Other C listing of 10 principles for sustainable tourism
  84. 84. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 75 Reference The Ecotourism Society (1997). Ecotourism Explorer: A Site for Discovery of the Ecotourism Path for Researchers, Conservationists, and Business People [WWW page]. URL http://www.ecotourism.org/index.html Key Words ecotourism, web site links, The Ecotourism Society Purpose C to promote ecotourism by providing web site links and other information on ecotourism related issues Content C an extensive list of web site links to information about The Ecotourism Society (TES) and other ecotourism related documents (e.g., about TES, selecting eco- travel destinations, ecotourism research, TES book store, TES initiatives, training and education, events, and many others) Other
  85. 85. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 76 Reference Thefox’s Home Page (1998). Hanfox Hospitality Den Welcomes You to Our Sustainable Tourism Construction Zone [WWW page]. URL http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/2634/ Key Words sustainable tourism, web site links Purpose C to provide a list of web site links and other documents on sustainable tourism related literature Content C an extensive list of web site links to information on sustainable tourism around the world (e.g., definition of sustainable, code of ethics for tourists, charter for sustainable tourism, regional land use planning implementation documents, Canadian initiatives, and others) Other C links to web building sites
  86. 86. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 77 Reference Wallace, G. N. (n.d.). Toward a Principled Evaluation of Ecotourism Ventures [WWW page]. URL http://www.ecotourism.org/testfiles/wallacea.txt Key Words ecotourism, principles, indicators, evaluation Purpose C to discuss a systematic approach to evaluating ecotourism operations in a given locale Content C a general discussion of regulations, codes of conduct, guidelines, and principles of ecotourism C an outline of six principles of ecotourism and the associated indicators C a description of the methods used for studying registered ecotourism lodges in Amazonas Brazil and the ecotourism operations in Cuyabeno Wildlife Refuge C comments and suggestions on improving the systematic approach C list of references Other C a short description of George Wallace and contact addresses for comments on the evaluation process
  87. 87. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 78 Reference World Travel and Tourism Council. (n.d.) ECoNETT [WWW page]. URL http://www.wttc.org Key Words responsible travel, ecotourism, principles, practice Purpose C to provide coverage of sustainable tourism initiatives Content C library contains 850 files C measures/initiatives contains sections on codes of conduct, awards and eco labels, and good practice Other
  88. 88. Resource Guide in Extraordinary Experiences: Understanding and Managing the Consumer Experience in Hospitality, Leisure, Events, Sport and Tourism Introduction One thing that the Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism sectors have in common is that they all exist to provide consumers with experiences. Figure 1 shows a range of examples of “experience” products offered, all of which aim to provide something extraordinary, something which will stand out from everyday life and from all the competition for people's spare time and disposable income. Extraordinary Experiences Hotels -boutique -designer Food -gastronomy -service and presentation -local/organic distinctiveness -branding & marketing Retail -retail theatre -leisure shopping -environments Attractions -theme parks -’experiences’ -interpretation & staging Catering -themed bars and restaurants -chameleon bars -design and ambience MICE -unusual venues for confex -incentive travel Tourism -adventure -wildlife -cultural -destination brands Corporate hospitality sponsorship events brand experiences Sports -spectators & stadia -sports tourism -participation -extreme sports Events -special/hallmark -festivals Travel -cruise ships -heritage trains -business class Figure 1 This guide aims to provide teachers and students with key readings and concepts that will help them analyse these experiences and evaluate the management activities involved in designing and staging them. It brings together two strands of literature about experiences, one from management and the other from the consumer perspective. Experience Management It is the growth of these sectors, and the examples of high-profile companies like Disney and Starbucks, which have led to the concept of the experience economy and experience management. The latter is seen as an answer to the problems of how to remain competitive in markets where global competition and internet technology have turned products and services into commodities, bought and sold on price alone. Pine and Gilmore (1999) say that sustainable competitive advantage can only be gained by giving the customer a unique and memorable experience. This is done Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, January 2007 1
  89. 89. through treating 'work as theatre and every business a stage'. As this guide will show, this draws on Schechner's (1988) Performance Theory and the service-as- drama metaphor of Grove, Fisk and Bitner (1993). Their approach has led to a growing number of management books on how to make the customer experience the centre of the organisation's strategic planning, marketing and operations. (Schmitt 1999, Shaw 2005, Smith and Wheeler 2002). The growth of Experiential Marketing is also significant for our sectors through the increased use of corporate hospitality and events, sports and arts sponsorship to associate brands with memorable experiences involving the senses and the emotions.ne and Gilmore (1999) say that sustainable competitive advantage can only be gained by giving the customer a unique and memorable experience. As an example of the commercial adoption of the concept, Customer Experience Management (CEM) software systems are being developed to monitor every contact a person has with the company. As a result, the term CEM is in danger of being reduced from a potentially revolutionary business philosophy to the narrow sense of a tool for call-centre management, (just as Customer Relationship Management is often seen simply as a form of database marketing). Later work (Holbrook, 2001; Nijs, 2003) Prahalad and Ramaswamy, 2004) has criticised the emphasis on staging performances as superficial and product-centred. These writers call for a more strategic approach based on shared values, allowing the customer to create their own experiences in a search for personal growth. In this way the management strand is converging with the consumer strand. Consumer Experience On the consumer side, a focus on experiences has arisen in response to the limitations of seeing consumer behaviour purely in terms of cognitive information processing. As Holbrook and Hirschmann (1982) said, experiences are subjective, emotional states laden with symbolic meaning. Consumption is hedonic not utilitarian, particularly in leisure situations. A distinction is often made between everyday and extraordinary experiences (Abrahams 1986). Many of the products in Figure 1 involve skilled consumption (Scitovsky 1976), physical or intellectual challenge and the sharing of experience with a community of like-minded people (Beard and Ragheb 1983). The desired effect is the state of absorption in the activity (Csikszentmihalyi 1976) calls Flow. Motivation is a complex mixture of escapism, socialisation and self-actualisation (Ryan 1997). These insights can be used to explain the growing interest in participative and extreme sports (Arnould and Price 1993), and in new types of cultural, adventure, sports and creative tourism (Richards and Wilson 2006) Research implications Where the managerial and consumer perspectives converge is in their view of consumer satisfaction as something that emerges over the course of the whole experience, rather than as a response to individual attributes of the service. This requires new forms of research such as Experience Mapping (Schmitt, 2003) or theatrical scripting (Harris et al, 2003) of the critical moments of truth (Carlzon 1987). Ethnographic and narrative research (e.g. Arnould and Price, 1993) are more likely to provide insights than quantitative methods. Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, January 2007 2
  90. 90. The common goal Both strands of literature also come together in seeing the consumer as the product (Pine and Gilmore) but also the co-creator of the product (Prahalad and Ramaswamy). The goal of extraordinary experiences is personal growth and fulfilment (Arnould and Price) leading to transformation (Pine and Gilmore). It is by providing a stage (Pine and Gilmore) or space (Prahalad) for this to happen that a company can attract and retain its customers. Annotated Bibliography Experience Management: The Evolution of the Concept Toffler, A (1970) Future Shock. Bantam Books Toffler predicted that, as one consequence of the accelerating pace of technological change, people would soon be collecting experiences as consciously and passionately as they once collected things. This seems to have been borne out by the rapid growth since then of the leisure and tourism industries. Schechner, R. (1988) Performance Theory. Routledge Schechner combines anthropological and literary analysis of Greek drama and tribal rituals to identify the key elements of all enactments - drama, scripts, theatre and performance. The drama is the domain of the author, whose idea is then realised through scripts, directions, sets and actors to become the performance experienced by the audience. He applies this to any activity where one group of people perform in front of another - rituals, games, sport, music and dance - and others (e.g. Pine and Gilmore 1999) have extended it to analyse encounters between service staff and customers. Carlzon, J (1987) Moments of Truth Harper Collins An influential management book based on Carlzon's transformation of Scandinavian Airline Systems (SAS), through improved staff/customer interaction. The Moments of Truth are the points in the process of booking, checking-in and travelling where customers come into contact with employees. To manage these contacts will lead to an improved customer experience. Carlzon's approach focuses on the Human Factor, training staff to be aware of their own emotions and how they can influence the way customers respond to them. Grove, S.J. Fisk, R.P., Bitner, M.J. (1992) Dramatising the service experience: a managerial approach in Advances in Services Marketing and Management (Swartz, T. A. Brown, S. and Bowen, D. eds) Greenwich, CT. JAI Press Inc. [Reprinted in Gabott, M and Hogg, G. (1997) Contemporary Services Marketing: a reader. Dryden Press] They apply 'the drama metaphor' to analyse services management as an encounter between actors and audience in a setting. They see this as an extension of Booms and Bitner's extra 3 Ps of services marketing - people, processes and physical evidence. The practical implications of the metaphor are an increased attention to the impact of staff performance, settings and scripts on consumer experience and satisfaction. Pine, B.J. and Gilmore, J.H. (1999) The experience economy: work is theatre and every business is a stage. Boston Mass: HBS Press. With globalisation and the internet turning service markets such as travel, books and music into commodity markets, the fastest growth in prices and share of GDP has Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, January 2007 3
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