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Research Methodology Lecture Presentations

Research Methodology Lecture Presentations

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  • 1. RES 60102 Research Methodology
  • 2. 189 Here you can find relevant indicators about articles published in several prominent scientific journals in the field of tourism according to the following main topics: tourism and theory, research and education; tourism and economy; tourism market; tourism and society; tourism and space; tourism policy and organization; statistics and forecasting in tourism; types of tourism. ANATOLIA (ISSN 1300-4220) ACTA TURISTICA (ISSN 0353-4316) ANNALS OF TOURISM RESEARCH (ISSN 0160-7383) CHINA TOURISM RESEARCH (ISSN 1812-688X) EVENT MANAGEMENT (ISSN 1525-9951) ESTUDIOS Y PERSPECTIVAS EN TURISMO (ISSN 0327-5841) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY & TOURISM ADMINISTRATION* (ISSN 1525-6480) JAHRBUCH FÜR FREMDENVERKEHR (ISSN 0075-2649) JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY & LEISURE MARKETING* (ISSN 1050-7051) JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY, LEISURE, SPORT AND TOURISM EDUCATION (ISSN 1473-8376) JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL HOSPITALITY, LEISURE & TOURISM MANAGEMENT* (ISSN 1092-3128) JOURNAL OF QUALITY ASSURANCE IN TOURISM & HOSPITALITY* (ISSN 1528-008X) JOURNAL OF TRAVEL RESEARCH (ISSN 0047-2875) JOURNAL OF TRAVEL & TOURISM MARKETING* (ISSN 1054-8408) JOURNAL OF TEACHING IN TRAVEL & TOURISM* (ISSN 1531-3220) PROBLEMS OF TOURISM (ISSN 1230-1035) TOURISM ANALYSIS (ISSN 1083-5423) TOURISM ECONOMICS (ISSN 1354-8166) TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT (ISSN 1330-7533) TOURISMUS JAHRBUCH (ISSN 1434-5676) TOURISM MANAGEMENT (ISSN 0261-5177) TOURISM REVIEW (ISSN 1332-7461) TOURISM RECREATION RESEARCH (ISSN 0250-8281) TRAVEL AND TOURISM ANALYST (ISSN 0959-6186) TOURISM : visâo e açâo (ISSN 1415-6393) *copies are available from: HAWORTH DOCUMENT DELIVERY CENTER; The Haworth Press, Inc.: 10 Alice Street; Binghamton, NY 13904; USA Bibliographic description is given in this form: * detailed descriptions Title / Author(s) // Journal’s name. Volume (year), No., pages from-till Tourism - selected bibliography B i b l i o g r a p h yB i b l i o g r a p h yB i b l i o g r a p h yB i b l i o g r a p h yB i b l i o g r a p h y TOURISM AND THEORY, RESEARCH AND EDUCATION *employees*internalorganizationofcateringenterprise*Austra- lia and Oceania An agency theory perspective on the owner/manager relationship in tourism-based condominiums / Chris Guilding... [et al.] // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 409-420 * guides, interpreters * East Asia and the Pacific Human resources development in China / Abby Liu, Ge- offrey Wall // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Scie- nces Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 689-710 TOURISM AND ECONOMY * cruising * catering - nonaccommodation facilities The McDonaldization thesis and cruise tourism / Adam Weaver // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 2, 346-366 * cruising * perceptions * satisfaction The role of affective factors on perceived cruise vaca- tion value / Teoman Duman, Anna S. Mattila // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 311-323 * efficiency of catering enterprise * hotel industry Measuring efficiency in the hotel sector / Carlos Pestana Barros // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 2, 456-477 * employees Investigating structural relations affecting the effe- ctiveness of service management / Inwon Kang... [et al.] // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 301-310 * management of catering enterprise Knowledge management and tourism / Chris Cooper // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 47-64 * tourism and regional development * state and tourism - general and implementation * sustainable tourism Collaborative policymaking : local sustainable projects / Jon Vernon... [et al.] // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 2, 325-345
  • 3. 190 *tourismandregionaldevelopment*sustainabletourism*South Africa Enclave tourism and its socio-economic impacts in the Okavango Delta, Botswana / Joseph E. Mbaiwa // Touri- sm management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 157-172 * tourism and regional development * tourism and culture, arts * host population attitudes Heritage, local communities and economic develop- ment / Mark P. Hampton // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 735-759 * tourism and social aspects Tourism and amenity migration : a longitudinal analy- sis / Walter F. Kuentzel, Varna Mukundan Ramaswamy // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 2, 419-438 * tourism satellite account (TSA) * East Africa and Indian Ocean islands Tourism satellite accounts : implementation in Tanza- nia / Amit Sharma, Michael D. Olsen // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 2, 367-385 TOURISM MARKET * consumer behaviour * tourism destination - diverse aspects Destination appraisal : an analysis of critical incidents / Mark P. Pritchard, Mark E. Havitz // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 25-46 * consumer safety and security Risk and responsibility in tourism: promoting sun- safety / Sue Peattie, Philip Clarke, Ken Peattie // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 399-408 * marketing in tourism - instruments * tourist supply - general and characteristics * sustainable tourism Eco-resorts vs. mainstream accommodation providers: an investigation of the viability of benchmarking envi- ronmental performance/ Jan Warnken, Melanie Bradley, Chris Guilding // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 367-379 * tourism destination - diverse aspects Destination stakeholders : exploring identity and salience / Lorn R. Sheehan, J. R. Brent Ritchie // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 711-734 * tourist demand - general and characteristics * factors of tourist demand Factors affecting bilateral tourism flows / Bruce Pride- aux // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Jour- nal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 780-801 Factors affecting bilateral tourism flows / Bruce Pride- aux // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Jour- nal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 780-801 * tourist demand - general and characteristics * tourism statistics - theory and methodological problems * world Modelling multivariate international tourism demand and volatility / Felix Chan, Christine Lim, Michael Mc- Aleer // Tourism management : research - policies - prac- tice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 459-471 * tourist expenditure - general and characteristics * outbound tourism * United Kingdom Interventions on UK earnings and expenditures overse- as / John Coshall // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 592-609 TOURISM AND SOCIETY * decisions * market research A grounded typology of vacation decision-making / Alain Decrop, Dirk Snelders // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 121- 132 * image * mega-events * East Asia and the Pacific Change of images of South Korea among foreign tou- rists after the 2002 FIFA World Cup / Samuel Seongseop Kim, Alastair M. Morrsion // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 233- 247 * motivations * tourist demand - general and characteristics * East Asia and the Pacific Marketingimplicationsarisingfromaacomparativestudy of international pleasure tourist motivations and other travel-relatedcharacteristicsofvisitorstoKorea/Samuel Seongseop Kim, Bruce Prideaux // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 347-357 * psychology of tourism * surveys The managementof emotion in collaborative tourism research settings / Lisa Beesley // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 261-275 * sociology of tourism Sociological impressionism in a hospitality context / Paul A. Lynch // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 527-548
  • 4. 191 * tourism and philosophy Reconceptualizing object authenticity / Yvette Reisin- ger, Carol J. Steiner // Annals of Tourism Research : a So- cial Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 65-86 * tourism and social aspects * sociology of tourism * volunteer tourism Social change, discourse and volunteer tourism / Nancy Gard McGehee, Carla Almeida Santos // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 760-779 TOURISM AND SPACE * climate * recreation Weather, climate and tourism : a geographical perspec- tive/BelenGomezMartin//AnnalsofTourismResearch:a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 571-591 * historic parks, gardens * United Kingdom Managing gardens for visitors in Great Britain: a story of continuity and change / Joanne Connell // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 185-201 * host population * East Asia and the Pacific Community decisionmaking : participation in develop- ment / WenJun Li // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 132-143 * national parks and specific categories of protection * destination marketing * United Kingdom Relationships, networks and the learning regions: case evidence from the Peak District National Park / Gunjan Saxena // Tourism management : research - policies - pra- ctice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 277-289 * national parks and specific categories of protection * satisfac- tion* East Asia and the Pacific The relationship among tourists’ involvement, place attachment and interpretation satisfaction in Taiwan’s national parks / Shiuh-Nan Hwang, Chuan Lee, Huei-Ju Chen // Tourism management : research - policies - practi- ce. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 143-156 * physical (regional) planning - examples * leisure time * East Asia and the Pacific Spatial modeling : suburban leisure in Shanghai / Bihu Wu, Liping A. Cai // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 179-198 * social environment and pollution (impacts) * urban tourism * United Kingdom The local impacts of tourism : a case study of Bath, UK / A. J. Haley, Tim Snaith, Graham Miller // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 647-668 * specific attractions * North America Beer tourism in Canada along the Waterloo-Wellington Ale Trail / Ryan Plummer... [et al.] // Tourism manage- ment : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 447-458 TOURISM POLICY AND ORGANIZATION * other methods * cruising A dynamic game model of strategic capacity invest- ment in the cruise line industry / Byung-Wook Wie // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 203-217 * sojourn taxes * elasticity of tourist demand * Spain The short-term price effect of a tourist tay through a dynamic demand model. The case of the Balearic Islands / Eugeni Aguilo, Antoni Riera, Jaume Rossello // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 359-365 * state and tourism - general and implementation * Australia and Oceania Tourism policy in the making : an Australian network study / Christof Pforr // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 87-108 * taxation * East Africa and Indian Ocean islands Economics of tourism taxation : evidence from Mauri- tius / Nishaal Gooroochurn, M. Thea Sinclair // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 2, 478-498 STATISTICS AND FORECASTING IN TOURISM *socialandeconomicalplanningandforecasting,trends-general * employees Tourism and glocalization : “local” tour guiding / Noel B. Salazar // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 628-646
  • 5. 192 * tourism and informatics - other * surveys * Austria Determinants of response to customer e-mail enquiries to hotels: evidence from Austria / Kurt Matzler... [et al.] // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 249-259 TYPES OF TOURISM * adventure tourism * consumer safety and security * United Kingdom Scoping the nature and extent of adventure tourism operations in Scotland: how safe are they? / Stephen J. Page, Tim A. Bentley, Linda Walker // Tourism manage- ment : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 381-397 * adventure tourism * terrorism * South and Central Asia Tourism, terrorism and turmoil in Nepal / Keshav Bhat- tarai, Dennis Conway, Nanda Shrestha // Annals of Tou- rism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 669-688 * heritage tourism * host population attitudes * sustainable tourism * Central America and the Caribbean Hospitality and reciprocity : working tourists in Do- minica / Daniel Heuman // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 2, 407-418 * heritage tourism * image * Eastern Europe * Central Europe Cultural tourism in Central and Eastern Europe: the views of ‘induced image formation agents’ / Howard Hughes, Danielle Allen // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 173-183 * heritage tourism * perceptions * the Netherlands Heritage management : motivations and ecpectations / Yaniv Poria, Arie Reichel, Avital Biran // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 162-178 * heritage tourism * tourism and culture, arts * North America Coconstructing heritage at the Gettysburg storyscape / Athinodoros Chronis // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 2, 386-406 * heritage tourism * urban tourism * North America Streetscape improvements in an historic tourist city a second visit to King Street, Charleston, South Carolina / Stephen W. Litvin // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 421-429 * mass tourism * summer-holiday tourism * sustainable tourism The persistence of the sun and sand tourism model / Eugeni Aguiló, Joaquín Alegre, Maria Sard // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 219-231 * mega-events * sports * Australia and Oceania Event business leveraging : the Sydney 2000 Olimpic Games / Danny O’Brien // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 240-161 * mountain tourism * destination marketing * North America The responsible marketing of tourism: the case of Cana- dian Mountain Holidays / Simon Hudson, Graham A. Miller // Tourism management : research - policies - prac- tice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 2, 133-142 * rural tourism * market research * United Kingdom A benefit segmentation of tourists in rural areas: a Scot- tish perspective / Isabelle Frochot // Tourism mana- gement : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 335-346 * senior citizens’ tourism * tourism destination - diverse aspects * tourism publicity and information - forms and instruments Destination advertising : age and format effects on memory / Kelly J. Mackay, Malcolm C. Smith // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 7-24 * sustainable tourism * carrying capacity Development of a tourism sustainability assessment procedure: a conceptual approach / Tae Gyou Ko // Tou- rism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 431-445 * sustainable tourism * social costs * West and Central Africa with islands Community-based ecotourism : the significance of soci- al capital / Samantha Jones // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 2, 303-324 * sustainable tourism * tourism and social aspects * Central America and the Caribbean Social adaptation : ecotourism in the Lacandon Forest / Rosa E. Hernandez Cruz... [et al.] // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 610-627 * sustainable tourism* tourism and social aspects* tourism and culture, arts Conceptualizing yield : sustainable tourism mana- gement / Jeremy Northcote, Jim Macbeth // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 199-220 * sustainable tourism Comprehensive and minimalist dimensions of eco- tourism / David B. Weaver // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 2, 439-455
  • 6. 193 * tourism for the handicapped Personal and societal attitueds to disability / Pheroza Daruwalla, Simon Darcy // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 32 (2005), No. 3, 549-570 *urbantourism*touristexpenditure-generalandcharacteristics* East Asia and the Pacific Preferences and trip expenditures - a conjoint analysis of visitors to Seoul, Korea / Yong Kun Suh, Leo McAvoy // Tourism management : research - policies - practice. Vol. 26 (2005), No. 3, 325-333 * youth tourism* East Asia and the Pacific Backpacking Southeast Asia : strategies of “looking local” / Hamzah Muzaini // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 144-161 * youth tourism* perceptions The mutual gaze / Darya Maoz // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 221-239 * youth tourism* tourism and culture, arts A postcolonial analysis of backpacking / Peggy Teo, Sandra Leong // Annals of Tourism Research : a Social Sciences Journal. Vol. 33 (2006), No. 1, 109-131 T. Hitrec, K. Tokić T. Hitrec, K. Tokić
  • 7. ECOTOURISM AND SUSTAINABLE TOURISM GUIDELINES AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Written by Dave Twynam, Margaret Johnston, Bob Payne, and Steve Kingston of Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada Funded by Royal Caribbean International and Celebrity Cruises’ Ocean Fund Prepared for The Ecotourism Society, Marine Ecotourism Guidelines Project © 1998 PO Box 755 North Bennington, VT USA Tel: 802-447-2121, Fax: 802-447-2122, Email:; URL:
  • 8. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography i Introduction This annotated bibliography contains information about published literature and other sources with relevance to Caribbean ecotourism and sustainable tourism guidelines. The general theme of the bibliography is the management of tourism through sustainable tourism frameworks with a focus on references applicable to the Caribbean guidelines project coordinated by The Ecotourism Society and funded by Ocean Fund in 1998. The practical element of sustainable tourism, which involves moving from theoretical constructs to application in particular situations, has spurred a number of initiatives to define, to encourage and to monitor sustainability. These approaches to application can be divided into three groups: principle-based, managerial and scientific. Principle-based approaches in sustainable tourism/ecotourism require all activities, regardless of their scale, to respect the principles and to follow guidelines or codes of conduct where they exist. The Charter on Sustainable Tourism is an example of this kind of approach. The bibliography identifies several relevant examples and also collections which contain examples of environmental principles, guidelines and codes of conduct. While principles are the foundational statements of belief about what tourism should be, guidelines indicate expectations about behaviour and codes of conduct set out specific actions that should be taken to comply with the principles. Given that The Ecotourism Society intends to develop a set of guidelines for marine ecotourism in the Caribbean, with potential for wider applications, this bibliography highlights the principle-based approach. Managerial initiatives comprise those that focus upon standards of practice which, if followed, will assure achievement of sustainable tourism/ecotourism goals. The focal point of all managerial initiatives is the individual organization which is expected to manage its environmental impact throughout all of its activities. Examples discussed in the bibliography
  • 9. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography ii include industry standards, environmental audits and “best practices” management. The scientific perspective recognizes that if sustainability is to be a policy or legislative goal, it will require not only a definition, but also an understanding of cause and effect relationships in ecosystems. This category is covered least in this bibliography and appears in references to sustainability indicators. Also included are other items of relevance generally to questions about controlling environmental and social costs of tourism, and environmental management in the Caribbean. While most of the sources cited have been published in traditional formats, the bibliography also includes several Web sites. The authors wish to thank Steve Kingston for his assistance in compiling records, and Elizabeth Halpenny of The Ecotourism Society and Peter Mason of Massey University, New Zealand for their careful reviews of the document. Also Royal Caribbean International and Celebrity Cruises should be acknowledged for their financial sponsorship of this project via Ocean Fund.
  • 10. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 1 Reference Anderson, E. M. (1994). Towards Self-regulation for Sustainable Tourism. Proceedings from the Ecodollars Management Industry. Association of Australia, Queensland, 1994. Key Words tourism, sustainable, regulation, code of practice Purpose C to discuss the role of the tourism industry in providing environmental protection through a regulatory practice shared between industry and government Content C a list of the Principles of Environmental Management published by the Business Council of Australia C a discussion of the systematic approach to environmental management, with the major focus on best practice environmental management, specification for environmental management systems, and accredited licensee C a discussion of the challenge this presents for the tourism industry Other
  • 11. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 2 Reference Beck, P. J. (1990). Regulating one of the last tourism frontiers: Antarctica. Applied Geography 10, 343-356. Key Words tourism, regulation, Antarctica Purpose C to provide an outline of the current regulations for and management of tourism and the debates over approaches to future tourism guidelines in Antarctica Content C a discussion of the current Antarctic regulations and guidelines for tourist activities C an outline of the weaknesses of the existing code of behaviour C a discussion of the respective merits of either the adoption of more comprehensive national legislation or the introduction of an international Antarctic tourism regime Other
  • 12. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 3 Reference Boo, E. (1994). The Ecotourism Boom: Planning for Development and Management. Wildlands and Human Needs Technical Paper Series (Paper #2). Washington D.C., U.S.A.: World Wildlife Fund. Key Words ecotourism, guidelines, management Purpose C to review general issues and components of ecotourism C to create an ecotourism strategy for protected areas to better manage tourists Content C a review of ecotourism to date C a description of potential benefits and costs of ecotourism C an outline of the role of conservationists in ecotourism C a description of guidelines to assist park managers develop an ecotourism strategy Other
  • 13. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 4 Reference Borja, J.F.C. and Sanchez, M.M. (1993). Geoecodynamic assessment to improve the landscape tourist resources in Cancun, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. In P.P. Wong, Tourism vs Environment: The Case for Coastal Areas (pp. 55-65). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Key Words coastal zone, planning Purpose C to examine the coastal environment of Cancun in order to present opportunities and barriers for tourism planning Content C a description of the development of tourism and the regional setting of Cancun C an examination of the features of the coastal environment C a discussion of the proposed master plan and policies to protect the environment from tourism Other
  • 14. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 5 Reference Bottrill, C. G., and Pearce D. G. (1995). Ecotourism: Towards a key elements approach to operationalising the concept. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 3(1), 45-54. Key Words ecotourism Purpose C to operationalize the concept of ecotourism Content C a classification based on a set of measurable key elements covering the participant, operator, and resource management perspectives C a description of the survey of 22 nature-based tourism operators in British Columbia C the results and highlights from the study (eg. only five of the 22 ventures surveyed were classified as providing ecotourism; the majority of ventures were excluded based on a protected area criterion) Other
  • 15. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 6 Reference Brandon, K., and Margoluis R. (1996). Structuring ecotourism success: Framework for analysis. Plenary paper presented at “The Ecotourism Equation: Measuring the Impacts” International Society of Tropical Foresters, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, April 12-14, 1996. Key Words ecotourism, conservation, benefits Purpose C to argue that the distinguishing feature of ecotourism should be that it benefits biodiversity conservation Content C an outline of five benefits to conservation which should be evident in any tourism activity which claims to be ecotourism C an outline of steps which need to be undertaken during project design which help identify links between project design and project evaluation Other
  • 16. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 7 Reference Briassoulis, H. (1995). The environmental internalities of tourism: Theoretical analysis and policy implications. In H. Coccossis, and P. Nijkamp, Sustainable Tourism Development (pp.25-39). Brookfield, U.S.A.: Avebury. Key Words tourism policy, sustainable tourism Purpose C to conceptualize the issue of tourism’s internalities C to offer a theoretical analysis of the tourism- environment relationship C to suggest appropriate planning and policy approaches to achieve sustainable tourism development Content C a discussion of tourism’s features and its differences from other economic sectors C an analysis of the tourism-environment relationship and clarification of the distinction between the environmental externalities and internalities of tourism C an outline of public and private sector policies needed for effective tourism planning and management C a discussion of future research directions Other
  • 17. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 8 Reference Buhalis, D., and Fletcher J. (1995). Environmental impacts on tourist destinations: An economic analysis. In H. Coccossis, and P. Nijkamp, Sustainable Tourism Development (pp.3-24). Brookfield, U.S.A.: Avebury. Key Words tourism, impacts, sustainable development Purpose C to argue that environmental impacts of tourism can be generated within sectors directly or indirectly related to the tourism industry C to assess the environmental impacts of tourism with an input-output model Content C a discussion of the relationship between tourism and the environment C an illustration of the major factors which affect the environmental assets at a destination level, namely local people, tourists, local enterprises, tour operators, and national tourist organizations C an outline of the major economic factors which influence the environment in the tourism destination C an outline of some of the major tourism trends and strategies worldwide Other
  • 18. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 9 Reference Cater, E., and Lowman, G. (1994). Ecotourism: A Sustainable Option? Toronto, Canada: John Wiley & Sons. Key Words ecotourism, sustainable development Purpose C provide a compilation of papers mainly from the proceedings of a Royal Geographical Society conference on ecotourism Content C definitions of ecotourism and sustainability C a description of the four possible outcomes (win-win, win-lose, lose-win, and lose-lose) between environmental and developmental interests C several papers on the state of ecotourism in the world C a paper on environmentally responsible marketing of tourism C several papers on ecotourism in various destinations around the world, including the Caribbean basin (chapter 10) Other C description of contributors
  • 19. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 10 Reference Conlin, M.V. (1996). Revitalizing Bermuda: Tourism policy planning in a mature island destination. In L.C. Harrison and W. Husbands, Practicing Responsible Tourism: International Case Studies in Tourism Planning, Policy and Development (pp. 80-102). Toronto, Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Key Words planning, policy, tourism growth, Bermuda Purpose C to examine planning and policy issues related to small island destinations Content C a discussion of a variety of planning theories and C a history of tourism development and policy in Bermuda, including the work of the Tourism Planning Committee C a discussion of future growth strategies and the potential for inclusive community planning Other
  • 20. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 11 Reference Consulting and Audit Canada (1996). What Tourism Managers Need to Know: A Practical Guide to the Development and Use of Iindicators of Sustainable Tourism. Madrid, Spain: World Tourism Organization. Key Words tourism, indicators, sustainable tourism Purpose C to facilitate the development of practical indicators for the sustainable management of tourist destinations C to guide managers and administrators in the use of indicators in decisions regarding tourism and the environment Content C a description of core indicators of sustainable tourism (site protection, stress, use intensity, social impact, development control, waste management, planning process, critical ecosystems, consumer satisfaction, local satisfaction, tourism contribution to local economy, carrying capacity, site stress, and attractivity) C a short description of supplementary of destination- specific indicators, including ecosystem-specific indicators and site-specific management indicators Other C supplementary indicators of sustainable tourism C summaries of pilot studies C key barriers to sustainable tourism C glossary of indicator types
  • 21. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 12 Reference D’Amore, L. J. (1993). A code of ethics and guidelines for socially and environmentally responsible tourism. Journal of Travel Research 31,64-66. Key Words ecotourism, code of ethics Purpose C to describe efforts at the global scale, and particularly in Canada, to develop guidelines and codes of ethics to shape ecotourism Content C general data on global environmental changes C a description of responses of the world tourism industry and Canada to the challenge outlined by the Brundtland Commission C examples of realized benefits to companies demonstrating environmental responsibility Other C contact address for Tourism Industry Association of Canada
  • 22. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 13 Reference Davis, P. B. (1995). Antarctic visitor behaviour: Are guidelines enough? Polar Record 31(178), 327-334. Key Words tourism, guidelines, visitor management, Antarctic Purpose C to provide results from a visitor survey on tourists’ assessments of their own behaviour and that of other tourists C to discuss the effectiveness of voluntary visitor guidelines developed by an industry association (International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators) Content C a general discussion of visitor management in the Antarctic C a description of the effects of sex, age, educational level, and cruise trip on guideline violation or adherence C a discussion of the management challenges presented by potential passenger violations of guidelines Other
  • 23. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 14 Reference Dickinson, G. (1995). Environmental impacts in the Loch Lomond area of Scotland. In H. Coccossis, and P. Nijkamp, Sustainable Tourism Development (pp.159-168). Brookfield, U.S.A.: Avebury. Key Words tourism, impacts, case study, management Purpose C to examine the nature of recreational impacts, their role in overall environmental change in the area, and resource management strategies for the Loch Lomond region Content C an examination of recreation and tourism in the Loch Lomond area, environmental impacts, recreation and other factors causing environmental degradation, and recreation and conservation management strategies and systems Other
  • 24. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 15 Reference Driml, S. and Common, M. (1996). Ecological economics criteria for sustainable tourism: Application to the Great Barrier Reef and Wet Tropics World Heritage Areas, Australia. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 4(1), 3-16. Key Words tourism, sustainable, Australia Purpose C to examine the extent to which tourism in the Great Barrier Reef and Wet Tropics World Heritage Areas is sustainable Content C definitions of sustainable tourism and protected areas C an outline of principles and characteristics of sustainable tourism C a description of tourism and its management in the two heritage areas Other
  • 25. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 16 Reference Eagles, P. F. J. (1995). Management in parks: The experience in Australia. Paper presented to State of Western Australia Annual Tourism Conference on June 9, 1995: Perth, Australia. Key Words ecotourism, issues, management Purpose C to discuss the most important issues regarding existing management structure of nature-based tourism in parks Content C an outline of travel motives and motivations of Canadian tourists C a discussion of limits of acceptable change and park zoning, management of tourist use, allocation of tourism access, market specialization, management of recreation conflict, enforcement and monitoring of policies and programmes, consumer assurance of quality, facility design, community development, financial viability, and public and private sector cooperation Other C list of references
  • 26. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 17 Reference Eagles, P. F. J., and Nilsen P. (1997). Ecotourism: An Annotated Bibliography for Planners and Managers. (4th edition) North Bennington, Vermont: The Ecotourism Society. Key Words ecotourism, bibliography, planning, management, development, infrastructure, economics, conservation, marketing Purpose C an annotated bibliography reflecting growing interest in ecotourism as a global conservation and sustainable development tool Content C list of 384 ecotourism related publications and presentations Other
  • 27. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 18 Reference Edwards, F., editor, (1988). Environmentally Sound Tourism in the Caribbean. Proceedings of the Workshop on Environmentally Sound Tourism Development, April 1987, Barbados. Calgary, Alberta: The University of Calgary Press. Key Words environmentally sound tourism, Caribbean, management Purpose C objectives of the conference were to identify and strengthen strategies for intergrating tourism and the environment and to promote better coordination between tourism development and management of the environment Content C nine chapters plus an introduction (not annotated separately) C an emphasis on understanding tourism patterns in the Caribbean and the planning challenges faced in the region Other C list of conference participants C report on a related conference (1985) C synthesis of workshop findings
  • 28. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 19 Reference Edwards, J. (1996). Visitor management and the sustainable tourism agenda. In L. Briguglio, B. Archer, J. Jafari, and G. Wall, Sustainable Tourism in Islands and Small States: Issues and Policies (pp. 137-147). New York, U.S.A.: Pinter. Key Words sustainable tourism, visitor management Purpose C to discuss the role of visitor management in ameliorating the undesirable impacts of tourism and the potential for moving tourism towards a more sustainable approach Content C a brief discussion of the concept of sustainability C a review of various visitor management approaches from a range of clearly-defined destinations C a discussion of the balance between the needs of the visitor and the needs of the resource C a discussion of managing tourists on islands Other
  • 29. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 20 Reference Farrell, T. (1995). A research framework to assess the biophysical impacts of nature-based tourism: A thesis project. In Proceedings of the 1995 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium (General Technical Report NE-218, pp.267-273). Saratoga Springs, New York: United States Department of Agriculture. Key Words ecotourism, impacts, management Purpose C to propose a general research framework to set nature-based tourism industry standards, influence policy decision making, and establish linkages between biophysical impacts and the activities of nature tour operators, guides, and tourism Content C a discussion of the positive and negative biophysical impacts linked to tourism activities C a description of the general research framework design C an examination of a case study in Belize, Central America, to determine the availability of research related resources and consider factors affecting the proposed framework’s ability to establish linkage between impacts and activities C recommendations for the general research framework
  • 30. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 21 Reference German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation. (1997). Biodiversity and Tourism: Conflicts on the World’s Seacoasts and Strategies for their Solution. Berlin, Germany: Springer- Verlag. Key Words biodiversity, tourism protocol, sustainable development Purpose C to outline problems associated with tourism development along seacoasts and to present solutions to these problems Content C case studies examining tourism uses and solutions to problems C a discussion of legal aspects and the need for regulations C a review of the global situation regarding tourism and coastal biodiversity C a focus on European marine and coastal ecosystems Other C Appendices include tourism statistics for the Caribbean (Appendix E) and several relevant documents
  • 31. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 22 Reference Harris, R., and Leiper, N. (1995). Sustainable Tourism: An Australian Perspective. Newton, U.S.A.: Butterworth- Heinemann. Key Words ecotourism, sustainable development Purpose C to examine how tourism industry businesses and organizations are responding to the challenge of linking development, environment, and society to promote the goal of sustainable development C to provide examples of how selected tourism industry associations, government departments, and conservation bodies have facilitated this response Content C an overview of sustainable development within the tourism industry C a description of 19 case studies to detail how selected firms and organizations have responded to the challenge of sustainable tourism development C case studies were selected to represent either a natural attraction and management authority, organization, accommodation provider, or tour operator Other C a suggested reading list on sustainable development and tourism
  • 32. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 23 Reference Holder, J.S. (1996). Maintaining competitiveness in a new world order: Regional solutions to Caribbean tourism sustainability problems. In L.C. Harrison and W. Husbands, Practicing Responsible Tourism: International Case Studies in Tourism Planning, Policy and Development (pp. 145-173). Toronto, Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Key Words carrying capacity, waste disposal, coastal pollution, Caribbean Purpose C to examine issues related to the sustainability of tourism in the Caribbean C to address sustainability in a regional framework Content C a description of the history of tourism in the Caribbean region C an outline of current issues and perspectives C a discussion of product quality, profitability, regional promotion, transportation, security and linkages Other
  • 33. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 24 Reference Hunter, C. (1997). Sustainable tourism as an adaptive paradigm. Annals of Tourism Research 24(4), 850-867. Key Words tourism, sustainable, principles and practices Purpose C to show that the concept of sustainable tourism has evolved in isolation from that of sustainable development, resulting in the emergence of a simplistic and inflexible paradigm of sustainable tourism which fails to account for specific circumstances Content C a discussion of reconnecting the concerns of sustainable tourism with those of sustainable development C a review of the foundations of sustainable development and a discussion of the implications for the principles and practice of sustainable tourism Other
  • 34. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 25 Reference Hunter, C. and Green, H. (1995). Tourism and the Environment. New York, NY: Routledge. Key Words tourism, environment, sustainability, management Purpose C to provide an analysis of the relationship between tourism development and environmental quality, with sustainable tourism development as the central theme C to review relevant tourism and environmental management literature and discussions held at international conferences Content C a review of the impacts of tourism on the quality of the natural, built, and cultural resources which support tourism C a discussion of sustainable development and the principles and implications of sustainable tourism development C an outline of appropriate policy directions for sustainable tourism development C a discussion of land use planning and Environmental Impact Assessment as instruments in putting the principles of sustainable tourism development into practice Other
  • 35. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 26 Reference International Fund for Animal Welfare, Tethys Research Institute, and Europe Conservation (1996). Report of the Workshop on the Scientific Aspects of Managing Whale Watching in Montecastello di Vibio, Italy 30 March - 4th th April 1995. East Sussex, United Kingdom: International Fund for Animal Welfare. Key Words whale watching, management Purpose C to develop a framework to guide the process of defining new rules and modifying existing rules for whale watching C to provide a list of recommendations for further research Content C an outline of the variables associated with whale- watching impacts C a list of parameters that can be used to measure the impacts of whale watching C a description of short-term and long-term impacts of whale watching and possible causal links C rules and recommendations for whale watching Other C list of workshop participants
  • 36. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 27 Reference Johnston, M. E. (1997). Polar tourism regulation strategies: Controlling visitors through codes of conduct and legislation. Polar Record 33(184), 13-20. Key Words tourism, visitor management, Arctic, Antarctic Purpose C to summarize several approaches to visitor regulation in polar regions in order to illustrate the ways in which concerns about tourist impacts are being addressed Content C a description of tourist behaviour regulation and general issues of strategy effectiveness C an examination of the approaches to visitor regulation used in the Antarctic and on Svalbard as examples that may be of use in the further development of strategies in the Arctic C a discussion of an evolving strategy for control in the Northwest Territories, Canada Other
  • 37. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 28 Reference Lake Superior Bi-National Program (1995). Ecosystem Principles and Objectives: Indicators and Targets for Lake Superior. Discussion Paper. Key Words ecosystem, principles, indicators, Lake Superior Purpose C to expand the broad objectives of ‘A Vision for Lake Superior’ into more specific principles and objectives C to facilitate progress towards a set of information ecosystem indicators with quantitative targets C to provide guidance for land and water management in Lake Superior ecosystems Content C a description of the general objectives and targets of the Lake Superior Work Group C a detailed outline of indicators and targets to meet the objectives for terrestrial wildlife, habitat, human health, sustainability, social infrastructure, and cultural values Other C list of contributors
  • 38. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 29 Reference Leon, C., and Gonzalez M. (1995). Managing the environment in tourism regions: The case of the Canary Islands. European Environment 5, 171-177. Key Words tourism, environment, management, Canary Islands Purpose C to focus on the main environmental problems in the Canary Islands resulting from the development process and to show how local authorities are dealing with these problems Content C a list of the local and regional sources of environmental problems with respect to social, economic, geographical, and ecological aspects C a discussion of the main environmental issues faced by managers within the Canary Islands (e.g., waste management, water resources, water management, water legislation, land resources, land regulation, tourism act, and energy and transportation demands) C an outline of the Canary Islands Environmental Action Plan Other
  • 39. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 30 Reference Lindberg, K., and Hawkins D.E. (1993). Ecotourism: A Guide for Planners and Managers. North Bennington, Vermont: The Ecotourism Society. Key Words ecotourism, principles, planning, management Purpose C to fill the void in the practical aspects of ecotourism planning and management Content C an outline of challenges in the field of ecotourism and advice on addressing them, including the tools to look at demand, use and impact, income distribution, resource inventory, policy formulation, planning, management, training, and local participation Other C list and description of editors and contributors C country and site index
  • 40. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 31 Reference Mason, P. (1994). A visitor code for the Arctic. Tourism Management 15(2), 93-97. Key Words tourism, codes of conduct, visitor management, Arctic Purpose C to investigate the use of visitor codes as a technique in tourism management Content C a discussion of the development of ecotourism in the context of the use of codes C a discussion of the nature and use of visitor codes in a number of developed and developing countries, including a critique of the use of the codes C a suggested draft of visitor codes for the Arctic that includes some ideas obtained from the author’s own experiences and from the World Wide Fund for Nature Arctic Programme Director Other
  • 41. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 32 Reference Mason, P. (1997). Tourism codes of conduct in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic Region. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 5(2), 151- 165. Key Words tourism, codes of conduct, Arctic Purpose C to investigate the nature and use of tourism codes of conduct in the Arctic and sub-Arctic region within the context of the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy and the recently created Arctic Council C to consider tourism codes in relation to the World Wide Fund for Nature’s initiative to develop Arctic tourism guidelines Content C a discussion of the scale and nature of tourism activities in the region and the environmental and socio-cultural impacts of tourism C a review of Arctic and sub-Arctic tourism codes of conduct with particular reference to aims, authorship, audience, and content C a discussion of issues in relation to the use, limitations, and potential for codes of conduct; including suggestions on overcoming problems Other
  • 42. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 33 Reference Mason, P., and Mowforth, M. (1996). Codes of conduct in tourism. Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research 2 (2), 151-166. Key Words tourism, codes of conduct Purpose C to outline the types of organizations which have produced codes of conduct for use in the tourist industry Content C a discussion of codes of conduct aimed at the tourist, industry, and hosts C a presentation of the essential elements of each type of code C a disacussion of issues C essential elements include: monitoring and evaluation of codes of conduct, use of codes as a form of marketing, the regulation or voluntary self-regulation of the use of codes, and the variability between codes and the resulting need for coordination Other
  • 43. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 34 Reference Mihalic, T. (1996). Ecological labeling in tourism. In L. Briguglio, B. Archer, J. Jafari, and G. Wall, Sustainable Tourism in Islands and Small States: Issues and Policies (pp. 197-205). New York, U.S.A.: Pinter. Key Words tourism, marketing, label Purpose C to discuss labelling of the tourist product from the ecological view point Content C definitions of the nature of the tourist product and the meaning of ecological labels C a description of the distinction between labels used for industry and those used for tourism C a discussion of the importance of labelling to small- island states Other
  • 44. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 35 Reference Nitsch, B., and Straaten J. (1995). Rural tourism development: Using a sustainable tourism development approach. In H. Coccossis, and P. Nijkamp, Sustainable Tourism Development (pp.169-185). Brookfield, U.S.A.: Avebury. Key Words tourism, case studies, sustainable tourism Purpose C to investigate the implementation of sustainable tourism in La Sierra in La Rioja in Spain, and in the Northern Pennines in the United Kingdom Content C a description of previous field studies undertaken in La Sierra and the Northern Pennines in 1992 and 1993 C an investigation of how effectively sustainable tourism could be realized in these regions, the initiatives of regional authorities, and the role of the European Union in these regions C a discussion of the obstacles and barriers for attaining sustainable tourism in these regions Other
  • 45. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 36 Reference Orams, M. B. (1995). Towards a more desirable form of ecotourism. Tourism Management 16(1), 3-8. Key Words ecotourism, definition Purpose C to review definitions of the term ecotourism and present them as a continuum where, at one pole, all tourism can be viewed as ecotourism and, at the other, no tourism can be viewed as ecotourism Content C a discussion of the origins and definitions of the term ecotourism C an outline of a conceptual framework describing the transition and form that ecotourism should take C a description of indicators which can be used to measure progress towards a more desirable state of ecotourism Other
  • 46. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 37 Reference Orams, M. B. (1996). Using interpretation to manage nature- based tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 4(2), 81-94. Key Words tourism, impact, management Purpose C to provide an argument for educating tourists as an effective means of reducing negative impacts on nature-based tourism Content C a discussion of the rapid growth of nature-based tourism and outline of concerns being expressed over the impacts of this industry C arguments for interpretation-based management strategies C an outline of several specific educational techniques C a list of questions for empirical research in the area of tourism management Other
  • 47. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 38 Reference Parks Canada (1996). Best Practices for Parks Canada Trails: A Spectrum of Appropriate Trail Activities, Services, and Facilities. Canada: Parks Canada. Key Words parks, trails, best practice, guidelines Purpose C to provide a snapshot of appropriate visitor activities and services under the jurisdiction of Parks Canada that must be supported by trails and their associated facilities Content C an analysis of information on trail-related visitor activities, services, and facilities in National Parks, Historic Sites, and Canals C a description of guidelines for existing trail standards and for future trail installations and recapitalization of older trails C a presentation of a spectrum of best practice examples and standards that reflect harmony among protection of heritage values, public safety, visitor activity requirements, and aesthetics (such as scale, form, and texture) in ways that are appropriate to the setting Other
  • 48. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 39 Reference Place, S.E. (1998). How sustainable is ecotourism in Costa Rica?. In C.M.Hall and A.A. Lew, Sustainable Tourism: A Geographical Perspective (pp. 107-118). New York, U.S.A.: Longman. Key Words ecotourism, parks, impacts, local people Purpose C to explore whether ecotourism is playing a role in economic development and providing benefits to local people Content C a description of ecotourism, park-based tourism and tourism generally in Costa Rica C a case study of the development of tourism in Tortuguero, on the Caribbean coast C an assessment of the sustainable tourism potential of Tortuguero Other
  • 49. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 40 Reference Saleh, F., and Karwacki J. (1996). Revisiting the ecotourist: The case of Grasslands National Park. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 4(2), 61-80. Key Words ecotourism, profile, Grasslands National Park Purpose C to define the demographic, sociographic, and psychographic attributes of ecotourists, especially those who travel independently C to provide insight into travel motivations, preferences, and satisfaction pertaining to the ecotourist C to develop recommendations for ecotourism planners and managers Content C a review of recent literature on ecotourists C a summary of the results of two studies conducted in Grasslands National Park and comparison to existing knowledge on attributes of ecotourists C a discussion of the managerial implications that emerge from the two studies Other
  • 50. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 41 Reference Sirakaya, E. (1997). Attitudinal compliance with ecotourism guidelines. Annals of Tourism Research 24(4), 919-950. Key Words ecotourism, guidelines Purpose C to examine the compliance attitudes of ecotourism operators with industry codes of conduct delineated in The Ecotourism Guidelines for Nature Based Tour Operators Content C a discussion of positive and negative influences of ecotourism C a discussion of the regulations, guidelines, and compliance of ecotourism operators including a summary of The Ecotourism Society’s Ecotourism Guidelines for nature tour operators C a description of compliance theory and the research methodology Other
  • 51. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 42 Reference Sirakaya, E. And Muzaffer, U. (1997). Can sanctions and rewards explain conformance behaviour of tour operators with ecotourism guidelines? Journal of Sustainable Tourism 5(4), 322-11. Key Words ecotourism, guidelines, compliance Purpose C to explore the value of sanctions and rewards as potential predictors of compliance behaviour among ecotourism operators Content C a discussion The Ecotourism Society guidelines for nature based tour C a description of utility theory, rewards and sanctions and their application to ecotourism operators C a discussion of the implications of results for management and policy options Other
  • 52. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 43 Reference Splettstoesser, J. and Folks, M. C. (1994). Environmental guidelines for tourism in Antarctica. Annals of Tourism Research 21(2), 231-244. Key Words tourism, impact, guidelines, Antarctica Purpose C to discuss the need for and the current environmental guidelines for tourism in Antarctica Content C a discussion of the history of tourism in Antarctica C a discussion of the need for tourism guidelines C an outline of guidelines for Antarctic Tour Operators, Antarctic Visitors, and Conservation Other
  • 53. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 44 Reference Stabler, M. J., and Goodall, B. (1996). Environmental auditing in planning for sustainable island tourism. In L. Briguglio, B. Archer, J. Jafari, and G. Wall, Sustainable Tourism in Islands and Small States: Issues and Policies (pp. 170-196). New York, U.S.A.: Pinter. Key Words sustainable tourism, planning, case studies Purpose C to examine how sustainable tourism might contribute to the introduction of environmental auditing by the industry in small island destinations, including the procedures for its conduct and the subsequent monitoring of its effects Content C a discussion of the role of planning in pursuing sustainable development and tourism’s relationship to it C an outline of the tourism base and examination of environmental auditing within the context of small islands C examples to illustrate the current situation and the potential for implementing environmental auditing within existing planning structures C the identification of the organization and structure for developing auditing and the required private sector responses to ensure sustainable tourism development
  • 54. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 45 Reference Sweeting, J. (n.d.). Marine Ecotourism Information Package. North Bennington, U.S.A.: The Ecotourism Society. Key Words ecotourism, marine, coral reefs Purpose C to present guidelines for responsible marine ecotourists Content C a description of coral reef and ecosystem destruction and the challenge facing marine ecotourism C an outline of general rules a responsible marine ecotouist should follow for wildlife viewing, recreational boating, and snorkeling/scuba diving C a description of how ecotourists can help ameliorate the problem of marine ecosystem degradation Other C list of marine organizations
  • 55. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 46 Reference The Ecotourism Society (n.d.). A Collection of Ecotourism Guidelines. North Bennington, U.S.A.: The Ecotourism Society. Key Words ecotourism, travel ethics, code of conduct/ethics, principles and practices Purpose C to provide a collection of papers outlining general guidelines and ethics with respect to travelers, tour operators, wildlife watchers, and people participating in ecotourist activities Content C lists of codes of conduct and ethics for ecotourists C an outline of principles and practices of ecotourism C guidelines for viewing wildlife, with specific papers on birding and protecting manatees C guidelines for specific ecotourist activities (recreational boating, diving, plant collecting, hiking and camping) C case studies of guidelines and codes of conduct in Antarctica and Gwaii Haanas/South Moresby National Park Other
  • 56. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 47 Reference The Ecotourism Society (n.d.). The Ecotourism Society Fact Sheet Collection. Vermont, U.S.A.: The Ecotourism Society: North Bennington. Key Words ecotourism, ecotourist profile Purpose C to provide general ecotourism information and increase the understanding of patterns of ecotourism Content C a fact sheet on the importance of ecotourism in the global market C a profile of the general ecotourist C an outline of criteria helpful in seeking a responsible ecotourism operator C a list of rules to follow when participating in marine ecotourism activities C an inventory of ecotourism or nature-based tourism courses offered by universities in the U.S.A. and a description of the educational format and focus of these courses Other
  • 57. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 48 Reference Thomlinson, E., and Donald G. (1996). The question of scale in ecotourism: Case study of two small ecotour operators in the Mundo Maya region of Central America. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 4(4), 183-200. Key Words ecotourism, scale, case study, Central America Purpose C to address the issue of scale in ecotourism with specific reference to the costs and benefits of large versus small-scale development, tour groups, and tour operators Content C a case study of two small ecotourism businesses operating in the Mundo Maya region of Central America C a discussion of comparisons based on organization, tours offered, owners’ opinions, impacts, and issues pertaining to the Mundo Maya business environment C discussions of important policy, planning and marketing questions related to ecotourism and sustainable development in this destination, and on the general issue of scale Other
  • 58. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 49 Reference Todd, S. E., and Williams P. W. (1996). From white to green: A proposed environmental management system framework for ski areas. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 4(3), 147-173. Key Words tourism, management, code of conduct, sustainable tourism Purpose C to describe the evolution of sustainable tourism from its concept to practice Content C a description of three phases to the evolution of sustainable tourism: development of principles, translation of principles into practice, and creation and implementation of environmental auditing or monitoring programmes C a discussion of the need for a systematic approach to managing the ski area industry in a sustainable fashion C a description of how managers may achieve an environmental management system C reports on the findings of a survey of Canadian and United States ski area managers concerning environmental management system activities in their operations Other
  • 59. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 50 Reference United Nations Environment Programme (1995). Environmental Codes of Conduct for Tourism: Technical Report NE29. Paris, France: United Nations Environment Programme. Key Words tourism, codes of conduct Purpose C to make available to governments, industry, and other parties a summary of tourism codes, and to provide those who wish to create new codes some guidance as to how this is best done Content C a review of existing codes of conduct at the national and international levels which relate to the industry as a whole and to particular sectors of the industry C a review of codes related to tourists and to host populations C suggestions of the key areas to be covered in developing codes of conduct for the industry and examples of clauses from existing codes which cover these areas C examples of programmes and initiatives carried out by governments, industry associations, companies, and Non-Governmental Organizations in support of sustainable tourism practices Other C list of references, useful addresses, and abbreviations C appendix on the World Tourism Organization’s tourism bill of rights and tourist code
  • 60. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 51 Reference Wahab, S. and Pigram, J.J. (1997). Tourism Development and Growth:The Challenges of Sustainability. London, England: Routledge. Key Words sustainable tourism Purpose C to examine the concept of sustainability as related to tourism Content C 16 chapters discussing sustainability and tourism C sections on trends in tourism and limits to growth; balancing growth with sustainability; opportunities and challenges; and perspectives on sustainable tourism Other
  • 61. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 52 Reference Wilkinson, P.F. (1996). Graphical images of the Commonwealth Caribbean: The tourist area cycle of evolution. In L.C. Harrison and W. Husbands, Practicing Responsible Tourism: International Case Studies in Tourism Planning, Policy and Development (pp. 16-40). Toronto, Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Key Words cycle, destination, graphical images Purpose C to explore the usefulness of the cycle approach in understanding tourism patterns in the Commonwealth Caribbean C to use graphical images as illustration of the cycle concept Content C an outline of three models of tourist area cycle of evolution and a discussion of problems associated with these C a description of six case studies using data such visitor expenditures, stay over visitor numbers, total visitor arrivals and annual tourist nights C a discussion of the issues for destinations based on the data exploration Other
  • 62. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 53 Reference Williams, P. W. (1992). Tourism and the environment: No place to hide. World Leisure and Recreation 34(2), 12-17. Key Words tourism, sustainable development Purpose C to outline some of the current environmental issues with an effect on the tourism industry and tourism’s role in these C to recommend policy actions for the tourism industry to move toward a strategy of sustainable development Content C a discussion of the major environmental problems of today (i.e., atmospheric pollution, water pollution, deforestation, wildlife depletion, and soil erosion) C a discussion of policy and principles of environmental planning and management for tourism development Other
  • 63. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 54 Reference World Tourism Organization (1995). Strategy for survival: Agenda 21 for the travel and tourism industry. World Tourism Organization News 5, 9-12. Key Words tourism, sustainable development, principles, goals Purpose C to provide an in-depth look at travel and tourism’s new approach to implementing the environmental action plan of the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 (i.e. Agenda 21) Content C an outline of three basic approahces to developing sustainable tourism (introduction of new regulations, use of free-market mechanisms, and industry-led voluntary programmes) C an outline of 12 principles of sustainable development C a discussion of the nine priorities for governments, NTAs and trade associations to follow in drafting and implementing their sustainable tourism programme C a discussion of ten priority action areas for private enterprises in the travel and tourism industry Other C information on obtaining a copy of the 78 page booklet of Agenda 21 for the Travel & Tourism Industry
  • 64. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 55 Reference Ziffer, K. A. (1989). Ecotourism: The Uneasy Alliance. Conservation International: Ernst & Young. Key Words ecotourism, policy, strategies Purpose C to provide background for an evaluation of ecotourism’s viability in promoting and financing conservation and economic development in less developed countries C to focus on the market for nature-based travel in the U.S. and the variables which determine the impact of travel on the destination Content C a definition of ecotourism C a description of markets for ecotourism C an outline of ecotourism market size and growth C a profile of ecotourists C a discussion of promoting and financing both conservation and economic development C a list of key success factors for an ecotourism program Other C bibliography
  • 65. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 56 Reference Azkarate, T. (1995). One Europe Magazine: World Conference on Sustainable Tourism [WWW page]. URL worldc.html Key Words sustainable tourism Purpose C to describe highlights from the First World Conference on Sustainable Tourism in Lanzarote Island Content C general facts on world tourism industry C a description of the main objectives of the conference (i.e., draw up bases for sustainable tourist development - with regard to natural resources, natural and cultural heritage and socio-economic development - and to promote the search for alternatives and new tourist products which respects the environment and cultural heritage) C a discussion of the charter, conclusions, and recommendations from the conference Other
  • 66. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 57 Reference Conservation International (n.d.). Conservation International Field Reports: Ecotourism [WWW page]. URL c_prog/Ecotouri.htm Key Words ecotourism, web site links Purpose C to promote ecotourism through education on conservation and sustainable development Content C discussions on ecotourism as a tool for conservation, history of Conservation International (CI), and CI’s commitment to ecotourism as a tool for ecosystem conservation C examples of CI involvement in world conservation projects (e.g., Guatemala, Brazil, Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea) C a list of web site links (e.g., ecotourism highlights) Other C link to Conservation International home page
  • 67. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 58 Reference The Earth Pledge Foundation (n.d.). Sustainable Tourism: What is it? [WWW page]. URL Key Words sustainable tourism, web site links Purpose C to promote sustainable tourism Content C a discussion of what sustainable tourism is C web site links to various sustainable tourism articles (e.g., Overview of sustainable tourism, Regional solutions to Caribbean tourism, Marketing sustainable tourism, etc.) Other C Earth Pledge Foundation discussion on books about sustainable tourism
  • 68. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 59 Reference Educational Communications (n.d.). Project Ecotourism [HOME page]. URL Key Words ecotourism, responsible travel Purpose C to increase awarness of Project Ecotourism, an organization that promotes ecotourism to conserve ecosystems and wildlife and to assist local communities through responsible travel that preserves cultures and natural environments Content C a definition of ecotourism and description of the organization’s goals and services C a description of ways to be responsible and ecological including a list of DOs and DON’Ts and questions for consumers to ask a tour company Other C link to the Educational Communications home page
  • 69. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 60 Reference The Ecotourism Association of Australia (n.d.). The Ecotourism Association [LORENZ page]. URL Key Words ecotourism, codes of conduct, association, Australia, web site links Purpose C to provide an opportunity for members to get involved in all aspects of ecotourism and to develop an understanding of the ecotourism industry and of natural and cultural area management needs Content C a discussion of reasons why organizations should join the Ecotourism Association of Australia, the association’s aim, goals of the association, donations and sponsorships, and services provided by the association C web site links to newsletters, codes of practice, conferences and workshops, contacts, research trends and case studies, and others Other
  • 70. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 61 Reference Great Outdoor Recreation Pages (n.d.). Ecotourism: Achieving a Balance [WWW page]. URL Key Words ecotourism, guidelines, web site links Purpose C to promote ecotourism and provide seven principles of ecotourism that illustrate the foundation required for ecotourism to reach its potential for travelers, indigenous peoples, local business, and the community Content C a description of the seven principles developed by Kirk Hoessle (i.e., remote and relatively unaltered natural environments, low impact on the natural environment, educational emphasis, benefit to the local economy and local inhabitants, development must willingly subject limitations, contribute to local non-profit efforts for environmental protection, and have spirit of appreciation, participation, and sensitivity) Other C web site links to other GORP pages (e.g., attractions, activities, locations, books & media, travel)
  • 71. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 62 Reference The GreenMoney Journal (1995). Ecotravel: The Adventurous Journey Towards Sustainability [WWW page]. URL Key Words ecotourism, sustainable tourism, code of ethics, web site links Purpose C to provide a general information package on global ecotravel Content C general information on ecotourism, including definition, top destinations, monetary value, and potential impacts C short descriptions of ecotour operators, travel ideas, and travel resources C a description of The Ecotourism Society C a discussion of ethical travel including an ecotourism code of ethics for both ecotourists and ecotour operators Other C list of numerous links to other ecotravel publications and resources: recent articles, books and guidebooks, magazines and newsletters, research expeditions and volunteer opportunities, ecotravel companies, and ecotravel organizations
  • 72. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 63 Reference Hill, C. (1998). Eco-Source: Information and Services Regarding Ecotourism and Sustainable Development [WWW page]. URL Key Words ecotourism, sustainable development, web site links Purpose C to provide links to sustainable development and ecotourism for tourists, students, professionals, professors, researchers, and policy-makers Content C web site links to the global ecotourism community (e.g., destinations, ecotours and tour operators), research and resources (e.g., conservation, design guidelines, statistics, policy), environmental education (e.g., the ecotourism industry and marketplace, environmental issues, biodiversity loss, travelindustry), eco-related web sites (e.g., ecotourism, eco- publications, link list sites), job and career information, and others Other C web site statistics on the eco-source site
  • 73. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 64 Reference Island Resources Foundations (1996). Guidance for Best Management Practices for Caribbean Coastal Tourism [WWW page]. URL Key Words tourism, impacts, best practices, Caribbean, web site links Purpose C to promote action to minimize land-based sources of pollution caused by the tourism industry which negatively impact coastal and marine resources C to determine the level of coastal degradation, the best approaches and practices available, and effective public awareness and training activities Content C an overview of coastal degradation and a three- dimensional framework for analyzing the environmental effects of coastal tourism C a discussion of requirements for management practices to be addressed by the tourism industry C guidance for private and public planners, managers, and policy makers in the Caribbean for the adoption of best management practices by tourism facilities and support services C list of references Other C guide to using the web to find best management practices C web site links C contact address for Island Resources Foundation
  • 74. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 65 Reference The Latin American Alliance (1997). Ecotourism Reference Links [WWW page]. URL Key Words ecotourism, web site links Purpose C to promote ecotourism and provide an extensive list of web site links on ecotourism in Latin America Content C an extensive list of web site documents on ecotourism articles and travel information sources in Latin America Other C web site link to The Latin American Alliance
  • 75. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 66 Reference Lewis, S. (1996). Analysis of ISO 14000 Management Systems: A Community Environmental Perspective [WWW page]. URL Key Words environment, management, guidelines, web site links Purpose C to evaluate the significance of the ISO 14000 standard from a community environmental perspective Content C a discussion of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and criticisms of the programme C an overview of the ISO 14000 series of environmental management standards C a discussion of the potential of and limits to ISO 14000 as a stand-alone process, including the value of a management and auditing process, the shortcomings of a goal-less management process, lack of public accountability system, shortcomings of the certification process, and international preemption concerns C a discussion of regulatory system linkages Other C a description of the author C web site links
  • 76. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 67 Reference Mader, R. (1998). Eco Travels in the Caribbean [WWW page]. URL Key Words ecotourism, Caribbean, web site links Purpose C to promote ecotourism and review environmental issues and tourism in the Caribbean Content C an extensive list of web site links on ecotourism in the Caribbean including links to specific destinations (e.g., Aruba, Bahamas, Bermuda, Belize, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Tobago, and others) C a list of ecotourism resource links Other
  • 77. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 68 Reference Mader, R. (1998). Sustainable Development and the Americas: Exploring Ecotourism [WWW page]. URL Key Words ecotourism, sustainable development, Latin America, web site links Purpose C to provide specific links to ecotourism materials on the Eco Travel site and other internet resources of use to travelers, researchers, and entrepreneurs Content C a description of ecotourism and its definition C an extensive list of web site links to conferences and congresses, environmental travel contacts, ecotourism surveys, general background on what ecotourism is, problems with ecotourism, other academic work, etc. C a list of web site links to specific areas (e.g., Honduras, Costa Rica, Mexico, Ecuador) C a list of web site links to other ecotourism organizations Other C link to Eco Travels in Latin America web site (
  • 78. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 69 Reference National Audubon Society (1989). The National Audubon Society Travel Ethic for Environmentally Responsible Travel [WWW page]. URL Key Words tourism, ethics, guidelines Purpose C to encourage all tour operators promoting exploration in wilderness areas to adopt appropriate guidelines Content C a general discussion of the potential and actual conflict between tourism development and the natural environment C a list of seven guidelines for tour operators to follow C a discussion of and examples for each guideline Other
  • 79. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 70 Reference Norman, W. C., Frauman E., Toepper L., and Sirakaya E. (1997). Green Evaluation Program and Compliance of Nature Tour Operators [WWW page]. URL Key Words ecotourism, guidelines, codes of conduct, monitoring Purpose C to develop and analyze a method for examining compliance behaviour of nature tour operators with The Ecotourism Society’s (TES) guidelines Content C a general discussion of ecotourism’s growth and development, with a focus on the formation of codes of conduct, standards, and guidelines to aid in the management of the ecotourism product C a description of TES ecotourism guidelines for nature operators C a description of an Ecuadorian ecotourism survey: the specific goals were to develop an evaluation process for the performance of nature tour operators using TES guidelines; to provide information enabling TES to market ecotourism guidelines; and, to implement the consumer evaluation program in Ecuador C in-depth results and discussion sections C outline of the future use of green evaluations and recommendations Other
  • 80. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 71 Reference Office of National Tourism (1995). Best Practice Ecotourism: A Guide to Energy and Waste Minimisation [WWW page]. URL Key Words ecotourism, best practice, guidelines, web site links Purpose C to provide a means of assessing energy consumption and waste generation and offer suggestions for improving energy and waste management for 25 specific activities Content C discussions of general issues of energy consumption and waste generation minimisation (e.g., current industry practices, towards best practices, assessing costs and benefits, principles) C a comprehensive list of guidelines for a variety of ecotourism activities and waste management C a list of links for assistance and advice Other
  • 81. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 72 Reference Oostdam, B. L., & Billeter, P. A. (n.d.). Integrated Coastal Area Management and Public Perceptions in the Caribbean Islands [WWW page]. URL Key Words tourism, management, perceptions, Caribbean Islands, web site links Purpose C to describe public perceptions of the hazards of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, floods and landslides, as well as the human-caused problems of marine pollution, beach mining, coastal erosion and degradation of vulnerable coastal environments Content C a description of the integrated coastal area management in the Caribbean Islands C discussion of several major topics: natural hazards, anthropogenic problems, coastal resources, laws and regulations of Coastal Area Management (CAM), and CAM adjuncts Other C links and other information on separate study projects and conferences on the Caribbean Islands C links to additional tourism/ecotourism information
  • 82. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 73 Reference Sierra Club (1993). Sierra Club Policy: Ecotourism [WWW page]. URL Key Words ecotourism, policy, principles, management Purpose C to provide principles for ecotourism planning and management which governmental agencies, planners, and environmental groups promoting or supporting tourism should follow Content C a description of 11 planning and management principles Other C link to Sierra Club home page
  • 83. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 74 Reference Stringer, L. (1994). Tourism and Costa Rica: Vanguard or old guard? [Gopher page]. URL gopher:// Rica.LStringer94 Key Words ecotourism, case study, principles, sustainable tourism Purpose C to present a critical analysis of ecotourism in Costa Rica Content C a general description of the problems of the conventional tourism in order to create a context by which to view ecotourism C a description of the ideal of ecotourism C an examination of some problems that confront ecotourism in the progress from ideal to reality C an analysis of the Costa Rican tourist industry toassess its implementation of the ideals of ecotourism into practice Other C listing of 10 principles for sustainable tourism
  • 84. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 75 Reference The Ecotourism Society (1997). Ecotourism Explorer: A Site for Discovery of the Ecotourism Path for Researchers, Conservationists, and Business People [WWW page]. URL Key Words ecotourism, web site links, The Ecotourism Society Purpose C to promote ecotourism by providing web site links and other information on ecotourism related issues Content C an extensive list of web site links to information about The Ecotourism Society (TES) and other ecotourism related documents (e.g., about TES, selecting eco- travel destinations, ecotourism research, TES book store, TES initiatives, training and education, events, and many others) Other
  • 85. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 76 Reference Thefox’s Home Page (1998). Hanfox Hospitality Den Welcomes You to Our Sustainable Tourism Construction Zone [WWW page]. URL Key Words sustainable tourism, web site links Purpose C to provide a list of web site links and other documents on sustainable tourism related literature Content C an extensive list of web site links to information on sustainable tourism around the world (e.g., definition of sustainable, code of ethics for tourists, charter for sustainable tourism, regional land use planning implementation documents, Canadian initiatives, and others) Other C links to web building sites
  • 86. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 77 Reference Wallace, G. N. (n.d.). Toward a Principled Evaluation of Ecotourism Ventures [WWW page]. URL Key Words ecotourism, principles, indicators, evaluation Purpose C to discuss a systematic approach to evaluating ecotourism operations in a given locale Content C a general discussion of regulations, codes of conduct, guidelines, and principles of ecotourism C an outline of six principles of ecotourism and the associated indicators C a description of the methods used for studying registered ecotourism lodges in Amazonas Brazil and the ecotourism operations in Cuyabeno Wildlife Refuge C comments and suggestions on improving the systematic approach C list of references Other C a short description of George Wallace and contact addresses for comments on the evaluation process
  • 87. Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Guidelines: An Annotated Bibliography 78 Reference World Travel and Tourism Council. (n.d.) ECoNETT [WWW page]. URL Key Words responsible travel, ecotourism, principles, practice Purpose C to provide coverage of sustainable tourism initiatives Content C library contains 850 files C measures/initiatives contains sections on codes of conduct, awards and eco labels, and good practice Other
  • 88. Resource Guide in Extraordinary Experiences: Understanding and Managing the Consumer Experience in Hospitality, Leisure, Events, Sport and Tourism Introduction One thing that the Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism sectors have in common is that they all exist to provide consumers with experiences. Figure 1 shows a range of examples of “experience” products offered, all of which aim to provide something extraordinary, something which will stand out from everyday life and from all the competition for people's spare time and disposable income. Extraordinary Experiences Hotels -boutique -designer Food -gastronomy -service and presentation -local/organic distinctiveness -branding & marketing Retail -retail theatre -leisure shopping -environments Attractions -theme parks -’experiences’ -interpretation & staging Catering -themed bars and restaurants -chameleon bars -design and ambience MICE -unusual venues for confex -incentive travel Tourism -adventure -wildlife -cultural -destination brands Corporate hospitality sponsorship events brand experiences Sports -spectators & stadia -sports tourism -participation -extreme sports Events -special/hallmark -festivals Travel -cruise ships -heritage trains -business class Figure 1 This guide aims to provide teachers and students with key readings and concepts that will help them analyse these experiences and evaluate the management activities involved in designing and staging them. It brings together two strands of literature about experiences, one from management and the other from the consumer perspective. Experience Management It is the growth of these sectors, and the examples of high-profile companies like Disney and Starbucks, which have led to the concept of the experience economy and experience management. The latter is seen as an answer to the problems of how to remain competitive in markets where global competition and internet technology have turned products and services into commodities, bought and sold on price alone. Pine and Gilmore (1999) say that sustainable competitive advantage can only be gained by giving the customer a unique and memorable experience. This is done Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, January 2007 1
  • 89. through treating 'work as theatre and every business a stage'. As this guide will show, this draws on Schechner's (1988) Performance Theory and the service-as- drama metaphor of Grove, Fisk and Bitner (1993). Their approach has led to a growing number of management books on how to make the customer experience the centre of the organisation's strategic planning, marketing and operations. (Schmitt 1999, Shaw 2005, Smith and Wheeler 2002). The growth of Experiential Marketing is also significant for our sectors through the increased use of corporate hospitality and events, sports and arts sponsorship to associate brands with memorable experiences involving the senses and the and Gilmore (1999) say that sustainable competitive advantage can only be gained by giving the customer a unique and memorable experience. As an example of the commercial adoption of the concept, Customer Experience Management (CEM) software systems are being developed to monitor every contact a person has with the company. As a result, the term CEM is in danger of being reduced from a potentially revolutionary business philosophy to the narrow sense of a tool for call-centre management, (just as Customer Relationship Management is often seen simply as a form of database marketing). Later work (Holbrook, 2001; Nijs, 2003) Prahalad and Ramaswamy, 2004) has criticised the emphasis on staging performances as superficial and product-centred. These writers call for a more strategic approach based on shared values, allowing the customer to create their own experiences in a search for personal growth. In this way the management strand is converging with the consumer strand. Consumer Experience On the consumer side, a focus on experiences has arisen in response to the limitations of seeing consumer behaviour purely in terms of cognitive information processing. As Holbrook and Hirschmann (1982) said, experiences are subjective, emotional states laden with symbolic meaning. Consumption is hedonic not utilitarian, particularly in leisure situations. A distinction is often made between everyday and extraordinary experiences (Abrahams 1986). Many of the products in Figure 1 involve skilled consumption (Scitovsky 1976), physical or intellectual challenge and the sharing of experience with a community of like-minded people (Beard and Ragheb 1983). The desired effect is the state of absorption in the activity (Csikszentmihalyi 1976) calls Flow. Motivation is a complex mixture of escapism, socialisation and self-actualisation (Ryan 1997). These insights can be used to explain the growing interest in participative and extreme sports (Arnould and Price 1993), and in new types of cultural, adventure, sports and creative tourism (Richards and Wilson 2006) Research implications Where the managerial and consumer perspectives converge is in their view of consumer satisfaction as something that emerges over the course of the whole experience, rather than as a response to individual attributes of the service. This requires new forms of research such as Experience Mapping (Schmitt, 2003) or theatrical scripting (Harris et al, 2003) of the critical moments of truth (Carlzon 1987). Ethnographic and narrative research (e.g. Arnould and Price, 1993) are more likely to provide insights than quantitative methods. Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, January 2007 2
  • 90. The common goal Both strands of literature also come together in seeing the consumer as the product (Pine and Gilmore) but also the co-creator of the product (Prahalad and Ramaswamy). The goal of extraordinary experiences is personal growth and fulfilment (Arnould and Price) leading to transformation (Pine and Gilmore). It is by providing a stage (Pine and Gilmore) or space (Prahalad) for this to happen that a company can attract and retain its customers. Annotated Bibliography Experience Management: The Evolution of the Concept Toffler, A (1970) Future Shock. Bantam Books Toffler predicted that, as one consequence of the accelerating pace of technological change, people would soon be collecting experiences as consciously and passionately as they once collected things. This seems to have been borne out by the rapid growth since then of the leisure and tourism industries. Schechner, R. (1988) Performance Theory. Routledge Schechner combines anthropological and literary analysis of Greek drama and tribal rituals to identify the key elements of all enactments - drama, scripts, theatre and performance. The drama is the domain of the author, whose idea is then realised through scripts, directions, sets and actors to become the performance experienced by the audience. He applies this to any activity where one group of people perform in front of another - rituals, games, sport, music and dance - and others (e.g. Pine and Gilmore 1999) have extended it to analyse encounters between service staff and customers. Carlzon, J (1987) Moments of Truth Harper Collins An influential management book based on Carlzon's transformation of Scandinavian Airline Systems (SAS), through improved staff/customer interaction. The Moments of Truth are the points in the process of booking, checking-in and travelling where customers come into contact with employees. To manage these contacts will lead to an improved customer experience. Carlzon's approach focuses on the Human Factor, training staff to be aware of their own emotions and how they can influence the way customers respond to them. Grove, S.J. Fisk, R.P., Bitner, M.J. (1992) Dramatising the service experience: a managerial approach in Advances in Services Marketing and Management (Swartz, T. A. Brown, S. and Bowen, D. eds) Greenwich, CT. JAI Press Inc. [Reprinted in Gabott, M and Hogg, G. (1997) Contemporary Services Marketing: a reader. Dryden Press] They apply 'the drama metaphor' to analyse services management as an encounter between actors and audience in a setting. They see this as an extension of Booms and Bitner's extra 3 Ps of services marketing - people, processes and physical evidence. The practical implications of the metaphor are an increased attention to the impact of staff performance, settings and scripts on consumer experience and satisfaction. Pine, B.J. and Gilmore, J.H. (1999) The experience economy: work is theatre and every business is a stage. Boston Mass: HBS Press. With globalisation and the internet turning service markets such as travel, books and music into commodity markets, the fastest growth in prices and share of GDP has Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, January 2007 3
  • 91. come from the experience industries, defined as those that charge admission - cinema, rock concerts, theme parks. From this, Pine and Gilmore suggest that the way to retain competitive advantage for a brand is to turn a service into an experience, performed in a unique, memorable way which involves the customer as a participant. Drawing on Schechner they analyse the way any company can turn work into theatre. However, the most effective experiences are those that offer the consumer lasting transformation - health, education and training, lifestyle change. [An edited version is available in Pine and Gilmore (1998) Welcome to the Experience Economy Harvard Business Review July 1998] Schmitt, B (1999) Experiential Marketing: How to Get Customers to sense, feel, think, act and relate to your company and brands. Free Press Schmitt takes an experiential view of marketing and branding strategy, focusing on what the brand means to the customer and how they interact with it. Companies need to re-evaluate how their consumers 'Sense, Feel, Think, Act and Relate' to the brand. He uses a variety of well-known business cases to show how companies use visual identity, communications, product presence, web sites and service to create different types of customer experiences. Jensen, R, (1999) The Dream Society McGraw Hill Jensen, the Danish futurologist, develops a similar theme to Pine and Gilmore. For companies to gain a sustainable advantage they will need to have a story that engages the customer's emotions and touches their aspirations, hopes and dreams. In the future scenario he envisages, imagination and creativity will replace information technology as the source of business innovation, and stories will be the most precious resource. Such stories will need to be credible and in tune with the customer's values so there will be a premium on ethical responsible and environmentally sustainable activities, an aspect not so prominent in the other authors. Experience Management - Critiques and Developments Ritzker, G. & Liska, A. (1997) ‘McDisneyization’ and ‘Post-Tourism’: Complementary Perspectives on Contemporary Tourism, in Rojek, C. & Urry, J. eds. (1997) Touring Cultures: transformations of travel and theory. London: Routledge. Ritzer, G. & Stillman, T. (2001) The Post-modern Ballpark as a Leisure Setting: Enchantment and De-McDonaldization, Leisure Sciences. 23. pp. 99-113. Ritzker, G. (2004) The McDonaldization of Society, (Revised new century Ed.) London. Ritzer and his colleagues explore the concept of the enchantment of leisure consumption experiences. They distinguish between authentic spaces and simulated environments. They discuss the impact of this on the leisure experience and provide a critique of the experience-management emphasis on staging performances. Holbrook, M. B. (2001) Times Square, Disneyphobia, HegeMickey, the Ricky Principle, and the downside of the entertainment economy, Marketing Theory, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 139-163. In a review of academic interpretations of Disney, Holbrook refers dismissively to experiential marketing theories such as Schmitt, Pine and Gilmore, as ' a gloriously Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, January 2007 4
  • 92. upbeat, positive and opportunistic picture of consumer culture full of millennial optimism'. Nijs, D (2003) Imagineering : Engineering for Imagination in the Emotion Economy. In Creating a Fascinating World, Breda, The Netherlands, NHTV Nijs criticises the Experience Economy approach as too concerned with sensation and too rooted in US ‘masculine’ culture. She supports Jensen’s approach as being more effective in ‘feminine’ European cultures. She advocates a ‘value economy’ where the social and environmental values of the company create added emotional value for the customer. Imagineering is her word for the strategic process of basing the company around the values it shares with its target ‘community’. Harris, R., Harris, K. and Baron, S. (2003) ‘Theatrical service experiences’, International Journal of Service Industry Management Vol. 14, No. 2: pp. 184- 199. This much-cited paper applies the concept of service as drama to an analysis of critical incidents or moments of truth in a retail organisation. The process of dramatic script development with employees is demonstrated through the identification of the drama, the creation of the playtext and the exploration of subtext. The authors say it can be employed by any face-to-face interactions between employees and customers.. Carù, A. & Cova, B. (2003) Revisiting consumption experience: A more humble but complete view of the concept, Marketing Theory, 3 (2), pp. 267-286. [G] This article gives an overview of various definitions of the concept ‘experience’. Carù and Cova conclude that there are two typologies that have emerged in the literature: a consumer behaviour (sociological) view and an operational, marketing management perspective. The first stream describes an experience as having emotional, symbolic and transformational significance for the individual involved, whilst the second sees an experience as a type of product or service offering to be added to merchandise to give an added value offering. They argue that there has been an over-emphasis on the extraordinary at the expense of the quiet pleasures of daily life. Prahalad, C.K. and Ramaswamy, V. (2004) The Future of Competition: Co- creating unique value with customers. Boston, Harvard Business School Press Prahalad is best known for his concept of 'core competencies' as the source of competitive strategy. This new book suggests that these may lie not within the firm or even the supply-network but in the interaction between the firm's supply network and communities of consumers to 'co-create' value through personalised experiences. This, they say, goes beyond 'experiential marketing `a la Disney ...which is still production centric' and sees the customer as 'a human props in a carefully-staged performance'. True co-creation occurs when firms create 'experience spaces' where dialogue, transparency and access to information allow customers to develop experiences that suit their own needs and level of involvement. The book discusses the implications for strategy, branding and management. Examples used include Amazon, E-bay and MIT's Open Course Ware learning programmes. Management books There is a growing number of books on Customer Experience Management and Marketing aimed at a practitioner readership. These are written by consultants who promote their own trademarked models, but common themes can be seen in all. They argue the need to go beyond product and service orientations as a way of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, January 2007 5
  • 93. gaining competitive advantage, avoiding the trap of price-led commoditisation and meeting the changing aspirations of affluent and well-informed consumers looking for authentic experiences. They advise a close analysis of the process, the dynamic interface (Schmitt), by which the customer interacts with the company, as well as the outcomes. This involves considering all the senses - sight, sound, touch, smell and taste- and understanding the emotional impacts of 'combustion points' (Shaw, 2005) which require sensitive handling. This new understanding of customer value is then designed into the company's 'brand experience' (Smith and Wheeler, 2002) as the basis for competitive strategy. All the authors emphasise, however, that the design is only the starting point, and a consistent and valued experience needs to be built into the organisation's structures, systems and culture, its 'DNA'. This calls for visionary leadership and well-chosen, trained and motivated staff. The 'triad' of Marketing, HR and Operation (Smith and Wheeler) needs to be aligned to achieve this. Examples from current prominent brands are presented, often uncritically, as evidence of the effectiveness of the approach. Lewis, D and Bridger, D (2000) The Soul of the New Consumer: Authenticity - What We Buy and Why in the New Economy Nicholas Brealey Publishing Ltd This book's argument is that "new consumer" defies traditional marketing pigeon- holing. In reaction to a synthetic, processed and packaged world, their main drive is for an "authentic experience" used as a means for the individual to define him or herself. In their words, the book outlines "the practical steps that manufacturers, suppliers and service providers must take in order to grasp the opportunities and grapple with the challenges represented by the rise of the new consumers." See also the following for more on this topic: Boyle, D (2003) Authenticity: brands, fakes, spin and the lust for real life. London, Flamingo/HarperCollins. Honeywill, R. & Byth, V. (2001) I-Cons: The Essential Guide to winning and keeping high-value customers. Sydney, Random House Australia. ] Smith, S. and Wheeler, J. (2002) Managing the Customer Experience: turning customers into advocates. Harlow, FT Prentice Hall A practical guide to implementing the ideas of Pine and Gilmore, Schmitt etc by creating 'branded customer experiences'. To create consistent, intentional, differentiated and valuable experiences, they say, requires rethinking the whole business. A new brand of leadership should focus on defining customer values, designing the experience and equipping people to deliver consistency. The 'triad' of Marketing, HR and Operations needs to be harnessed to achieve this. The book ends with a Resource Kit to analyse the Customer Experiences provided by a company. Smith S and Mulligan A (2002) Uncommon Practice: People who deliver a great brand experience Financial Times Prentice Hall Uncommon Practice explores the creation of outstanding brand experiences delivered through people, with interviews with senior executives and front-line managers. It offers a behind-the-scenes look into brands including Tesco, PizzaExpress,, Virgin, easyGroup, First Direct, Harley Davidson, Krispy Kreme and Pret A Manger See more on Shaun Smith and his methods: Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, January 2007 6
  • 94. Schmitt, B H (1999) Experiential Marketing: How to Get Companies to Sense, Feel, Think, Act, and Relate to Your Company and Brands Free Press Schmitt, B H (2003) Customer Experience Management: a revolutionary approach to connecting with your customers, Hoboken NJ, John Wiley and Sons Schmitt follows up his previous book with a guide to achieving customer experience management through five steps which give an experience-centred rethinking of the marketing management process. This includes enthnographical research methods, positioning based on the experience rather than the product, and equal importance given to the design of the customer/company interface as to the tangible branding. See more on Schmitt and his ideas: Shaw, C (2005) Revolutionize Your Customer Experience Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan Shaw says that companies can be naive (product-led) transactional, enlightened or naturally customer-focussed in the way in which they manage their customers’ experiences. He offers a method of analysing the company orientation and practical steps to secure competitive advantage through understanding the role of emotion and the senses in shaping the customer experience. See more on Shaw's model: Consumer Experience The nature of the consumer experience can be explored through a number of perspectives -drawing on psychology, anthropology, sociology, economics, literary theory or human geography. This next section presents a selection of influential insights. Scitovsky, T. The joyless economy, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1976). Scitovsky questioned was why consumption was so unsatisfactory for so many. In spite of producing an overwhelming array of consumption goods, Americans seemed not to be satisfied with their experiences. He identified a problem with the rise of unskilled consumption—activities such as watching TV that are based on external stimuli. This he contrasted with skilled consumption, which is based on internal stimuli and the development of capabilities and skills of the consumers themselves The argument put forward by Scitovsky is that skilled consumption will grow as consumers become increasingly dissatisfied with short-term, unskilled experiences. Abrahams, R.D. (1981) Ordinary and Extraordinary Experiences. In The Anthropology of Experience ed Turner V. Chicago, University of Illinois Press pp 45-72 Abrahams reflects on the meanings of the word experience, and distinguishes between the everyday flow of experiences and those Big Events which serve as rites of passage, moments of self authentication or of communal celebration, 'tying together meanings and feelings'. He points out that the search for intense extraordinary experiences for their own sake may be rooted in the individualism of American culture and history. Holbrook, M.B. and Hirschmann, E.C. (1982) The Experiential Aspects of Consumption: Fantasies, Feelings and Fun. Journal of Consumer Research 9, 2 pp 132-9. This article challenged the dominant focus of consumer behaviour on cognitive Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, January 2007 7
  • 95. information processing and drew attention to the consumption experience. This they saw as a subjective state of consciousness shaped by hedonic responses, symbolic meanings and aesthetic criteria - i.e. fantasies, feelings and fun. This experiential view they see as important to the understanding of leisure activities, play and artistic endeavours. Csikszentmihalyi, M (1992) Flow: the classic work on how to achieve happiness Rider paperbacks. This book summarises Csikszentmihalyi's writings since 1976 on the flow experience. He says that we are at our happiest and most fulfilled when absorbed in the task in hand. The optimal flow of consciousness is likely to occur when the task is challenging but the participant has developed the skills needed to complete it. This kind of experience can be found through concentration at work or in sports, arts, and other leisure activities including reading and listening to music. Arnould, E.J. and Price, L.L (1993). River Magic: Extraordinary Experience and the Extended Service Encounter. Journal of Consumer Research, 20 (June) 24- 35. [Reprinted in Gabott, M and Hogg, G. (1997) Contemporary Services Marketing: a reader. Dryden Press] An extended programme of research into a white-water-rafting adventure holiday explores the nature of extraordinary experiences as hedonic consumption, flow, ritual pilgrimage, and as a means of social integration and personal growth. It raises questions of how consumer satisfaction with such experiences can be defined and measured. A widely quoted article outside the confines of tourism literature. Experiences in Tourism, Leisure, Hospitality and Sport The growing number of articles applying the experience concepts to HLST sectors are not easy to classify by specific sectors, so a selection is present here in chronological order. Beard, J. and Ragheb, M.G. (1983) Measuring Leisure Motivation Journal of Leisure Research 15 (3) 219-28. Their Leisure Motivation Scale is based on four elements: intellectual motivation (to learn, explore, discover new things); social motivation, which is not only the desire to socialise but also to derive a sense of identity and belonging; the desire for competence and mastery of skills and abilities, usually through physically challenging activities; and stimulus-avoidance motivations leading to the need to escape, seek solitude or relaxation. All these goals are essentially experiential. Lee, Y; Dattilo, J; Howard, D (1994) The complex and dynamic nature of leisure experience. Journal of Leisure Research. Arlington.Vol.26, Iss. 3; pg. 195. To reveal the multi-dimensional nature of leisure experience, this study used in-depth interviews, and self-initiated-tape-recording method to explore "extraordinary" experiences in leisure. This showed although the retrospective views of leisure were often expressed by the pleasant nature of experiences (i.e., "fun," "enjoyment," "relaxation"), the immediately recollected experience were reported as containing stressful experiences too. Otto, J E and Ritchie, J B (1996) The service experience in tourism, Tourism Management 17, 3. 165-174 After a review of experiential perspectives including meaning, motivation, satisfaction and service quality, the authors test a methodology for measuring the customer Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, January 2007 8
  • 96. service experience. The dimensions of this model are hedonics, excitement, novelty etc), peace of mind (comfort, security, privacy) involvement (given information, choice and control) and recognition (being treated seriously as an important customer). The importance of each dimension varies at different stages of the holiday experience eg on airlines, in hotels and on tours. Ryan, C (Ed.) (1997, 2002) The Tourist Experience Thomson Written to explore the complexities of tourism 'not fully covered by a positivist approach', the book is a good introduction to theories of experience, motivation and satisfaction. Ryan in the first three chapters draws on Maslow, Csikzentimahalyi, Zeithaml et al's SERVQUAL and Beard & Ragheb’s (1983) Leisure Motivation Scale to propose a model of the tourist experience. This combines the external experience of travel and destination with social interactions, personal factors and what he calls responsive mechanisms. These are ways in which the tourist responds and adapts to situations, good and bad, in an effort to achieve a flow experience. Among other contributions, a chapter by Baum reviews the impact of HRM on the tourist experience, using Carlzon's (1987) Moments of Truth approach. Hopkinson, G C and Pujari, D (1999) A factor analytic study of the sources of meaning in hedonic consumption, European Journal of Marketing, 33. 3&4. Pp.273-290. This study takes the theory developed in earlier qualitative papers such as Arnould and Price (1993), and uses a quantitative method (factor analysis) to endorse and extend the theory. The study does this by identifying the underlying dimensions of meaning of consumption for UK participants in kayaking. Gyimóthy, S (2000) Odysseys: analysing service journeys from the customer’s perspective, Managing Service Quality, 10. 6. pp. 389-396. This paper suggests that the typical approaches to analysis of the temporal flow of service processes (blue-printing, walk-through audits, service-mapping) are based on an operational perspective, rather than that of the consumer. Whilst service journey studies (Johns & Clark, 1993) analyse moments-of-truth (Carlzon, 1987), they still take an operational point of view. This is inappropriate, as tourists perceive the destination as an extraordinary, holistic experience. Her study takes an alternative, linguistic approach, and finds that there is a consistency between visitors holiday ideals and the way that they evaluated service providers. Suvantola, J. (2002) Tourist's Experience of Place Ashgate Based on a PhD thesis, thi book has a good review of the literature on experience from philosophical, anthropological and sociological viewpoints as well as a central focus on humanistic geography. Tourists do not simply encounter the physical space of a destination but construct their own experiential space from it according to their motivations and interpretations. Mitchell, M A & Orwig, R A (2002) Consumer experience tourism and brand bonding, Journal of Product & Brand Management, 11. 1. pp.30-41. This conceptual paper considers the growing use of manufacturing plant tours, company museums, and company visitor centres to strengthen the bond between consumers and brand. The intention is that such tourism will increase the level of personal product involvement and brand loyalty in the visitor, and that they will in turn spread positive word of mouth if their experience is an intense one. Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, January 2007 9
  • 97. Lee B and Schafer S C (2002) The dynamic nature of leisure experience: an application of Affect Control Theory, Journal of Leisure Research, 34. 3. p 290. A useful review of the literature of leisure experience. The ACT says that responses to an 'event' or incident depends on an 'evaluation, potency, action' framework influenced by the consumer's self-image. King, J. (2002) Destination marketing organizations – Connecting the experience rather than promoting the place, Journal of Vacation Marketing (8) 2, pp. 105-108. King criticises destination marketing organisations for being too focussed on promoting the physical attributes of the destination, despite travel being “increasingly more about experiences, fulfillment and rejuvenation than about places and things”. King goes on to suggest that in this new marketing environment that the role, structure and skills required by DMO’s need to be reconsidered, given that it will be in the relevance of the experience that they offer the customer that sustainable competitive advantage lies. Gilmore, J. and Pine II, B., (2002). Differentiating hospitality operations via experiences: why selling services in not enough. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, June, pp. 87-96. Drawing from the hospitality sector, the creators of the ‘experience economy’ give examples of best practice, and recommendations for improving the consumer experience. Erdly, M. & Kesterson-Townes, L. (2003) “Experience rules”: a scenario for the hospitality and leisure industry circa 2010 envisions transformation, Strategy and Leadership, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 12-18. In this “how-to” article, the authors lay out strategies for hospitality industry managers to change their manner of operation to accommodate a changing marketplace, where guests are described as being “demanding, better informed, more global, more discerning and more varied in their desires’. The approach suggested is referred to as ‘customer experience-centric’, and is basically an industry-based version of generic texts like Pine and Gilmore, or Schmitt. Poulsson, S. H.G.; Kale, S.H. The Experience Economy and Commercial Experiences The Marketing Review, Volume 4, Number 3, Autumn 2004, pp. 267-277(11) By providing an operational definition of the experience phenomenon, this paper separates the experience offering from the offering of goods and services. It also discusses how experiences create value for consumers. For an experience to provide meaningful utility, it should be perceived as personally relevant and should include elements of novelty, surprise, learning, and engagement. The authors conclude this discussion by stating that not all goods and services should be marketed as experiences in order to be successful in the marketplace Petkus, E. (2004) Enhancing the application of experiential marketing in the arts International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing. London: Feb 2004.Vol.9, Iss. 1; pg. 49, 8 pgs Petkus discusses the implications of Pine and Gilmore's work for two specific areas of arts marketing: the unique dimensions of the arts experience, and the strategic and tactical steps involved in staging an experience. The case of the Blackfriars Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, January 2007 10
  • 98. Playhouse, in Staunton, Virginia, USA is used to illustrate the relevance of their formula. Quan, S & Wang, N (2004) Towards a structural model of the tourist experience: an illustration from food experiences in tourism, Tourism Management, Vol. 25, pp. 297-305. This paper also uses the social science versus managerial framework for discussing the concept of experience, claiming that the former concentrates on ‘peak experiences’ and the latter on the ‘everyday’. The authors suggest that too much emphasis has been placed on the ‘tourist gaze’ at the expense of the consumers’ other senses and that in order to balance this visual bias, more research needs to be undertaken into the non-visual experiential components of tourism and hospitality. These include soundscapes, smellscapes, tastescapes, and the ‘geography of touch’. Gibson, H. (2004) Moving beyond the “what is and who” of sport tourism to understanding “why”, Journal of Sport Tourism, 9, 3, p247-265. Gibson, H (2005a) ‘Understanding sport tourism experiences’, In Higham, J. (ed) (2005) Sport Tourism Destinations: Issues, Opportunities and Analysis, Oxford, Butterworth Heinemann. Gibson, H (2005b) Towards an Understanding of ‘Why Sport Tourists Do What They Do’, Sport in Society Special Issue: Sport Tourism: Concepts and Theories, 8, 2, p198-217. Gibson suggests the need to move the study of sport tourism past the “what” and towards the “why”, examining some conceptual tools that could be applied to understanding and explaining sport tourism behaviour. There is a need to move beyond profiling sport tourists to understanding and explaining these profiles. The author argues for a multi-disciplinary approach that addresses both motivation and socio-economic characteristics, which will provide for a better understanding of sport tourism experiences. She concludes that the manager who understands the underpinnings of social behaviour will be able to better predict and cater to the needs and wants of their clients. In tourism, a satisfied guest is one who is more likely to return and will speak positively to friends and family about the experiences that they achieved at the sport tourism destination. [see also Weed 2005 below] Forlizzi, J and Mutlu, B D (2004) A Study of How Products Contribute to the Emotional Aspects of Human Experience. In Emotion and Experience Proceedings of the Design & Emotion Conference 2004, Ankara, Turkey. Forlizzi and Mutlu present a study that examines how ‘physical evidence’, in this case sports products, contribute to the functional and emotional experience of female athletes. Results were classified as creating the potential for a new experience, extending a current experience or recalling a past experience. The authors found that some products may be chosen for practical functions that enable athletes to remain motivated, and possibly entering ‘flow’ (Csikszentmihalyi). Other products were chosen for emotional and intellectual aesthetic qualities that ‘motivate, scintillate and help to reinforce values that assert one’s identity as an athlete’. ications/DT_DE04_Forlizzi.pdf+A+Study+of+How+Products+Contribute+to+the +Emotional+Aspects+of+Human+Experience.&hl=en&gl=uk&ct=clnk&cd=1 Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, January 2007 11
  • 99. Jennings, G. & Nickerson, N.(Ed) (2005) Quality Tourism Experiences, Elsevier. The book's overarching tenet is that 'quality' and 'experiences' are socially constructed terms. Experiences are 'brokered' or 'mediated' by an exchange between the tourists and the tourism industries. The authors investigate the role of the mass media, the role of travel providers, the role of host communities, the role of tourists, and the role of "government" at all its levels. The book draws together writers from different backgrounds and interdisciplinary interests and research methodologies, to provide a model of the way researchers can work together to illuminate the area Weed, M. (2005) Sports Tourism Theory and Method – Concepts, Issues and Epistemologies: Guest Editorial, European Sport Management Quarterly, 5,3, p229-242 Weed suggests that in the field of sport tourism research on experiences has been descriptive, and does not investigate why the experience is enjoyable and why participants would like to repeat the experience. The reason appears to come from the positivist, quantitative research design with descriptive results that are often devoid of any theoretical discussion. Uriely, N. (2005) The tourist experience: Conceptual developments, Annals of Tourism Research, 32. 1. pp. 199–216. By reviewing relevant literature, including the definition of the tourist role, typologies, authenticity, post-modern, and heritage tourism, Uriely identifies four developments in the academic understanding of the tourist experience. The first is a reconsideration of the distinctiveness of tourism from everyday life experiences; secondly, a shift from portrayals of the tourist as a general type (in the manner of early work such as Cohen or Plog), to depictions that capture the multiplicity of the tourist experience. Uriely’s third development sees a shifted focus from the displayed objects provided by the industry to the subjective negotiation of meanings as a determinant of the experience; and lastly a movement from contradictory and decisive academic discourse, which conceptualizes the experience in terms of absolute truths, toward relative and complementary interpretations. Le Bel, J L (2005) Beyond the friendly skies: an integrative framework for managing the air travel experience, Managing Service Quality, 15. 5. pp. 437- 451. Le Bel aims to integrate prior research in both the American (Parasuraman et al) and European (Grönroos) service quality traditions, and experience marketing, in order to develop a framework for experience marketing in the airline industry. This framework accounts for the temporal unfolding of the experience, and makes suggestions for implementation by management. Sits in the ‘experiential marketing’ category. Curtin, S. C. (2005) Nature, Wild Animals and Tourism: An Experiential View, Journal of Ecotourism. Vol 4. No.1 pp1-15. This paper reviews the experiential aspects of wildlife tourism consumption. It highlights the ethnocentric and anthropomorphic attraction of animals; the human desire to interact with and interpret animal behaviour, and how urbanisation has had a profound affect on our psychological and physical relationship with nature. Particular attention is given to the notions of place, existential space, authenticity and anthropomorphosis. Understanding such concepts in relation to wildlife tourism implies a new phenomenological framework for research to further explore the experiences of wildlife tourists. Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, January 2007 12
  • 100. Williams, J A & Anderson, H H (2005) Engaging customers in service creation: a theatre perspective, Journal of Services Marketing, 19. 1. pp.13-23. As experiences are becoming more participatory, the line between the role of the customer and the service provider has become blurred. This conceptual paper considers the application of drama production principles to situations where consumers co-create the service offering, taking the theatre concept further than mere scripting. The authors provide a tourism example: a potential tourist who does much of her own research may be the major designer (scriptwriter) of the experience, but a travel agent may still act as a director to co-ordinate the transport and accommodation (lead actors) that the traveller will use. Incidental aspects of the trip would correspond to the supporting cast. Williams, A (2006) Tourism and hospitality marketing: fantasy, feeling and fun, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 18. 6. pp. 482- 495. Williams argues that tourism and hospitality marketing has failed to take up the concept of experiential marketing, despite it being a ‘fundamental change(s) in the orientation of marketing’. Like King (2001) he feels that the emphasis should be less on destinations than contemporary consumers themselves, who ‘use their consumption to make statement about themselves … to create their identities and develop a sense of belonging through consumption’. The paper provides a clear introduction to the topic of tourism and experience, and discusses the work of Pine and Gilmore, Petkus, Schmitt, Ritzer, as well as Williams’ own previous work, for example: Williams A (2002) Understanding the Hospitality Consumer. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinmann Richards, G and Wilson, J (2006) Developing creativity in tourist experiences: A solution to the serial reproduction of culture? Tourism Management 27, 6. 1209-1223 As more and more places try to use cultural tourism, cultural events and creative quarters as differentiation, the authors percieve a commodification or McGuggenheimisation effect. The answer they suggest may be in creative tourism, which offers visitors the opportunity to develop their creative potential through active participation in courses and learning experiences which are characteristic of the holiday destination where they are undertaken. Jackson, C. (2006). The experiential impact of events, Events and Festivals: Education, Impacts and Experiences eds. Fleming, S. and Jordan, F. Eastbourne, Leisure Studies Association Publications This article aims to develop further an understanding of the ‘event experience’ through a review of the experience management literature. Event Mangement writers have covered the staging of the event more in terms of the technical aspects rather than a focus on the affect that the sound, lighting and set will have on the guests, and how to programme the activities to ensure engagement with them. It then explores the methods of assessing the ‘experience’ in the context of the ‘customers’ involved in an event. Morgan, M. (2006) Making space for experiences Journal of Retail and Leisure Property October 2006 To understand the elements of the visitor experience and the way in which they evaluate their satisfaction, this article suggests a holistic model of the interaction between the management and the visitor in a leisure space. It suggests that the physical and operational attributes are evaluated not through a checklist of individual features but as hinderances to the visitor's desire to make best use of the time. Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, January 2007 13
  • 101. Visitors also evaluate the experience in the light of their own values and concerns, passing judgement on the values communicated by the management. [See also Morgan, M. Festival Spaces: understanding the visitor experience Event Management (publication pending) for a fuller discussion of this research] Daengbuppha, J., Hemmington, N. & Wilkes, K, (2006), Using Grounded Theory to Model Heritage Visitor Experiences: Theoretical and Practical Issues, Qualitative Market Research; an International Journal, accepted for publication in Vol.9 No.3, 2006, in press. This paper present grounded theory as an alternative approach for modelling the consumer experience, using case studies conducted at three World Heritage Sites in Thailand. The results are a rich and deep understanding of the ways the visitors interact with the site, their interpretations of the site and the meaning it has for them. Hemmington, N.R. (2007), From Service to Experience; understanding and defining the hospitality business, The Service Industries Journal, accepted for publication in Vol.27 No.6, September 2007, in press. Also in the conference proceedings: Hemmington, N.R. (2006) .“Commercial Hospitality: from service to experience”, Council for Hospitality Management Education (CHME) Research Conference, Nottingham Trent University, 10-12 May 2006. This article suggests that, by redefining hospitality as behaviour and experience, a new perspective emerges that has exciting implications for the management of hospitality businesses. A framework to describe hospitality in the commercial domain is proposed. This framework suggests a focus on the host-guest relationship, generosity, theatre and performance, “lots of little surprises”, and the security of strangers; a focus that provides guests with experiences that are personal, memorable and add value to their lives. Implications for Teaching and Learning Very little has been written about the implications of the experience perspectives on the curriculum and teaching methods of HLST degree courses. Morgan, M E (2004) From production line to drama school: higher education for the future of tourism, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 16, 4, 2004 Morgan asks whether the business management focus of most tourism courses is the best preparation for the future development of tourism. In the future, tourism will be part of the 'experience economy' with a new theatrical metaphor replacing the current 'military' strategy model. To succeed in this economy, he argues, graduates will need to draw on qualities of self-awareness, imagination and creativity. Higher education in tourism may need to rediscover these liberal humanistic values in order to fulfil its managerial objectives of creating successful business managers. For an example of a course based on the experience perspective: Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, January 2007 14
  • 102. Master in Imagineering NHTV University of Applied Sciences, Breda, The Netherlands In a creative economy there is a growing need for high level professionals who can create and innovate value from the experience perspective. This Master in Imagineering is designed as a roadmap for that new ‘outside-in enterprise logic’. Nowadays, people are driven much more by values of self-expression rather than those of rudimentary survival. They have a deep need to make sense of their lives in ways that are unique and personal. One of the most distinct ways in which this is manifested, is the new individual’s consumption pattern, by means of their choices they create their own identity. In our society, consumption is an absolute necessity, not a luxury. Suggested Delivery and Assessment The key points of the Experience Management concept can be delivered as a single lecture, for example as part of an introductory module in a Hospitality, Leisure Sport Events or Tourism programme. However, as we hope this Guide has demonstrated, a focus on consumer experiences has implications for a range of disciplines such as Strategic Management, Marketing, Consumer Behaviour and Operations Management across all our sectors. The readings in the Guide can be used by tutors in these disciplines to make students question conventional approaches and suggest how the insights of the experience-perspective can be implemented. A good starting point for learning exercises would be the students' own experience. They could be asked to go out to a leisure venue such as a club, restaurant, attraction or activity and make notes or an audio diary. They could then report back on the experience under a number of headings from the literature such as those of Beard and Ragheb (1983), Otto and Ritchie (1996) Pine and Gilmore (1999) Quan & Wang (2004) or Morgan (2006) - covering both the external Experience Management and the internal Consumer Experience elements. The fields of Consumer Experience and Experience Management can provide interesting topics for dissertations at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels, for example exploring: What are the elements of a particular leisure or tourism experience? How do consumers evaluate their experience? How can managers enhance it to gain competitive advantage? Dissertations of this kind will need to consider alternative, qualitative methods to produce insights into the minds of the consumers. This therefore has implications for the content of the Research Methods modules used to prepare students for their dissertations. This guide contains a number of examples of such methodologies for students and their supervisors to draw on. Annotated Guide to Internet Resources Searching for Customer Experience Management websites will mainly result in sites selling CEM software, or the services of consultants such as those mentioned under Management Books above. The following sites may provide useful academic or practical sources. Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, January 2007 15
  • 103. Lapland Centre of Expertise for the Experience Industry (LCEEI), Finland The Experience Institute -project University of Lapland Kylänen, M (ed.)(2006) Articles on Experiences, 2nd. Ed. Rovaniemi, University of Lapland Press This online publication is a collection of thirteen papers with a multi-disciplinary approach to the concept of the experience economy – including design, tourism, psychology, marketing, consumer research, sociology and business economics. Four of the articles are in English, but the remainder are in Finnish. Great Hospitality, Auckland, New Zealand: Extraordinary Experiences A commercial website that showcases the firm’s use of extraordinary experiences for high levels of customer satisfaction. Eirepreneur: Doing microbusiness in Ireland A blog recounting a personal instance of an extraordinary experience. European Centre for the Experience Economy, Universiteit Van Amsterdam Trendwatching An independent consumer trends firm that relies on a global network of 8,000 spotters in more than 120 countries worldwide. Offers a trends database, and e-mail newsletter subscription. Conferences Hahhti, A(ed.), (2001) Proceedings of the First Entrepreneurship In Tourism And The Contexts Of Experience Economy Conference, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland, 4-7 April 2001. Proceedings of the Second Entrepreneurship In Tourism And The Contexts Of Experience Economy Conference, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland, 4-7 April 2003. The themes of this guide will be explored in an Extraordinary Experiences conference, Bournemouth University, September 3 & 4, 2007: management/news_events_conferences/exordin_exper_conf.html Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, January 2007 16
  • 104. About the Author This Resource Guide was compiled by Michael Morgan and Pamela Watson with assistance from other members of the School of Services Management, Bournemouth University, UK. © Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network 2007 Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network, January 2007 17
  • 105. 5 Elements of Research5 Elements of Research (Lecture 1)(Lecture 1) ‘A good piece of research is very much like a good movie’ - Bernard Lew
  • 106. Research Problems & ApplicationsResearch Problems & Applications Problems areProblems are distinctdistinct CommunicatedCommunicated clearlyclearly Problem: •Vampires living in day time •Vampires falling in love with the “prey” •When you can live forever, what do you live for? Communicate/application? •Vampires looking like humans (visual) •Twilight- neither day nor night •Appeal to Gen Ys
  • 107. 2: Hypotheses & Objectives2: Hypotheses & Objectives Research Questions ( a kind of speculation)Research Questions ( a kind of speculation) When you can live forever, what do you live for?When you can live forever, what do you live for? PropositionProposition (Well if you are )(Well if you are )Vampire(sVampire(s)), then you can, then you can fall in lovefall in love withwith humans after you are bored with vampires.humans after you are bored with vampires. Hypothesis (Scoped down)Hypothesis (Scoped down) The closerThe closer a vampire gets to a humana vampire gets to a human the more he/shethe more he/she wants to eatwants to eat that human being rather than love them.that human being rather than love them. ObjectiveObjective 1.1. ToTo convinceconvince GenGen YsYs that vampires are lovable creatures.that vampires are lovable creatures. 2.2. ToTo demonstratedemonstrate that some vampires can live in broadthat some vampires can live in broad daylight.daylight. 3.3. ToTo showshow that some human beings are worst thanthat some human beings are worst than vampires.vampires.
  • 108. Conceptual Framework &Conceptual Framework & Best PracticeBest Practice AcceptedAccepted ComprehensiveComprehensive Accepted and comprehensive plot: The entire series is based around the classic journey of the hero -- in the case of "Star Wars," Luke Skywalker -- but the first three films are focused on Luke's father, Anakin, who becomes the evil Darth Vader. Knows nothing Trains & masters Corrupt & Evil
  • 109. 4:Kind of Data &4:Kind of Data & Research InstrumentResearch Instrument Relevance (Suitable?)Relevance (Suitable?) Feasible (Can it be completed?)Feasible (Can it be completed?) Can kids follow? Animated & minimal talking Is the saga complete?
  • 110. #5 Bibliography#5 Bibliography Famous? Beginning RelevanceRelevance SourceSource Documented proofDocumented proof Ending
  • 111. Lecture 2:Writing the Research Proposal By Bernard Lew
  • 112. The research ‘onion’ Source: © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2006
  • 113. Philosophy and Motivation
  • 114. What is Hospitality and Tourism research? “Social science research is carried out using the methods and traditions of social science. Social science differs from the physical or natural sciences in that it deals with people and their social behaviour, and people are less predictable than non-human phenomena. People can be aware of the research being conducted about them and are not therefore purely passive subjects; they can react to the results of research and change their behaviour accordingly. People in different parts of the world and at different times behave differently. The social world is constantly changing, so it is rarely possible to replicate research at different times or in different places and obtain similar results.” (Veal, 2006)
  • 115. The Research Process A general approach: 1. Desire/need to do research (motivation) 2. Formulating and clarifying the topic (proposal) 3. Reviewing the literature (background, theory and approach) 4. Choosing a research strategy (research design) 5. Collecting data (primary and secondary) 6. Analysing data (statistics-descriptive and inferential) 7. Reporting the findings (dissertation write-up)
  • 116. Why Do We Do Research? (Babbie, 1995; Veal 2005) Exploration (“what if?”, “is it so?”) – Uncovering issues of concern – Increasing understanding of the problem Description – Finding out, describing what is – What is the situation? Where are we now?
  • 117. Why Do We Do Research? (continued) Explanation (“why”, “because”) – Explaining how or why things are as they are (and using this to predict) – Answering questions, solving problems, testing theories Evaluation research (“should”, “ought”, “good”, “bad”) – evaluation of policies, strategies, programs and practices.
  • 118. *Gastronomy and Tourism: Motivation of Research Our sensory perceptions play a major psychological and physiological role in our appraisal and appreciation of food, as they do for other experiences at a destination. Consumption of food especially when dining out is a pleasurable sensory experience, hence the pleasure factor or the “feel good” factor as a result of food consumption at a destination is a “pull factor” and a marketing and merchandising tool that must not be underestimated. For this reason, one can argue that tourists often place considerable emphasis on how they feel at a destination, and how they experience what the destination offers, by carefully selecting that special restaurant and/or food that might fulfill a particular personal desire (Richards, 2002). Although many studies identify and address factors that affect destination choice and image, very few empirical studies address the role that gastronomy plays in the way tourists experience the destination. Equally, although the relationship between gastronomy and tourism is affirmed in select social sciences literature, very few studies are reported in the hospitality literature that specifically address the gastronomy and tourism relationship. source:*Kivela, J. and Crotts, J.C. (2006). Tourism and gastronomy:gastronomy’s influence on how touirsts experience a destination, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 30(3):354-377.
  • 119. There are two main research approaches: deduction and induction. With deduction, a theory and hypothesis (or hypotheses) are developed and a research strategy designed to test the hypothesis. With induction, data are collected and a theory developed as a result of the data analysis.
  • 120. Indicative Area and Title
  • 121. Indicative Areas (Veal, 2005) Existing tourists Potential tourists Staffing Industry/business performance Competitors Legal issues Sales Products/Services Organizational culture Productivity Organizational & Country Strategy Quality (service & experience) Business and government policy Finance and revenue management Training and staff development Information technology Human Resources & Industrial relations Organisational environment Managerial effectiveness Communication Organisational development
  • 122. Example of Dissertation Topics Good : A qualitative study of youth travelers’ preferences and motivation on the infrastructure investments in Berjaya Beach Resort Tioman. Poor: Potential of Event Management in Hotels
  • 123. Another Topic: Tourism and Gastronomy Tourism and gastronomy: gastronomy’s influence on how tourists experience a destination. – Nature of research: gastronomy and its link to destination image – Scope-Keywords: gastronomy, tourism, dining-out experience; Hong Kong source:*Kivela, J. and Crotts, J.C. (2006). Tourism and gastronomy:gastronomy’s influence on how touirsts experience a destination, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 30(3):354-377.
  • 124. Literature Review & Theoretical Foundation
  • 125. The Literature Review What is the current thinking (state- of- the art or science)? Where are the gaps in knowledge? Who are the key thinkers and contributors? How is research conducted in this area? When- sequence of the issues. (chronology)
  • 126. Theories Theories are nets cast to catch what we call “the world”: to rationalize, to explain, and to master it. We endeavor to make the mesh ever finer and finer. Karl R. Popper
  • 127. A theory is … “A coherent set of general propositions used as principles of explanation of the apparent relationships of certain observed phenomena” (Zikmund 2003, p41).
  • 128. An example of a theoretical Framework Labor market conditions, number of organizations, etc Perceived ease of movement (e.g. job satisfaction) Perceived desirability of movement (e.g. job satisfaction) Equity of pay, job complexity, participation in decision making, etc Job performance Intention to quit Voluntary job turnover (Zikmund 2003, p45)
  • 129. Research Design and Sampling Frame
  • 130. 3. Specification of level of analysis Individual or aggregate data collectionanalysis Implications for data collection, analyses, prediction, generalizability, and explanation
  • 131. What units of Analysis? Individuals: (e.g. residents, workers, voters, parents, students). Key term - population Groups (e.g. gangs, families). Their characteristics may be derived from the characteristics of their individual members - age, ethnicity, education of the head. Organizations (e.g. corporations, churches, colleges, army divisions, academic departments). their characteristics may be derived form facts like number of employees, et annual profits, assets, contracts . Social Artefacts (automobiles, clothes, building, pottery, jokes, scientific discoveries.)
  • 132. What Points of Focus ? Profiles: e.g. sex, age height, marital status Orientations: e.g. attitudes, beliefs, personality traits etc. Behaviour/fads/concerns: e.g. eco-friendly, starting young, sustainability
  • 133. What Time Dimension? Cross-sectional: mostly descriptive and exploratory Longitudinal: permitting observations over an extended period of time (trend studies, cohort studies, panel studies: same set of people studied all the time) -
  • 134. Analyses and Discussions
  • 135. Tasks: Chart a mind map/keep a journal that contains: • Information on sources (publication, issues) • Description of likely relationships between source (What was said, reasoning) Step 1:Descriptive Aspects (Good) Source: Issues: Descriptive: •Lifestyle (mobility) •Economics (expenditure) •Geo-political constraints (policies) What is the Scope?
  • 136. Step 1: Descriptive Aspects (poor) Source: Issues: Definition instead of description: •What is a event? •What is management? Tasks: Chart a mind map/keep a journal that contains: • Information on sources (publication, issues) • Description of likely relationships between source (What was said, reasoning) What is the Scope?
  • 137. Step 2: Explanative Aspects (Good) Tasks • Identify a theoretical framework that establishes relationships. • What theory can I use? Depends on the area Issues: Sources of motivation and perception: •Collective behavior- sociology of youth tourism •Individual preference- psychology of tourism Source: Reasons, Reasons, Reasons!
  • 138. Step 2:Explanative Aspects (poor) Issues: Stating instead of explaining - repeating standard theory •Functions of Management •SWOT analysis Source: Reasons, Reasons, Reasons! Tasks • Identify a theoretical framework that establishes relationships. • What theory can I use? Depends on the area
  • 139. Step 3 :Applicative/evaluative Aspects (Good) Tasks: We have a description … We have an explanation… We need a context! Issues: Marketing implications for Berjaya beach resorts-Tioman, Malaysia: • Domestic youth market share • International youth market share (promotional programs) • Youth customer feedback (satisfaction) • Perception/expectation of infrastructure (investments levels) Source: Make it practical!
  • 140. Step 3: Applicative Aspects (poor) No application but just a write up on the topic of event management •Does not state the context for application- company, country etc. Source: a.jpg Make it practical! Tasks: We have a description … We have an explanation… We need a context!
  • 141. Summarizing the Research
  • 142. A qualitative study of youth travelers’ preferences and motivation on the infrastructure investments in Berjaya Beach Resort Tioman. Title keywords Example Area Infrastructure investments Nature of Research Qualitative study Focus group Youth Travelers Qualitative features Preferences (variables) Motivation (variables) Context Berjaya Beach Resort
  • 143. Potential of Event Management in Hotels (Poor) Title keywords Example Context Hotels (general?) Nature of Research Impact study? Focus group unknown Quantitative/qualitative features What are the variables? Area Event management
  • 144. Suggestions and exercises Written -“mini drafts” These ‘mini drafts’ will be the skeleton from which the rest of the contents of the dissertation will be developed. Corresponds to the requirements in the six sections of the “Dissertation Discussion Log”- consult dissertation template Deliverables brought to class for tutor feedback
  • 145. Problem Formulation &Problem Formulation & Applicability of ResearchApplicability of Research (Lecture 3)(Lecture 3) •Unique and Distinct •Bounded and scoped •Clearly Communicated and Articulated •Of Significance to the Industry Can someone please tell me what this movie is all about?
  • 146. UniquenessUniqueness Fills a gap?Fills a gap? People can understand on firstPeople can understand on first viewing/reading?viewing/reading? With the help of the Autobots, the soldiers of NEST, and an old adversary-turned-ally, Sam and Mikaela must uncover the secret history of the Transformers presence on earth, and the sacrifices that have to be made to save it from an ancient threat sworn on returning here for revenge... an ancient Decepticon named THE FALLEN.
  • 147. What Gap?What Gap? Knowledge GapKnowledge Gap TheoryTheory≠≠PracticePractice What do weWhat do we not knownot know?? --The presentThe present ““realityreality”” is notis not RealityReality --Our present understandingOur present understanding is wrongis wrong??
  • 148. Bounded and ScopedBounded and Scoped ContextContext StakeholderStakeholder What category does this movie belong to?
  • 149. What begins must endWhat begins must end No multiple readings (multipleNo multiple readings (multiple endings/beginnings)endings/beginnings) No need to cultivate a knowledge baseNo need to cultivate a knowledge base (have you read the book?)(have you read the book?)
  • 150. Significance to the IndustrySignificance to the Industry UnderstandingUnderstanding DecisionsDecisions PracticePractice
  • 151. Lecture 4 Writing the Problem Statement
  • 152. The term research philosophy relates to the development of knowledge and the nature of that knowledge. Philosophy ties Theory to Practice Research Philosophy Impacting on Problems
  • 153. Your research philosophy contains important assumptions about the way in which you view the world. Practice:This relates to a personal issue; a teacher or text book cannot provide the right answer, they can only supply suggestions and explanations. Theoretical: To use the suitable theories in your research project, you must identify those which best fit with you and your views Balancing Theory and Practice
  • 154. AxiologyAxiologyEpistemologyEpistemology Positivsim Realism Objectivism Interpretivism Pragmatism OntologyOntology Philosophical Components and Stand in Research
  • 155. There are three major ways of thinking about research philosophy: – Epistemology, – Ontology and – axiology. Each contains important differences that will influence the way in which you think about the research process and problem.
  • 156. Epistemology concerns what constitutes acceptable knowledge in a field of study. Epistemology deals with the questions: – "What is knowledge?", – "How is knowledge acquired?", – "What do people know?",
  • 157. Epistemology Summary What is knowable and worth knowing?
  • 158. Ontology is a branch of philosophy which is concerned with the nature of social phenomena as entities. Ontology deals with the questions: – "What exists", – "What is", – "What am I",
  • 159. Ontology Summary What is my/kind of reality?
  • 160. Axiology is a branch of philosophy that studies judgments about value. It includes thinking on ethics: – The identification of what is ‘good’ and the means by which this ‘good’ state is achieved. And aesthetics: – The understanding of seeing and perceiving the world. An understanding of axiology is very important to identify and analyse the influence of bias and prejudices on research.
  • 161. Axiology Summary What do I cherish and hold as being important?
  • 162. Social science paradigms can be used in management and business research to generate fresh insights into real life issues and problems. Paradigms draw together a number of complimentary theories. The four paradigms explained in the chapter were: – functionalist; – interpretive; – radical humanist; and – radical structuralist.
  • 163. Functionalists see society as a result of the mass interaction between individuals. This interaction, over time develops a complex society, something like the development of a living organism, or like evolution. Rules and regulations order the interaction between individuals. Criticism of functionalist thinking says that it does not account for major changes to society, such as revolutions. It is also criticised for being teleological – describing rather than analysing society.
  • 164. Also known as Interactionism, the Interpretive paradigm identifies the individual as possessing the capacity to change society. Individuals social interactions are analysed to identify specific actions which have major impacts on their society and surroundings. This paradigm can be criticised for being too specific, findings are deliberately limited to each case and are never more broadly applicable. This can therefore limit findings to substantive theories and research.
  • 165. In this view the consciousness of man is dominated by the ideological superstructures with which he interacts, These drive a cognitive wedge between himself and his true consciousness, which prevents human fulfilment. These theorists are mainly concerned with releasing the social constraints that bind potential. Most of this paradigm is actually anti-organisation.
  • 166. Radical Structuralists believe that radical change is built into the nature of societal structures. "Contemporary society is characterised by fundamental conflicts which generate radical change through political and economic crises”. It is based on mature Marx, followed by Engles, Lenin and Bukharin. org_site/org_theory/Scott_articles /burrell_morgan.html
  • 167. Different Problem Angles to the Same Topic
  • 168. Cultural, Historic, Scenic & Recreation Resource Preservation Problem Statement #1 (Identify) How do we identify historic, cultural, aesthetic, scenic and recreation resources in the Highlands region given that many are unknown and some private landowners are reluctant to volunteer presence of resources on their properties?
  • 169. Cultural, Historic, Scenic & Recreation Resource Preservation Problem Statement #2 (Educate) How do we promote the protection of cultural, historic, scenic and recreation resources in communities, with a special focus on those areas identified as appropriate for growth? Promotion analogy : traffic lights and notices
  • 170. Cultural, Historic, Scenic & Recreation Resource Preservation Problem Statement #3 (Conserve) How do we ensure that the security and safety of sites are not compromised when resources are publicly identified? “Not compromised” analogy : the zebra crossing
  • 171. Cultural, Historic, Scenic & Recreation Resource Preservation Problem Statement #4 (Brand) How do we develop a regional identity for the Highlands to promote tourism and in the process protect historic, cultural scenic, archaeological and recreation resources Identity analogy : the picture speaks on its own
  • 172. Cultural, Historic, Scenic & Recreation Resource Preservation Problem Statement #5 (Enforce) What mechanisms and resources are needed to support stewardship of historic, archaeological, cultural and recreation resources on public lands? How do we reconcile potential conflicts between activities that promote tourism and recreationand natural/historic resource protection goals of the Highlands?
  • 173. Research Hypotheses &Research Hypotheses & ObjectivesObjectives (Lecture 5)(Lecture 5) Motivations Propositions Hypotheses Objective: Life isn't measured in minutes, but in moments Tells the story of Benjamin Button, a man who starts aging backwards with bizarre consequences. Significance: Love across the age gap & overlap
  • 174. PropositionsPropositions David Fincher (director): Yes, everybody dies. Source of transcript: transcript David Fincher: [I also have rules of thumb about dialogue.] For example, I feel that most people, when they speak, are lying. So, I'm looking at the eyes, David Fincher: "My best stuff was when I had a lot of energy after my mochaccino and now my energy's gone,"
  • 175. Research QuestionsResearch Questions Proposition #1:Proposition #1:““ I was born under unusualI was born under unusual circumstances.circumstances.””-- Benjamin ButtonBenjamin Button Q1 : What happens ifQ1 : What happens if ““ (You) I was (are)(You) I was (are) born under unusual circumstancesborn under unusual circumstances““?? Proposition #2 :I've always beenProposition #2 :I've always been impressed by your visual flair andimpressed by your visual flair and atmosphere of your films.atmosphere of your films. Q2: How do you conceive that look andQ2: How do you conceive that look and feel in your mind and how do you conveyfeel in your mind and how do you convey that to your cinematographer?that to your cinematographer?
  • 176. HypothesesHypotheses ……because as you get older you lose fat tissue inbecause as you get older you lose fat tissue in your face and so your eyes recede. It's calledyour face and so your eyes recede. It's called ""skullingskulling".". And people get gaunter as they get older, and weAnd people get gaunter as they get older, and we couldn't do that with traditional makeupcouldn't do that with traditional makeup techniques.techniques. Source of transcript: transcript
  • 177. Research ObjectivesResearch Objectives To CastTo Cast –– ““So what we decided to do was castSo what we decided to do was cast actors to play Benjamin at different heights, andactors to play Benjamin at different heights, and got them to wear blue socks on their heads andgot them to wear blue socks on their heads and lopped their heads off and put Brad's head onlopped their heads off and put Brad's head on them, which is easier than it sounds.them, which is easier than it sounds.”” Source of transcript: transcript • To makeup- “So we wanted the audience to go, "Wow, those are his ears, just bigger and droopier. That is his nose, just a little bit bigger and droopier."
  • 178. Significance of ResearchSignificance of Research David Fincher:David Fincher: I just thoughtI just thought the final image of a 74the final image of a 74--yearyear--oldold woman holding a sevenwoman holding a seven--monthmonth--old baby and helping him throughold baby and helping him through death,death, I just thoughtI just thought it was a beautiful way to end a love was a beautiful way to end a love story. Source of transcript: transcript David Fincher: We live in a silly time, and people go to the movies to see something that they haven't seen before, and you have to promise to show them that.
  • 179. Lecture 6-Abstraction & Operationalization
  • 180. Theory Hypothesis Mental Constructs Sensory Experience1 32 Observation induction testingImmanuel Kant Physical Reality deduction analogy
  • 181. Flow of a Investigation General Specific General – general hypothesis conceptual variables operational definitions measured variables specific predictions – determine population select sample measure sample descriptive statistics – if predicted relationship is observed in sample, use inferential statistics to decide whether relationship is likely to be found in population – if so, then we generalize our conclusions from the sample to the population
  • 182. Scientific Method involves: 1. Theory = an integrated set of principles that explain and predict facts 2. Hypothesis = a prediction of what is the case (fact) based on theory 3. Observation = a comparison of hypothesis to what is the case
  • 183. Brief Review of Research Model / Hypothesis
  • 184. Research is Argument
  • 185. Conceptual Model …Hypothesis
  • 186. Different Levels of Abstraction Most abstract -------- Conceptual Model Grand Theory Middle-range theory Most concrete ------- Empirical research methods
  • 187. Concept A concept is a word or phrase that summarizes the essential characteristics or properties of a phenomenon. A proposition is a statement about a concept or a relation between concepts. A construct usually means a concept that is complex or inferred. A variable refers to the concrete, measured values.
  • 188. Hypothesis Hypotheses are special types of propositions that represents conjectures about the concepts of middle- range theories stated in empirically testable forms. (Concepts are linked to empirical indicators. But many reports use concepts directly in the hypothesis.)
  • 189. Example 1 Proposition: There is a phenomenon known as X. Hypothesis: The phenomenon known as X is empirically demonstrated by X’ X X’
  • 190. Example 2 Proposition: There is a relation between X and Y. Hypothesis: X’ and Y’ are related. X X’ Y Y’
  • 191. Example 3 Proposition: There is a negative relation between loneliness and cognitive functioning. Hypothesis: The higher the score on the Revised Loneliness Scale, the lower the score on the Mental Status Examination.
  • 192. Example 4 Proposition: There is a strong positive relation between walking exercise and physical functioning, such that moderate walking exercise is associated with much better physical functioning than usual care. Hypothesis: The difference in scores on the 12-minute walk test between the experimental moderate walking exercise program group and the control usual care group signify a large effect size, with higher scores for the experimental group.
  • 193. Example 5 Hypothesis: Groups will make fewer spreadsheet development errors than will individuals working alone. What are the constructs & relations?
  • 194. Example 6 Hypothesis: If individuals sustain a distinction between entities and attributes, they will recall an item that represents an entity first during a recall task. What are the constructs & relations?
  • 195. Examples (bad) Hypothesis: Gender has higher speed. Hypothesis: Good interfaces lead to better interaction. Hypothesis: Old men have higher anxiety about computer applications. Checks 1) How are these measured? 2) How are the measurements to be related? 3) What are the comparison groups?
  • 196. Conceptual Model A conceptual model is a set of relatively abstract and general concepts and the propositions that describe or link those concepts. A conceptual model shows the relevant phenomena, while ignoring less important phenomena.
  • 197. Theory A theory is a set of relatively concrete and specific concepts and the propositions that describe or link these concepts. Grand theory: broader, more abstract Middle-range theory: narrower, more concrete (could be tested) Theories allow us to explain or unite phenomena.
  • 198. Theory –Example 1 Technology acceptance model - constructs: perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, intention to use - Relations among constructs - Measurement items PU PEOU IU
  • 199. Theory –Example 2 Fitts’ Law - Movement time (for a device) is a function of the distance and width of the target. - MT=a + b log2(D/W + 1)
  • 200. Theory –Example 3 Hick’s Law - Time taken to choose between a number N of alternative targets. - Time=a + b log2(N + 1)
  • 201. Theory –Example 4 Levels of analysis theories A 4-level theory (Foley et al., 1995) Conceptual level (user’s mental model) Semantic level (input/output meanings) Syntactic level (sequence of input actions) Lexical (precise mechanisms for input) See Ch 2 of Shneiderman & Plasiant
  • 202. Theory –Example 5 Stages of action model (Norman, 1988) Cycles of action and evaluation Forming goal, forming intention, specifying action, executing action, perceiving system state, interpreting system state, evaluating outcome. Gulf of execution / evaluation See Ch 2 of Shneiderman & Plasiant
  • 203. Theory –Example 6 GOMS model (Card et al., 1983) Goals (e.g. to delete some words) Operators (mouse, delete key) Methods (the sequence of actions) Selection (rules to choose among alternative methods) See Ch 2 of Shneiderman & Plasiant
  • 204. Types of Theory Descriptive – what is (descriptive) Explanatory – why (correlational) Predictive – does an intervention result in the intended effect (experimental)
  • 205. Theory / Hypothesis Theory – General statements regarding the relationship between two or more variables. An attempt to classify, explain, predict, and to understand the ‘why and how’ of real events that deal with crime and criminal justice issues. In contrast, methodology attempts to explain ‘what is.’ Hypothesis – Specific statements regarding the relationship of two or more variables which are derived from general theories.
  • 206. Qualitative versus Quantitative Qualitative or “ethnographic” research tends to sensitize concepts as a basis for fundamental understanding (verstehen). Examples include participant observation, field studies, and interviews. Quantitative or “empirical” research is designed to operationalize and numerically measure variables for statistical analysis.
  • 207. Problems-> Questions->Hypotheses Problems (observation) Declining visitors at a leisure/tourism site What solutions am I seeking? Questions (context) Why have visitors declined in 2007 at Museum Negara? I am seeking an answer for? Hypotheses (hunch) Visitors at Museum Negara declined because of the emergence of other museums in K.L. I want to test/prove “true” or “false” for a statement/view that I hold to.
  • 208. Steps Towards Framing the Problem, Questions and Hypotheses Step 1: Frame the problem- make sure your problem is in a specific applied area (e.g. rate of visits to a tourist destination). Step 2: Ask relevant questions-brainstorm or use your mind map or research diary to identify possible descriptions of relationships (e.g. what kind of visitors? Which tourist attraction? What year?). Step 3: Formulate hypotheses-based on a literature search that provides a tentative explanation (e.g. decline in awareness, substitute attractions, government policies etc.). Step 4: If step 3 cannot be achieved. Repeat steps 1 through 3.
  • 209. Problems (observation) Successful tourist destinations (destination management) I can solve the problem of sustainability (long term success) Questions (context) What aspects of the butterfly farm contributed to its success as tourist destination? (success factors) I know what the contributors to (factors of) success are. How these factors are linked to long term success. Hypotheses (hunch) It is possible to come up with a common success recipe for all nature destinations. (tool for measurement) The usefulness of this tool is tested by using it on a butterfly farm and a cactus farm Good Example: A Conceptual Tool to Measure the Success of Tourist Attractions: Case Study of a Butterfly & Cactus Farm in Cameron Highlands
  • 210. Problems (observation) Customer satisfaction What does the organization have to do to go beyond sales and achieve customer loyalty? Questions (context) What are the three levels of customer expectation? The research mentioned 3 levels of customer expectations but was unable to objectively show the difference between them. Hypotheses (hunch) Customer satisfaction suffers when the company fails to deliver on: “Moments of truth”(MT) “Word of mouth” (WM) The research needs to show: satisfaction= expectations met expectations =MT +WM expectations can be treated as a hierarchy of three levels. Poor Example: A Research on Customer Satisfaction
  • 211. Operationalization
  • 212. Subjectivity is Bad for Research In the “customer satisfaction” example subjectivity takes the form: 3 levels of expectations (assumptions, meeting requirements and delightfulness) WM and MT cannot be measured effectively. If expectations have three levels to it then where should we fit WM and MT.
  • 213. Concept (or Construct) “A generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences, or processes that has been given a name” (Zikmund 2003, p41) Building blocks that abstract reality – “leadership,” “productivity,” and “morale” – “gross national product,” “asset,” and “inflation”
  • 214. VegetationVegetation FruitFruit BananaBanana RealityReality Increasinglymoreabstract A ladder of abstraction for concepts (Zikmund 2003, p42)
  • 215. CONCEPTS OBSERVATION OF OBJECTS AND EVENTS (REALITY) Empirical Level Abstract Level Concepts are abstractions of reality (Zikmund 2003, p42)
  • 216. Theory, abstraction and reality TheoriesTheories PropositionsPropositions ConceptsConcepts RealityReality Increasinglymoreabstract
  • 217. Conceptual Frameworks & BestConceptual Frameworks & Best PracticesPractices (Lecture 7)(Lecture 7) •Accepted •Comprehensive •Variations on a theme The Power of Universal Mythology- Joseph Campbell’s Hero With a Thousand Faces.
  • 218. AcceptanceAcceptance •Where do you get your plot (research) templates? •Accepted and authoritative sources Source:
  • 219. (Separation) Comprehensive
  • 220. Variations on a theme
  • 221. CausalCausal-- Explanative FrameworkExplanative Framework Origin versus End ; Higher versus Lower Order
  • 222. ProcessProcess--Procedural FrameworkProcedural Framework Necessary versus Sufficient
  • 223. Lecture 8-Research Design and Sampling By Bernard Lew
  • 224. Checklist 1. Have you formulated a hypothesis (hunch) that suggest how things should work out? 2. Do your research questions (not questionnaire questions) clarify relationships and contexts? 3. Is your research problem in a specific applied area? 4. Have you discussed these issues with your tutor? 5. Have you shown your part 1 (draft) to your tutor?
  • 225. Planning your proposal Objectives List each of the research objectives. Info Required For each objective develop a list of the information required Type of data Identify the type of data for each item of information Method or Source Identify a method of obtaining each piece of information and the the source of that information Analysis Specify likely analysis techniques that might affect how the data should be gathered
  • 226. Research Objectives: Tourism and Gastronomy *This study’s objective is to identify areas of commonality in the way tourists perceive and experience gastronomy while visiting a destination. Specifically: 1. Is there a gastronomy-tourism market segment? 2. Does a destination’s gastronomy contribute to the tourists’ quality of experiences while visiting the destination? *Kivela, J. and Crotts, J.C. (2006). Tourism and gastronomy:gastronomy’s influence on how touirsts experience a destination, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 30(3):354-377.
  • 227. Poor Example: Organic Food Researcher SUPPOSED TO HAVE INVESTIGATED: Current situation in organic market Malaysia Perceptions of market players towards organic sector Problems faced by farmers when planning for organic farming and applying for certificates Problems faced by wholesalers and retailers in their business Problems faced by customers during purchase the organic products Problems faced by government to implement the certification system BUT INSTEAD INVESTIGATED: Levels of involvement (current situation?) Sensitivity to prices (current situation?) Frequency of consumption Typologies of consumers Accessibility (problems faced by customer?)
  • 228. 1. Consumption pattern (focus of research) 2. Cake house vs. non-cake house (units of analysis) 3. (Factors/determinants) of concern when purchasing such products (health, convenience and pleasure) 4. (Application/recommendation) What cake house concept is preferred and where to locate among 4 areas (can be inferred from 1 through 3) Good Example: Patterns of Consumption Between Cake House and Non-Cake House
  • 229. Sample Selection A sample is intended to be representative of a particular population Since we do not have all the time and money in the world we need a “representative sample” (ie. “mini” population): a sample whose characteristics and behaviors accurately reflect those of the population. Such that the results we get from the sample are similar to the results we would get if we actually measured the entire population
  • 230. Sampling Procedure How do we get a representative sample? – Best way: random sampling of individuals from the population – Avoiding “selection bias”: every member of the population should have an equal chance of being selected for the sample – When problems arise what is the alternative? • Purposive sampling, theoretical sampling, stratified sampling
  • 231. Methods for estimating sample size Judgement Statistical precision Cost limitations Industry standards Standard Error Sample size
  • 232. Factors indicating a small sample Populations are homogeneous Analysis does not require investigation of sub- samples Budget and/or time constraints When costs increase dramatically as sample size increases More may not be better
  • 233. Arguments often used to support the need for large samples sizes Decisions made on the basis of the data have significant consequences A high level of confidence is required in all estimates
  • 234. Industry standards Survey - 200/1000 Concept tests - 100/200 per variant Advertising tests - 200/300 per variant Focus groups - 6/8 sessions per region Source: Adapted from Dillion, 1993 Richard D Irwin
  • 235. Formulas for sample size determination Based on means n = desired sample size S = standard deviation pilot study or rule of thumb z = confidence interval judgement or calculation E = magnitude of error judgement 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ = E zS n
  • 236. Poor Example: Organic Food Statistically insignificant: Interviewed 2 farmers from highlands (Cameron Highlands) and 1 farmer from lowlands (Kajang) Interviewed 4 wholesalers and 4 retailers in Klang Valley. Selected the bigger companies or major players for the interview. Interviewed 15 consumers who are loyal consumers Interviewed 2 other players in macro-environment who are government (SOM) and private sector (CETDEM)
  • 237. Good Example: Patterns of Consumption Between Cake House and Non-Cake house Elements Particulars Sampling Size 240 (Qualified: 203, Disqualified: 37) Ulu Tiram Kota Tinggi Skudai Tampoi Age Group 18 & below 19 – 24 25 – 31 32 – 37 12% 18% 35% 18% 38 – 43 44 – 49 50 & above 10% 5% 2.5% Gender Male 28% Female 72% Monthly Income RM1,000 & below RM1,001 – RM2,000 RM2,001 – RM 3,000 RM3,001 & above 51% 28% 12% 9% Education Level Primary & below Secondary Tertiary 1% 53% 46% Occupation Student Managerial Administrative Self-Employed 20% 18% 24% 5% Housewife Retired Others 3% 1% 29% Table 3.1 Profile of Respondents Sampling Area
  • 238. A. Reports of Fact - self-disclosure of some objective information (e.g., profiles: age, gender, education, behavior) B. Ratings of Opinion or Preference - evaluative response to statement (e.g., rankings: satisfaction, agreement, likedislike) C. Reports of Intended Behavior - self-disclosure of motivation or intention (e.g., open-ended/exploratory: likeliness, willingness) Types of Data Collected
  • 239. Poor Example: Organic Food Data collection instruments/methods cited: Face interviews (but no interview transcripts) Email reply (but no samples of questions) Telephone interviews (but no samples of these) Faxes (but no samples of these) Direct observation (can be implied through statements made. But place, time, venue not mentioned) Note: it is quite unrealistic that all of these could have been employed. Even if this was the case- should have mentioned the benefits of triangulation.
  • 240. Definition and Measurement Validity – extent to which a procedure measures what it is intended to measure (accurate operationalization of concepts.) Reliability – If another researcher uses your procedure will he/she obtain the same results? (replicable and consistent results)
  • 241. Gastronomy: Concept Validity Etymologically, the word gastronomy is derived from Greek gastros, meaning stomach, and gnomos, knowledge or law. Culinaria, on the other hand, is a term often used in the context of gastronomy that describes a country’s or region’s dishes, foods, and food preparation techniques, which give rise to the country’s or region’s distinctive cuisine. Hence, for the purposes of this study, the term gastronomy will be used to represent food, wine, and culinaria. Gastronomy is a body of knowledge with its roots in all major classical civilizations; despite this, however, in the hospitality and tourism contexts gastronomy is a new area of study. Source: *Kivela, J. and Crotts, J.C. (2006). Tourism and gastronomy:gastronomy’s influence on how touirsts experience a destination, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 30(3):354-377.
  • 242. The Questionnaire 1. Follows from the hypotheses/questions identified in Part I of your dissertation. 2. Sets of questions corresponding to specific research questions/hypotheses. 3. Decision on the types of data to be collected. 4. Piloting the questionnaire and refining it. (there are bound to be misinterpretation of questions and practical difficulties that are overlooked.)
  • 243. Cake House Market Non-Cake House Market Part 1 Q1-Q6 Current behaviour Q7 Identify market segment Q8 & Q 11 Identify competitors Q9 & Q12 Factors influencing them to purchase Q10 Intention to visit cake house in the future Q13 Preference Q14 Satisfaction level on current cake house Q15 & Q16 Identify the potential of offering seasonal products Q 17 Concept of Upcoming Cake House Part 2 Demographics Good Example: Patterns of Consumption between Cake House and Non-Cake house
  • 244. What is to be measured Concept A generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences, or processes Operational definition Specifies what the researcher must do to measure the concept under investigation
  • 245. Media Skepticism “Conceptual Definition” Media skepticism - the degree to which individuals are skeptical toward the reality presented in the mass media. Media skepticism varies across individuals, from those who are mildly skeptical and accept most of what they see and hear in the media to those who completely discount and disbelieve the facts, values, and portrayal of reality in the media.
  • 246. Media Skepticism “Operational Definition” Please tell me how true each statement is about the media. Is it very true, not very true, or not at all true? 1. The program was not very accurate in its portrayal of the problem. 2. Most of the story was staged for entertainment purposes. 3. The presentation was slanted and unfair.
  • 247. Scale A scale is a series of items arranged according to value for the purpose of quantification Types of scales – Nominal – Ordinal – Interval – Ratio
  • 248. Nominal Scale Nominal scale is a scale “in which the number or letters assigned to objects serve as labels for identification or classification” Gender 0=Male 1=Female Postcodes Zikmund, William G, (2003) “Business Research Methods, 7th Edition” The Dryden Press, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Orlando, Florida, pp 296.
  • 249. Ordinal Scale Rank order, Preferences – Most preferred – 2nd most preferred – … – … Ordinal scale is a scale “that arranges objects or alternatives according to their magnitudes” Zikmund, William G, (2003) “Business Research Methods, 7th Edition” The Dryden Press, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Orlando, Florida, pp 297.
  • 250. Interval Scale Consumer Price Index (Base 100) Fahrenheit temperature Interval scale is a scale “that arranges objects or alternatives according to their magnitudes but also distinguishes this ordered arrangement in units of equal intervals” Zikmund, William G, (2003) “Business Research Methods, 7th Edition” The Dryden Press, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Orlando, Florida, pp 298.
  • 251. Ratio Scale Weight Distance Interval scale is a scale “having absolute rather than relative properties and possessing an absolute zero, where there is a absence of a given attribute” Zikmund, William G, (2003) “Business Research Methods, 7th Edition” The Dryden Press, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Orlando, Florida, pp 298.
  • 252. Scale Scale Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Number system Unique definition of numerals (0, 1, 2, .. 9) Order of numerals (0<1<2....<9) Equality of differences (2-1=7-6) Equality of ratios (2/4=4/8) Examples Brands Gender Store type Attitudes Preferences Attitudes Opinions Index numbers Age Costs Number of customers Permissible statistics Percentages Mode Binomial test Chi-square test Percentiles Median Rank order correlation Range Mean Standard deviation Full range of inferential statistics
  • 253. Reliability and Validity Reliability – “The degree to which measures are free from random error and therefore yield consistent results” Validity – “The ability of a scale to measure what was intended to be measured” Zikmund, William G, (2003) “Business Research Methods, 7th Edition” The Dryden Press, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Orlando, Florida, p 300 and p 302.
  • 254. Low Reliability High Reliability Reliable but Not Valid Reliability and Validity Zikmund, William G, (2003) “Business Research Methods, 7th Edition” The Dryden Press, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Orlando, Florida, p 304.
  • 255. Attitude Measurement An attitudes is “an enduring disposition to consistently respond in a given matter” Zikmund, William G, (2003) “Business Research Methods, 7th Edition” The Dryden Press, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Orlando, Florida, p 308.
  • 256. Attitudes as Hypothetical Constructs The term hypothetical construct is used to describe a variable that is not directly observable, but is measurable by an indirect means such as verbal expression or overt behavior - attitudes are considered to be such variables.
  • 257. Three Components of an Attitude Affective – The feelings or emotions toward an object Cognitive – Knowledge and beliefs Behavioral – Predisposition to action, Intentions, Behavioral expectations
  • 258. Measuring Attitudes Ranking Rating Sorting Choice
  • 259. Ranking Ranking tasks require that the respondent rank order a small number of objects in overall performance on the basis of some characteristic or stimulus.
  • 260. Rating Rating asks the respondent to estimate the magnitude of a characteristic, or quality, that an object possesses. The respondent’s position on a scale(s) is where he or she would rate an object.
  • 261. Sorting Sorting might present the respondent with several concepts typed on cards and require that the respondent arrange the cards into a number of piles or otherwise classify the concepts.
  • 262. Choice Choice between two or more alternatives is another type of attitude measurement - it is assumed that the chosen object is preferred over the other.
  • 263. Physiological measures Physiological measures of attitudes provide a means of measuring attitudes without verbally questioning the respondent. for example, galvanic skin responses, measure blood pressure etc.
  • 264. Simple Attitude Scaling In its most basic form, attitude scaling requires that an individual agree with a statement or respond to a single question. This type of self- rating scale merely classifies respondents into one of two categories; THE CHAIRMAN SHOULD RUN FOR RE-ELECTION _______ AGREE ______ DISAGREE
  • 265. Category Scales A category scale is a more sensitive measure than a scale having only two response categories - it provides more information. Questions working is an extremely important factor in the usefulness of these scales.
  • 266. How important were the following in your decision to visit TASMANIA (check one for each item) VERY SOMEWHAT NOT TOO IMPORTANT IMPORTANT IMPORTANT CLIMATE ___________ ___________ ___________ COST OF TRAVEL ___________ ___________ ___________ FAMILY ORIENTED ___________ ___________ ___________ EDUCATIONAL/ HISTORICAL ASPECTS _________ ___________ ___________ FAMILIARITY WITH AREA ___________ ___________ ___________ Category Scales
  • 267. The Likert Scale An extremely popular means for measuring attitudes. Respondents indicate their own attitudes by checking how strongly they agree or disagree with statements. Response alternatives: “strongly agree”, “agree”, “uncertain”, “disagree”, and “strongly disagree”.
  • 268. Likert Scale Measuring Attitudes Toward Tennis It is more fun to play a tough, competitive tennis match tan to play an easy one. ___Strongly Agree ___Agree ___Not Sure ___Disagree ___Strongly Disagree
  • 269. Likert Scale Measuring Attitudes Toward Tennis There is really no such thing as a tennis stroke that cannot be mastered. ___Strongly Agree ___Agree ___Not Sure ___Disagree ___Strongly Disagree
  • 270. Playing tennis is a great way to exercise. ___Strongly Agree ___Agree ___Not Sure ___Disagree ___Strongly Disagree Likert Scale Measuring Attitudes Toward Tennis
  • 271. Semantic Differential A series of seven-point bipolar rating scales. Bipolar adjectives, such as “good” and “bad”, anchor both ends (or poles) of the scale. A weight is assigned to each position on the rating scale. Traditionally, scores are – 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, or – +3, +2, +1, 0, -1, -2, -3.
  • 272. Semantic Differential Scales Exciting ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Calm Interesting ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Dull Simple ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Complex Passive ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Active Attitudes Toward Tennis
  • 273. Numerical Scales Numerical scales have numbers as response options, rather than “semantic space’ or verbal descriptions, to identify categories (response positions).
  • 274. Constant sum scale Divide 100 points among each of the following brands according to your preference for the brand: Brand A _________ Brand B _________ Brand C _________
  • 275. Stapel Scales Modern versions of the Stapel scale place a single adjective as a substitute for the semantic differential when it is difficult to create pairs of bipolar adjectives. The advantage and disadvantages of a Stapel scale, as well as the results, are very similar to those for a semantic differential. However, the Stapel scale tends to be easier to conduct and administer.
  • 276. A Stapel Scale for Measuring a Store’s Image Department Store Name +3 +2 +1 Wide Selection -1 -2 -3 Select a plus number for words that you think describe the store accurately. the more accurately you think the work describes the store, the larger the plus number you should choose. Select a minus number for words you think do not describe the store accurately. The less accurately you think the word describes the store, the large the minus number you should choose, therefore, you can select any number from +3 for words that you think are very accurate all the way to -3 for words that you think are very inaccurate.
  • 277. Graphic Rating Scales A graphic rating scale presents respondents with a graphic continuum. 3 2 1 Very Very Good Poor Graphic Rating scale, stressing pictorial visual communications
  • 278. Behavioural Intentions and Expectations How likely is it that you will purchase brand x in the next week ___ I definitely will buy ___ I probably will buy ___ I might buy ___ I probably will not buy ___ I definitely will not buy
  • 279. Behavioral Differential The behavioral differential instrument has been developed for measuring the behavioral intentions of subjects towards any object or category of objects. A description of the object to be judged is placed on the top of a sheet, and the subjects indicate their behavioral intentions toward this object on a series of scales. For example: A 25-year old woman sales representative Would ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : ___ : Would Not Ask this person for advice.
  • 280. Paired Comparisons In paired comparisons the respondents are presented with two objects at a time and asked to pick the one they prefer. Ranking objects with respect to one attribute is not difficult if only a few products are compared, but as the number of items increases, the number of comparisons increases geometrically (n*(n -1)/2). If the number of comparisons is too great, respondents may fatigue and no longer carefully discriminate among them.
  • 281. Selecting a measurement scale What method should be used (ranking, sorting, rating or choice)? Should a monadic or comparative scale be used? Why type of category label should be used? How many scale categories or response positions are needed? Should balance or unbalanced rating scales be used? Should respondents be given a forced-choice or a non- forced-choice scale? Should a single measure or an index measure be used?
  • 282. Monadic Rating Scale A Monadic Rating Scale asks about a single concept Now that you’ve had your automobile for about 1 year, please tell us how satisfied you are with its engine power and pickup. Completely Very Fairly Well Somewhat Very Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Dissatisfied
  • 283. A Comparative Rating Scale asks respondents to rate a concept by comparing it with a benchmark Please indicate how the amount of authority in your present position compares with the amount of authority that would be ideal for this position. TOO MUCH ABOUT RIGHT TOO LITTLE A Comparative Rating Scale
  • 284. An Unbalanced Scale has more responses distributed at one end of the scale How satisfied are you with the bookstore in the Student Union? Neither Satisfied Quite Very Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied An unbalance scale
  • 285. Questionnaire design A questionnaire is only as good as the questions it asks Zikmund, William G, (2003) “Business Research Methods, 7th Edition” The Dryden Press, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Orlando, Florida, p 308.
  • 286. Questionnaire Design 1. What should be asked? 2. How should each question be phrased? 3. In what sequence should the questions be arranged? 4. What questionnaire layout will best serve the research objectives? 5. How should the questionnaire be pretested? Does the questionnaire need to be revised?
  • 287. What Should Be Asked? Questionnaire relevance Questionnaire accuracy
  • 288. Phrasing Questions Open-ended questions Fixed-alternative questions
  • 289. Structured Unstructured Undisguised Disguised Example: Typical descriptive survey with straight-forward, structured questions Example: Survey with open-ended questions to discover “new” answers or focus group interview Example: Survey interview to measure brand A’s image versus competitive brands’ images or brand recall (unaided recall) Example: Projection techniques used mostly for exploratory research Classifying Surveys by Degree of Structure and Degree of Disguise
  • 290. Guidelines for phrasing questions Avoid Complexity: use simple, conversational language Avoid leading and loaded questions Avoid ambiguity: be as specific as possible Avoid double-barreled items Avoid making assumptions Avoid burdensome questions
  • 291. 1. Do you believe that private citizens have the right to own firearms to defend themselves, their families, and property from violent criminal attack? Yes No Undecided 2. Do you believe that a ban on the private ownership of firearms would be significantly reduce the number of murders and robberies in your community? Yes No Undecided Poorly phrased questions Leading Questions
  • 292. Poorly phrased questions Complex phrasing In the past year, how often did you become intoxicated while drinking any kind of alcoholic beverage? How would you rephrase this question?
  • 293. Poorly phrased questions Complex/Loaded phrasing How’s this for an alternative? Sometimes people drink a little too much beer, wine or whiskey so that they act different from usual. What word would you use to describe people when they get that way? .... Occasionally, people drink on an empty stomach or drink a little too much and become ______. In the past year how often did you become ______ while drinking any kind of alcoholic beverage?
  • 294. Poorly phrased questions Double-barreled Do you believe the McDonald’s has fast and courteous service?
  • 295. 1a. How many years have you been playing tennis on a regular basis? Number of years: __________ b. What is your level of play? Novice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -1 Advanced . . . . . . . -4 Lower Intermediate . . . . . -2 Expert . . . . . . . . . -5 Upper Intermediate . . . . . -3 Teaching Pro . . . . -6 c. In the last 12 months, has your level of play improved, remained the same or decreased? Improved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . -1 Decreased. . . . . . . -3 Remained the same . . . . . -2 Improved phrasing
  • 296. 2a. Do you belong to a club with tennis facilities? Yes . . . . . . . -1 No . . . . . . . -2 b. How many people in your household - including yourself - play tennis? Number who play tennis ___________ Improved phrasing
  • 297. Improved phrasing 3a. Why do you play tennis? (Please “X” all that apply.) To have fun . . . . . . . . . . -1 To stay fit. . . . . . . . . . . . -2 To be with friends. . . . . . -3 To improve my game . . . -4 To compete. . . . . . . . . . . -5 To win. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -6 b. In the past 12 months, have you purchased any tennis instructional books or video tapes? Yes . . . . . . . -1 No . . . . . . . -2
  • 298. Questionnaire Design Question sequence – Order bias – Funnel technique – Filter bias Question layout
  • 299. Layout for Internet Questionnaires Graphical User Interface (GUI) Paging layout going from screen to screen Scrolling layout gives the respondent the ability to scroll down Push buttons Status bar
  • 300. 4 Common Question Displays on a Computer Screen Radio button Drop-down box Check box Open-ended boxes
  • 301. Pretesting is Important All aspects of the questionnaire should be pretested The pretest should be conducted in an environment identical/very similar to the one that will be used in the final survey A debriefing procedure should be used
  • 302. Exercises and Summary Measurable concepts (Define and measure) What is the best way to define and measure an abstract concept? Sample selection (Specify size and composition) How can I avoid biasness and yet achieve representativeness? Draft of Questionnaire (Categorization and sequencing of questions) Am I asking questions that serve to verify/falsify my hypotheses? Or questions that clarify understanding in an area?
  • 303. Kinds of Data andKinds of Data and Research InstrumentResearch Instrument (Lecture 9)(Lecture 9) Relevance (Concept and Data)Relevance (Concept and Data) Feasible (Research Design)Feasible (Research Design)
  • 304. RelevanceRelevance ConceptConcept DataData •Realism •Models
  • 305. FeasibilityFeasibility ResourcesResources •Time •Dimensionality
  • 306. ConceptsConcepts--> Dimensions> Dimensions-->Variables>Variables
  • 307. InductionInduction--InferencesInferences SuggestSuggest Filter and isolateFilter and isolate Big picture to eventBig picture to event
  • 308. DeductionDeduction-- PredictionPrediction PostulatePostulate Event to big pictureEvent to big picture AnticipateAnticipate
  • 309. Lecture 10-Data Collection and Analysis By Bernard Lew
  • 310. 1.Measuring Concepts Have you decided on the best way to define and measure concepts in your research? 2.Sample selection Is the sampling size big enough? Is the sample representative of the population under study? 3.Right kinds of questions and types of data collected Are you asking the kind of questions that: Verify/falsify your hypotheses Directly relate to your research objectives Checklist
  • 311. Types of research and approaches to analysis Research type SPSS procedures Descriptive research Frequencies Means Graphics Explanatory research Cross tabs Regression Graphics Evaluative research Comparisons using frequencies & means Note: your research may involve all three research types/aspects
  • 312. Response rate = _____________________________ Mail or Email Number of completed questionnaires Number of eligible respondents Response rate = _______________________________ Personal Number of completed interviews Completed + Refusals + Terminations Calculating response rates Calculating response rates for internet surveys is problematic because it is difficult to determine the number of “eligible” respondents
  • 313. Pretesting A trial run with a group of respondents to iron out fundamental problems in the instructions of survey design
  • 315. Editing The process of checking and adjusting the data – for omissions – for legibility – for consistency And readying them for coding and storage
  • 317. Coding The process of identifying and assigning a numerical score or other character symbol to previously edited data Codes are: – The rules for interpreting, classifying, and recording data in the coding process – The actual numerical or other character symbols
  • 318. Rules for Coding Categories should be exhaustive Categories should be mutually exclusive and independent
  • 319. 1a. How many years have you been playing tennis on a regular basis? Number of years: __________ b. What is your level of play? Novice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -1 Advanced . . . . . . . -4 Lower Intermediate . . . . . -2 Expert . . . . . . . . . -5 Upper Intermediate . . . . . -3 Teaching Pro . . . . -6 c. In the last 12 months, has your level of play improved, remained the same or decreased? Improved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . -1 Decreased. . . . . . . -3 Remained the same . . . . . -2
  • 320. 2a. Do you belong to a club with tennis facilities? Yes . . . . . . . -1 No . . . . . . . -2 b. How many people in your household - including yourself - play tennis? Number who play tennis ___________
  • 321. 3a. Why do you play tennis? (Please “X” all that apply.) To have fun . . . . . . . . . . -1 To stay fit. . . . . . . . . . . . -2 To be with friends. . . . . . -3 To improve my game . . . -4 To compete. . . . . . . . . . . -5 To win. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -6 b. In the past 12 months, have you purchased any tennis instructional books or video tapes? Yes . . . . . . . -1 No . . . . . . . -2
  • 322. 4. Please rate each of the following with regard to this flight, if applicable. Excellent Good Fair Poor 1 2 3 4 Courtesy and Treatment from the: Skycap at airport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Airport Ticket Counter Agent . . . . . Boarding Point (Gate) Agent . . . . . Flight Attendants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Your Meal or Snack. . . . . . . . . . . . . Beverage Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seat Comfort. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carry-On Stowage Space. . . . . . . . Cabin Cleanliness . . . . . . . . . . . . . Video/Stereo Entertainment . . . . . . On-Time Departure . . . . . . . . . . . .
  • 323. Alternative coding schemes Strongly agree 1 Mildly agree 2 Neither agree nor disagree 3 Mildly agree 4 Strongly disagree 5 Strongly agree + 1 Mildly agree + 2 Neither agree nor disagree 0 Mildly agree - 1 Strongly disagree - 2 I believe that people judge your success by the kind of car you drive.
  • 324. Coding Open-Ended Responses Code Book Identifies each variable Provides a variable’s description Identifies each code name and position on storage medium
  • 325. Data Entry The process of transforming data from the research project to computers. Optical scanning systems – Marked-sensed questionnaires
  • 326. Basic Data Analysis: Descriptive Statistics
  • 327. Descriptive Analysis The transformation of raw data into a form that will make them easy to understand and interpret; rearranging, ordering, and manipulating data to generate descriptive information
  • 328. Type of Measurement Nominal Two categories More than two categories Frequency table Proportion (percentage) Frequency table Category proportions (percentages) Mode Type of descriptive analysis Permissible descriptive statistics
  • 329. Type of Measurement Type of descriptive analysis Ordinal Rank order Median Permissible descriptive statistics
  • 330. Type of Measurement Type of descriptive analysis Interval Arithmetic mean Permissible descriptive statistics
  • 331. Tabulation Tabulation - Orderly arrangement of data in a table or other summary format Frequency table Percentages
  • 332. Frequency Table The arrangement of statistical data in a row-and- column format that exhibits the count of responses or observations for each category assigned to a variable Image Importance Cumulative Cumulative Q6 Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Extr Important 14 14.0 14 14.0 Very Important 15 15.0 29 29.0 Smwt Important 14 14.0 43 43.0 Neither 17 17.0 60 60.0 Smwt Unimportant 9 9.0 69 69.0 Very Unimportant 17 17.0 86 86.0 Extr Unimportant 14 14.0 100 100.0
  • 333. Measure of Central Measure of Type of Scale Tendency Dispersion Nominal Mode None Ordinal Median Percentile Interval or ratio Mean Standard deviation Descriptive statistics Variable Label Mean Std Dev Q3 Bottles Consumed per Week 8.080 11.4191758 Q4 Number Days Beverage Consumed per Week 2.020 2.0299774 Q5 Price Importance 4.140 2.3007245 Q6 Image Importance 3.990 2.0175743 Q7 Taste Reaction 59.250 18.8703043 Q9 Purchase Probability 45.100 37.8859266
  • 334. Cross-Tabulation A technique for organizing data by groups, categories, or classes, thus facilitating comparisons; a joint frequency distribution of observations on two or more sets of variables Contingency table- The results of a cross- tabulation of two variables, such as survey questions
  • 335. Cross-Tabulation Analyze data by groups or categories Compare differences Contingency table Percentage cross-tabulations
  • 336. Cross-tabulation
  • 337. Cross-tabulation
  • 338. Elaboration and Refinement Moderator variable – A third variable that, when introduced into an analysis, alters or has a contingent effect on the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable. – Spurious relationship • An apparent relationship between two variables that is not authentic.
  • 339. Quadrant analysis
  • 340. Higher order scales can readily beHigher order scales can readily be translated into lower order scales,translated into lower order scales, but not vice versa.but not vice versa. Because higher order scalesBecause higher order scales contain more information (e.g. percontain more information (e.g. per day), detail is lost going to a lowerday), detail is lost going to a lower-- order scale of measurement. (e.g.order scale of measurement. (e.g. per second)per second)
  • 341. Collapsing a five point scale
  • 342. Charts and Graphs Pie charts Line graphs Bar charts – Vertical – Horizontal
  • 343. Line Graph
  • 344. 643Networking 213print ad 179Onlinerecruitment site 112Placement firm 18Temporary agency How didyoufindyour last job? 7006005004003002001000 Networking print ad Onlinerecruitment site Placement firm Temporary agency 55.2% 18.3% 15.4% 9.6% 1.5% WebSurveyor Bar Chart
  • 345. Microsoft Excel -Data Analysis
  • 346. The Paste Function Provides Numerous Statistical Operations
  • 347. Interpretation The process of making pertinent inferences and drawing conclusions concerning the meaning and implications of a research investigation
  • 348. 15.3 50.7 25.1 5.9 3.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Percentage% RM 2 & below RM3 - RM6 RM 7 - RM 10 RM11 - RM 14 RM 15 & above RM Spending per Visit Descriptive Research- Percentages (proportion of sample)
  • 349. Mean Monthly Gross Household Income In Current Prices (RM) Average Annual Growth Rate (%) 1994 2004 2000-2004 Bumiputera 1,984 2,711 6.4 Chinese 3,456 4,437 5.1 Indian 2,702 3,456 5.0 Others 1,371 2,313 11.0 Malaysia 2,472 3,249 5.6 Ethnic Groups Source: Department of Statistics – Household Income Surveys, 1999 and 2004 Malaysia Mean Monthly Gross Household Income by Ethnic Group, 1994 and 2004 Explanatory Research-Cross tab
  • 350. Factors Affecting the Buying Behaviour of Cake House Market (n=113) (Scale: 1 = Not Important, 2 = Least Important, 3 = Important, 4 = Very Important) Factors N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Freshness 113 1 4 3.58 .548 Cleanliness 113 3 4 3.56 .499 Taste 113 2 4 3.51 .569 Product Variety 113 2 4 3.35 .579 Packaging 113 1 4 3.33 .674 Price 113 1 4 3.28 .661 Customer Service 113 2 4 3.19 .532 Environment 113 2 4 3.19 .648 Convenience 113 1 4 3.19 .620 Market Trend 113 1 4 2.94 .919 Freshness is the major concern for the respondents when buying bakery and pastry products. Followed by cleanliness of the cake house and the taste of the products. [Suggesting that] people are becoming more focus on quality and flavor] of the products consumed or purchased. Product variety, packaging and pricing are roughly ranked third in the overall set of criteria. [This seems to suggests] that consumers are increasingly demanding for more products varieties in terms of multiple tastes and flavors as people’s appetite for bakery and pastry products continues to grow]. Evaluative Research-comparing means
  • 351. Some Common Pitfalls With Collection and Use of Data Collecting data for the sake of collecting data – “Filing cabinet/bookcase effect” Making generalizations that are not supported by the data – No clear linkage between research goals, concept measures and methodology employed
  • 352. Pointers-Check to Avoid Pitfalls o Data discrepancies can arise from different sources: - Conceptual level-change of definitions and concepts - Collection level-mix/change in collection methods o Use of different estimation or convention to fill data gaps (international and national sources) o Lack of care in weighting results (interpretation of data)
  • 353. DEPENDENT VARIABLE A variable caused by another – the presumed effect. Outcome “Y” Examples: Crime, recidivism, sentence length, poverty
  • 354. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE A variable that influences another variable – the presumed cause. Predictor – precedes in time the dependent variable. “X” Examples: age, race, gender, poverty, type of crime, etc.
  • 355. Causation and Association Causation: the concept that the action of one phenomenon affects the behavior of another, i.e., causal effect*: the finding that the change in one variable leads to the change in another variable. – Example of a causal effect: Individuals exposed to media violence are more likely to engage in violent behavior than similar individuals who have not been exposed to media violence. Direction of association: positive (when the independent variable moves in the same direction as the dependent variable); negative (when the independent and dependent variables move in opposite directions); or, no direction (if the independent variable is categorical).
  • 356. Interpretation of Results Nature of statement Poor- Unqualified Good-Probabilistic Descriptive 10 per cent of managers use Macs 10 per cent of managers use Macs compared with 90 per cent who use PCs. People with high incomes use Macs more than people with low incomes We can be 95 per cent confident that the proportion of managers who use Macs is between 9% and 11%. Comparative The proportion of PC users is significantly higher than the proportion of Mac users (at the 95 per cent level of probability) Relational There is a positive relationship between level of income and use of Mac computers (at the 95 per cent level of probability). It is only possible to estimate the probability that results obtained from a sample are true of the population – therefore statements on findings are probabilities.
  • 357. Appendix 1: Tasks and Tests Task Data Format # of var’s Types of variable Test Relationship between two variables Crosstabulation of frequencies/ counts 2 Nominal Chi-square Difference between two means - paired Means - whole sample 2 Two scale/ ordinal t-test – paired Difference between two means - independent samples Means - two sub-groups 2 1.scale/ ordinal (means) 2. nominal (2 grps) t-test - independent samples Relationship between two variables Means – 3 or more sub-groups 2 1.scale/ ordinal (means) 2. nominal (3 or more groups) One-way ANOVA
  • 358. Appendix 2: Tasks and Tests Task Data Format # vars Types of variable Test Relationship between three or more variables Means - Crosstabulated 3+ 1.scale/ ordinal (means) 2. Two or more nominal Factorial ANOVA Relationship between two variables Individual measures 2 Scale or ordinal (2) Correlation Linear relationship between two var’s Individual measures 2 Scale or ordinal (2) Linear regression Linear relationship between 3+ var’s Individual measures 3+ Scale or ordinal (3+) Multiple regression Relationships between large numbers of var’s Individual measures Many Large numbers of scale/ordinal var’s Factor/Cluster analysis
  • 359. Bibliography, References and SourcesBibliography, References and Sources (Lecture 11)(Lecture 11) •Sources •Gurus •Brain bank Your research is only as good as your source material- Bernard Lew
  • 360. Primary SourcesPrimary Sources DatesDates Platform (discipline/field)Platform (discipline/field) AuthorAuthor
  • 361. Vetting and AuthenticationVetting and Authentication Has implications to : •Relevance •Feasibility
  • 362. Research is Collaborative WorkResearch is Collaborative Work How complete is your brain bank?How complete is your brain bank?
  • 363. Know the beginning from the endKnow the beginning from the end KeywordsKeywords How recent is the research?How recent is the research? How thorough is the researcher?How thorough is the researcher? PedigreePedigree Type of research?Type of research? Publication platform?Publication platform? AffiliationsAffiliations
  • 364. CitationCitation Format (Journals)Format (Journals) In the Reference page: Canestrelli, E., and Costa, P. (1991). Tourist Carrying Capacity: A Fuzzy Approach. Annals of Tourism Research, 18:295-311. In text: Canestrelli and Costa (1991)- in context. Or (Canestrelli and Costa, 1991)- in passing.
  • 365. 1. Immerse in the source (genre): read, active learning 2. Brainstorm to externalize the most salient features (melodic themes): reflect and associate 3. Network the ideas (harmonize): understand the structure 4. Cluster ideas according to hierarchical order (rhythmic pattern): depth and coherence 5. Linearize the argument through a writing engine (performance): style and comprehensibility From Music to Research Writing
  • 366. (Lecture 12) Formatting & Compiling the Dissertation
  • 367. Literature Review: Research Procedure: From brand personality to destination personality Systematically analyzed and synthesized Globalization ->Distinctiveness -->Destination Marketing Destination Personality Define Destination Personality What are the components of destination personality?-- No common theory- using the concept as applied to brands and products-- extension to tourism studies- the impact of destination personality on behaviour…
  • 368. Literature Review: Research Procedure From brand personality to destination personality Gist (essence not just a pure summary) “Blackstone (1993) showed that users and nonusers perceived credit cards differently, although the two groups were virtually identical in their demographic and socioeconomic profiles. Guthrie (1997) explained why anthropomorphism is so natural by means of familiarity and comfort theories.” Contribution to your work (e.g. how you could extend it) “The preceding arguments suggest that human and destination personality may share a similar conceptualization, but they may differ in how they are formed.”
  • 369. Literature Review: Research Procedure Limitations or features extended Accordingly, the aim of this study is to address the paucity (small number) of empirical research on destination personality by applying Aaker’s (1997) brand personality scale to tourism destinations.------ from theory to application; applicability in another domain (i.e.products to destinations)
  • 370. Formal Presentation Consistency between theory and questions, methods and results (conclusions) 1.Theory- products and brands possess a personality.(Aakers, 1997) 2.Questions- do destinations have a personality? 3.Method-adopt brand personality (Aakers, 1997) scale to develop a destination personality scale. 4.Summary of results-yes its possible to attribute personality to destinations in terms of a) sincerity b) excitement and c) conviviality (hospitality)
  • 371. Referencing Types of publication and their referencing Books Henry, I.P. (1993) The Politics of Leisure Policy, Basingstoke: Macmillan Journals Witt, C.A. and Muhlemann, A.P. (1994) The implementation of total quality management in tourism: some guidelines, Tourism Management, Vol. 15(6), pp. 416- 24 Websites: Rough Guides (No date), Australia [on-line], Available from: [accessed 13 April 2000]
  • 372. Referencing If possible specific and to original source readings (not anthologies or secondary sources) Morgan, N., and A. Pritchard (2002). “Contextualising Destination Branding.” In Destination Branding: Creating the Unique Destination Proposition, edited by N. Morgan, A. Pritchard, and R. Pride. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 11-41. INSTEAD OF Morgan, N., Pritchard, A., and R. Pride (2000). Destination Branding: Creating the Unique Destination Proposition, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
  • 373. Excerpts and examples taken from Ekinci, Y., and Hosany, S. (2006) Destination Personality: An Application of Brand Personality to Tourism Destinations, Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 45, pp. 127-139
  • 374. Society Theory, Culture & DOI: 10.1177/0263276405057188 2005; 22; 1Theory Culture Society John Urry The Complexity Turn The online version of this article can be found at: Published by: On behalf of: The TCS Centre, Nottingham Trent University can be found at:Theory, Culture & SocietyAdditional services and information for Alerts: SAGE Journals Online and HighWire Press platforms): (this article cites 2 articles hosted on theCitations © 2005 Theory, Culture & Society Ltd.. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. at FLORIDA STATE UNIV LIBRARY on August 28, 2007http://tcs.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 375. The Complexity Turn John Urry A flock of birds sweeps across the sky. Like a well-choreographed dance troupe, the birds veer to the left in unison. . . . The flock is organized without an organizer, coordinated without a coordinator. Bird flocks are not the only things that work that way. Ant colonies, highway traffic, market economies, immune systems – in all of these systems, patterns are determined . . . by local interactions among decentralised components. (Resnick, 1997: 3) T HE SOCIAL and cultural sciences have experienced a whole array of incursions over the past few decades. These have included Marxism in the 1970s, the linguistic turn and postmodernism in the 1980s, the body, performative and global culture turns in the 1990s. Many of these turns are reflected in and partly promoted within TCS journals and book series. This new Special Issue seeks to reflect upon, to develop and in part to evaluate yet another turn, the complexity turn. This turn derives from developments over the past two decades or so within physics, biology, math- ematics, ecology, chemistry and economics, from the revival of neo-vitalism in social thought (Fraser et al., 2005), and from the emergence of a more general ‘complex structure of feeling’ that challenges some everyday notions of social order (Maasen and Weingart, 2000; Thrift, 1999). Within these scientific disciplines, an array of transformations took place, loosely known as chaos, complexity, non-linearity and dynamical systems analysis. There is a shift from reductionist analyses to those that involve the study of complex adaptive (‘vital’) matter that shows ordering but which remains on ‘the edge of chaos’. Self-assembly at the nanoscale is a current example of new kinds of matter seen as involving emergent complex adaptive systems. At the nanoscale the laws of physics operate in different ways, especially in the way that molecules stick together and through self-assembly can form complex nanoscale structures that could be the basis of whole new products, industries and forms of ‘life’ (Jones, 2004). ■ Theory, Culture & Society 2005 (SAGE, London, Thousand Oaks and New Delhi), Vol. 22(5): 1–14 DOI: 10.1177/0263276405057188 01_urry-1_057188 (jk-t) 20/9/05 8:56 am Page 1 © 2005 Theory, Culture & Society Ltd.. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. at FLORIDA STATE UNIV LIBRARY on August 28, 2007http://tcs.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 376. The properties of nano, it seems, cannot be understood through reduction- ism (see Wynne, this volume). More generally, the term ‘complexity’ is ‘present’ and doing metaphor- ical, theoretical and empirical work within many social and intellectual discourses and practices besides ‘science’. These include alternative healing, architecture, consultancy, consumer design, economics, defence studies, fiction, garden design, geography, history, literary theory, manage- ment, New Age, organizational studies, philosophy, politics, post- structuralism, small world analyses, sociology, stock car racing, town planning (see Mackenzie, this volume; Thrift, 1999). Searches of Amazon indicate 1221 current complexity titles. Some significant original and ‘popular’ books within the complexity field include Stewart’s Does God Play Dice? The Mathematics of Chaos (1989); Kauffman’s The Origins of Order (1993); Cohen and Stewart’s The Collapse of Chaos (1994); Casti’s Complexification (1994); Arthur’s Increas- ing Returns and Path-Dependence in the Economy (1994); Nicolis’ Introduc- tion to Non-Linear Science (1995); Luhmann’s Social Systems (1995); Krugman’s The Self-organizing Economy (1996); Capra’s The Web of Life (1996); Prigogine’s The End of Certainty (1997); Jervis’s System Effects (1997); Rescher’s Complexity (1998); Holland’s Emergence (1998); Byrne’s Complexity Theory and the Social Sciences (1998); Kelly’s New Rules for the New Economy (1998); Cilliers’ Complexity and Post-modernism (1998); Hayles’ How We Became Posthuman (1999); Watts’ Small Worlds (1999); Rycroft and Kash’s The Complexity Challenge (1999); Rasch and Wolfe’s Observing Complexity (2000); Capra’s The Hidden Connections: A Science for Sustainable Living (2001); Gladwell’s Tipping Points: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference (2002); Buchanan’s Small World: Uncovering Nature’s Hidden Networks (2002); Wolfram’s A New Kind of Science (2002); De Landa’s Intensive Science and Virtual Philosophy (2002); Barabási’s Linked: The New Science of Networks (2002); Taylor’s The Moment of Complexity: Emerging Network Culture (2003); Watts’ Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age (2003); Surowiecki’s The Wisdom of Crowds (2004); and Ball’s Critical Mass: How One Thing Leads to Another (2004). It is in the late 1990s that the social sciences begin to go complex, with an array of books, articles, conferences and workshops appearing (and indeed showing up in this list above). I note below that in 1996 the Gulbenkian Commission on the Restructuring of the Social Sciences, chaired by Wallerstein and including non-linear scientist Prigogine, reported and advocated breaking down the division between ‘natural’ and ‘social’ science through seeing both characterized by ‘complexity’ (Urry, this volume; Wallerstein, 1996). From then on we can say the complexity turn takes off within the social and cultural sciences (early collections include Eve et al., 1997; Keil and Elliott, 1996). Moreover, ‘complexity’ practices can themselves be viewed as a self- organizing global network spreading ‘complexity’ notions around the globe. Complexity researchers deploy the techniques of PR and branding, 2 Theory, Culture & Society 22(5) 01_urry-1_057188 (jk-t) 20/9/05 8:56 am Page 2 © 2005 Theory, Culture & Society Ltd.. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. at FLORIDA STATE UNIV LIBRARY on August 28, 2007http://tcs.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 377. international meetings with ‘star’ speakers, guru worship, the use of global media and publishing, funding and branding by large corporations, and networking especially centred on nodes such as Santa Fe in Arizona (see Helmreich, 1998; Waldrop, 1994) or the various research institutes named after the late Nobel prizewinner Ilya Prigogine (see Prigogine and Stengers, 1984). Overall, complexity approaches both signify and enhance a new ‘struc- ture of feeling’; one that combines system and process thinking (Thrift, 1999). Such an emergent structure involves a sense of contingent openness and multiple futures, of the unpredictability of outcomes in time-space, of a charity towards objects and nature, of diverse and non-linear changes in relationships, households and persons across huge distances in time and space, of the systemic nature of processes, and of the growing hyper- complexity of organizations, products, technologies and socialities. On the last of these we can note the huge increase in the number of components within products. The Eli Whitney musket of around 1800 had 51 components while the space shuttle of the late 20th century contained 10 million (Rycroft and Kash, 1999). Even by 1970, the most valuable products in world trade were simple products produced by simple processes. But a quarter of a century later, nearly two-thirds of the most valuable products in world trade involve complex processes and complex products, involving vast numbers of components, cybernetic architectures and sociotechnical or hybrid systems. This increasing complexity of products, processes and organizations is linked with the proliferation of computerized networks that self-reproduce themselves around the globe, forming and reforming new ways by which ‘everything is connected to everything else’ (Barabási, 2002). In part, the complexity sciences developed to research the behaviour of phenomena characterized by large numbers – and to use the computing power emergent from the 1980s onwards (see Waldrop’s account of this at Santa Fe). As Kelly expresses this: ‘Emergence requires a population of entities, a multitude, a collective. . . . More is different . . . large numbers behave differently from small numbers’ (1995: 26). And the social world has of course some very large numbers to contend with, over 6 billion people, 700 million cars, 1 billion Internet users, 44,000 multinational corporations – although these are many fewer than the 10 billion nerve cells and 1000 billion synapses that students of the brain examine (Casti, 1994: ch. 3). Complexity though is not the same as simply complicated. Complex systems analyses investigate the very many systems that have the ability to adapt and co-evolve as they organize through time. Such complex social interactions are likened to walking through a maze whose walls rearrange themselves as one walks through; new footsteps have to be taken in order to adjust to the walls of the maze that are adapting to each movement made through the maze. Complexity investigates emergent, dynamic and self- organizing systems that interact in ways that heavily influence the proba- bilities of later events. Systems are irreducible to elementary laws or simple processes. Urry – The Complexity Turn 3 01_urry-1_057188 (jk-t) 20/9/05 8:56 am Page 3 © 2005 Theory, Culture & Society Ltd.. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. at FLORIDA STATE UNIV LIBRARY on August 28, 2007http://tcs.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 378. In particular, pre-20th-century science had operated with a view of time as Newtonian: that is invariant, infinitely divisible into space-like units, measurable in length, expressible as a number and reversible. It is time seen essentially as a kind of Cartesian space comprising invariant measurable lengths to be moved along, forwards and backwards. Objects are viewed as being contained within such boundaries of absolute time and space (Coveney, 2000; Coveney and Highfield, 1990). In the 20th century, the sciences dismantled such notions and prepared the way for the complexity turn (see Capra, 1996). Einstein showed that there is no fixed or absolute time independent of the system to which it refers. Time is a local, internal feature of any system of observation and measurement. It varies on where and how it is measured. It can stretch and shrink. Further, time and space are not separate from each other but are fused into a four-dimensional time–space curved under the influence of mass. Time and space are ‘internal’ to the processes by which the physical and social worlds themselves operate, helping to constitute their powers, as Whitehead (1985) analyses. Space and time are dynamic qualities: when a body moves, or a force acts, it affects the curvature of space and time, and in turn the structure of space–time affects the way in which bodies move and forces act. The subsequent development of quantum theory describes a virtual state in which electrons try out instantaneously all possible futures before settling into particular patterns. Quantum behaviour is instantaneous, simultaneous and unpredictable. The interactions between the parts are far more fundamental than the parts themselves (Zohar and Marshall, 1994). The development of chaos theory involved rejecting the common-sense notion that only large changes in causes can produce large changes in effects (and vice versa; Gleick, 1988). Chaos theory is based upon iterating a relatively simple mathematical algorithm. Following a deterministic set of rules, unpredictable yet patterned results can be generated, with small causes on occasions producing large effects and vice versa. The classic butterfly effect, accidentally discovered by Lorenz in 1961, demonstrated that minuscule changes at one location can theoretically produce, if modelled by three coupled non-linear equations, very large weather effects very far away in time and/or space from the original site of the hypotheti- cal flapping wings (Casti, 1994: 96; Maasen and Weingart, 2000: 93–4; Mackenzie, this volume). Relationships between variables can be non-linear with abrupt switches occurring, so the same ‘cause’ can, in specific circum- stances, produce different effects. Thermodynamics further shows the irreversible flow of time. An arrow of time results in loss of organization and an increase in randomness or disorder over time within systems. This accumulation of disorder or positive entropy results from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. However, there is not a simple growth of disorder. Prigogine shows how new order arises but is far from equilibrium (see Capra, 1996, this volume). There are dissipa- tive structures, islands of new order within a sea of disorder, maintaining or even increasing their order at the expense of greater overall entropy. 4 Theory, Culture & Society 22(5) 01_urry-1_057188 (jk-t) 20/9/05 8:56 am Page 4 © 2005 Theory, Culture & Society Ltd.. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. at FLORIDA STATE UNIV LIBRARY on August 28, 2007http://tcs.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 379. Prigogine describes how such localized order ‘floats in disorder’. The arrow or flow of time results in futures that are unstable, relatively unpredictable and characterized by multiple possibilities. The irreversibility of time can be seen in the research that showed how the universe expanded following the singular event of the ‘big bang’ 15 billion or so years ago. The scientific discovery of this cannot be reconciled with laws of the physical world that see time as reversible, deterministic and involving ‘classes of phenomena’. The big bang is a one-off phenom- enon like nothing else ever to occur within the known universe. Laws of nature are historical, including those of time and space. The big bang appar- ently created in that very moment both space and time. There was no pre- existing space and time: ‘any attempt to explain the origin of the physical universe must perforce involve an explanation of how space and time came into existence too’ (Davies, 2001a: 57, 2001b). There is therefore no ‘time’ and space before the big bang; they appear spontaneously created, suddenly switched on, through an unpredictable and yet apparently irreversible quantum change (Hawking, 1988). Central, then, to complexity is the idea of emergence. It is not that the sum is greater than the size of its parts – but that there are system effects that are different from their parts (see Jervis, 1997, on system effects). Complexity examines how components of a system through their interaction ‘spontaneously’ develop collective properties or patterns, even simple prop- erties such as colour that do not seem implicit, or at least not implicit in the same way, within individual components (Nicolis, 1995). These are non- linear consequences that are non-reducible to the very many individual components that comprise such activities. Such emergent characteristics emerge from, but are not reducible to, the micro-dynamics of the phenom- enon in question. Recently Surowiecki has described how this works in the social world as exemplifying the ‘wisdom of crowds’, that many ‘agents’ can be much smarter than the few (2004). Moreover, if a system passes a particular threshold with minor changes in the controlling variables, switches occur such that a liquid turns into a gas, a large number of apathetic people suddenly tip into a forceful movement for change (Gladwell, 2002). Such tipping points give rise to unexpected structures and events whose properties can be different from the underlying elementary laws. In analysing these non-linearities, positive feedback loops are especi- ally significant, as opposed to the negative feedback mechanism analysed by earlier systems theory in the 1940s to 1970s (see Urry, this volume). Positive feedback loops exacerbate initial stresses in the system, so render- ing it unable to absorb shocks and re-establish the original equilibrium. Such positive feedback can be seen in analyses of the increasing returns that generate path dependence found in the history of various economic- technological systems (such as the VHS video system replacing the techno- logically superior Betamax; see Arthur, 1994; Waldrop, 1994). Such irreversible path dependence occurs when contingent events set into motion Urry – The Complexity Turn 5 01_urry-1_057188 (jk-t) 20/9/05 8:56 am Page 5 © 2005 Theory, Culture & Society Ltd.. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. at FLORIDA STATE UNIV LIBRARY on August 28, 2007http://tcs.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 380. institutional patterns or event chains over time that have deterministic prop- erties through what Arthur terms ‘lock-ins’ (1994). Path dependence analyses show that causation can flow from contingent events to general processes, from small causes to large system effects, from historically or geographically remote locations to the general. ‘Path dependence’ shows that the ordering of events or processes through time very significantly influ- ences the non-linear ways in which they eventually turn out, decades or even centuries later. Path dependence is thus a process model in which especially hybrid systems irreversibly develop through ‘lock-ins’, but with only certain small causes being necessary to prompt their initiation, as with the contingent design of the QWERTY keyboard. The importance of the lock-in means that institutions matter a great deal to how it is that systems develop over the locked-in longer time. Complexity analyses can also show that there is no such thing as ‘nature’s balance’, no real or primordial nature that would be in equilibrium if only humans had not intruded (Budiansky, 1995). The effects of humans are subtly and irreversibly woven into the very evolution of landscape. And any ecological system is immensely complex so that there are rarely obvious policies that simply restore nature’s balance, partly because of the signifi- cance of ‘critical thresholds’ (see Resnick, 1997: 107–8, on forest fires). Ecological systems are on the edge of chaos without a ‘natural’ tendency towards equilibrium, even if all humans were to depart forever from the scene. Indeed, many ecological systems themselves depend not upon stable relationships but upon massive intrusions, of extraordinary flows of species from other parts of the globe and of fire, lightning, hurricanes, high winds, ice storms, flash floods, frosts, earthquakes and so on. The ‘normal’ state of nature is thus not one of balance and repose; the normal state is to be recovering from the last disaster. Moreover, as former UK Chief Scientist Robert May showed, the popu- lation size of species shows no tendency to stability or ‘equilibrium’, and especially not to rise smoothly to the presumed carrying capacity of their environment and then to level off and remain stable (May, 1981). Rather, populations of most species demonstrate extreme unevenness, with popu- lations often rising rapidly when introduced into an area and then almost as rapidly collapsing. The food consumption of animal species responds in a non-linear and time-lagged fashion to changing circumstances, and this produces massive unevenness of population size with no natural or equilib- rium size. Indeed the chaotic properties of biological systems also make predictions of what favours the protection of a particular species more or less impossible. Simultaneously, the contemporary world seems to involve highly adaptable viruses, such as Aids and ebola, new superbugs, newly lethal pathogens such as prions, and the reappearance of TB, cholera and the bubonic plague, and the development of terrorism (see Knorr Cetina, this volume; Van Loon, 2002). These phenomena appear to stem from new patterns of global travel and trade, the heightened ineffectiveness of 6 Theory, Culture & Society 22(5) 01_urry-1_057188 (jk-t) 20/9/05 8:56 am Page 6 © 2005 Theory, Culture & Society Ltd.. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. at FLORIDA STATE UNIV LIBRARY on August 28, 2007http://tcs.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 381. antibiotics that encounter increased ‘resistance’, and the development of new powerful risk cultures beyond and especially within ‘medicine’. Davis suggests that southern California seems especially characterized by the catastrophic coincidence of extreme events. This seems not a random disorder but a dynamic pattern of escalating feedback loops. Extreme events, especially extreme weather events, demonstrate the principle of non- linearity where small changes in driving variables or inputs – magnified by positive feedback – can produce disproportionate, or discontinuous, outcomes (Davis, 2000). Something similar can be seen in the case of accidents that appear to occur ‘normally’ when the system is tightly coupled, that processes happen very fast and cannot be turned off, when the failed parts cannot be isolated and when there is no other way to keep the system going. With such tightly coupled systems, recovery from the initial disturbance that may have been relatively trivial is impossible. The consequences will spread quickly, chaotically and irreversibly throughout the system, so producing normal ‘system accidents’ (Perrow, 1999). Overall, systems are often conceptualized as autopoietic (Luhmann, 1995; Maturana, 1981; Mingers, 1995). Autopoiesis involves the idea that living systems entail a process of self-making or self-producing. There is a network of production processes in which the function of each component is to participate in the production or transformation of other components in the network. In this way, the network comes to make itself. It is produced by the components and this in turn produces the components and its environment. In a living system the product of its operation is its own organization, with the development of boundaries specifying the domain of its operations and defining the self-making system (Hayles, 1999: ch. 6). Such autopoietic features have been especially studied in systems of urban growth. Small local preferences mildly expressed in the concerns of indi- viduals, such as wanting to live with those who are ethnically similar, produces very strongly segregated self-organizing neighbourhoods as in large American cities. Krugman argues that residential patterns are unstable in the face of random perturbations: ‘local, short-range interactions can create large-scale [self-organizing] structure’ (1996: 17). Capra argues therefore that nature turns out to be more like human nature – unpredictable, sensitive to the surrounding world, influenced by small fluctuations (Capra, this volume). This suggests enormous interdepen- dencies, parallels, overlaps and convergences between analyses of physical and of social worlds. Indeed the very division between the ‘physical’ and the ‘social’ is a socio-historical product and one that is dissolving. De Landa shows that individual bodies and selves, those subjects of social science, are mere ‘transitory hardenings’ in the more basic flows of massive amounts of minerals, genes, diseases, energy, information and language (1997: 259–60). Moreover, emergent properties are never purely ‘social’ and the kinds of processes that generate them are also not simply social. Complex- ity would argue against the thesis that ‘phenomena’ can remain bounded, Urry – The Complexity Turn 7 01_urry-1_057188 (jk-t) 20/9/05 8:56 am Page 7 © 2005 Theory, Culture & Society Ltd.. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. at FLORIDA STATE UNIV LIBRARY on August 28, 2007http://tcs.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 382. that social causes produce social consequences. Causes are always over- flowing, tipping from domain to domain and especially flowing within and across the supposedly distinct physical and social domains. For complex- ity, the emergent properties are irreducible, interdependent and mobile (see De Landa, 2002, on Deleuzian approaches here). The complexity sciences thus elaborate how there is order and disorder within all physical and social phenomena including, according to Kauffman, within the nature of evolution though the concept of a ‘fitness landscape’ (1993). Complex systems are thus seen as being ‘on the edge of chaos’. Physicists describe many states as being ‘metastable’, which means that they are next to stable (rather than simply unstable; Ball, 2004: 201). Order and chaos are in a kind of balance where the components are neither fully locked into place but yet do not fully dissolve into complete instabil- ity or anarchy. Chaos is not complete anarchic randomness but there is an ‘orderly disorder’ present within such systems. This argument emphasizes the nature of strong interactions occurring between the parts of systems, with often the absence of a central hierarchical structure that ‘governs’ and produces outcomes. These outcomes are both uncertain and yet irreversible. As we noted above, this is because more is different, ‘large numbers behave differently from small numbers’, as Resnick shows in the case of ants or slime-mould cells (Jenks and Smith, this volume; Kelly, 1995: 26; Resnick, 1997: 33). The use of complexity thinking should enable us to break with dualistic thinking, which holds that there either are ‘systems’ or there are ‘system failures’ (see Malpas and Wickham, 1995). Chaos and order are to be seen as interconnected as large-scale systems move in and through time- space. A wide array of authors has found these formulations productive for developing new kinds of social science, and indeed for generating provoca- tive overlaps between physical, biological and social science formulations. However, the borrowings from complexity are of many different forms; Kwa (2002) distinguishes between romantic and baroque borrowings. Some of these differences are reflected in this Special Issue. Leading contributors to these ‘social’ science debates have contributed here, ranging from those developing analyses of autopoietic processes, to critical realist formulations of the economy and politics, to ecological approaches, to Deleuzians and vitalist philosophers, to students of the global and so on. The collection begins with two articles that set the scene and provoke a number of ways of rethinking the significance of the complex and of the potential relationships between the physical and the social. The first is by one of the leading writers on the social science of time, Helga Nowotny. She sets out many ways in which we seem to live in a complex world. Living organisms are composed of parts that function to ensure the survival and the reproduction of the whole. In the course of evolution complexity has increased, but this increase is neither universal nor inevitable. Also societies have become more complex, especially through the development of symbolic technologies. She pays particular attention to the work of 8 Theory, Culture & Society 22(5) 01_urry-1_057188 (jk-t) 20/9/05 8:56 am Page 8 © 2005 Theory, Culture & Society Ltd.. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. at FLORIDA STATE UNIV LIBRARY on August 28, 2007http://tcs.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 383. Luhmann. Nowotny argues for the importance of transdisciplinary interfaces in which analyses of complex evolving systems are not to be left to scientists alone, since they increasingly turn out simultaneously to involve human agents and things, science and society‚ in novel configurations. Scientific novelty thus needs a societal reading‚ in order to be understood and cultur- ally appropriated. Within the pantheon of writers contributing to the popular understand- ing of science and especially of complexity, Fritjof Capra is probably the world’s leading figure and has indeed contributed to a societal reading of complexity (Capra, 2001). In his article he sets out some of the main contri- butions that non-linear dynamics has made to understanding various aspects of biological life and especially to the ‘breath of life’. He develops how complexity enables living networks to be analysed as functional, open, oper- ating far from equilibrium and, most significantly, self-generating. He also shows how solving non-linear equations results in a visual shape or ‘attrac- tor’, the system’s long-term pattern. Capra also brings out the significance of Prigogine’s theory of dissipative structures, how living systems maintain themselves in a relatively stable state, albeit far from equilibrium. Author of the innovative Transductions: Bodies and Machines at Speed (2002), Adrian Mackenzie takes up certain issues from Capra, especially through examining the organization and structuring of the complexity sciences. He examines the ‘movements’ of scientific ideas through a detailed analysis of the role played by the Lorenz attractor. This notion shows up in popular images of ‘deterministic chaos’ and the notorious ‘butterfly effect’. He examines just how complexity research moved so rapidly from the scien- tific laboratory to popular science, especially examining the role of print media and computer simulation. Mackenzie also develops, via De Landa, some ways in which complexity seeks to move beyond metaphors, a non- metaphorical movement of complexity into social and cultural analysis. Leading sociologist of science Brian Wynne also develops an analysis of the ‘movements’ of complexity by examining and critiquing ‘science’ as the ritual authority. He thus argues against dominant social sciences approaches to complexity that suggest that awareness of complexity in late- modern society solely derives from recent scientific insights. By examining plant and human genomics sciences, he argues that public culture is already aware of particular forms of complexity, such as the many limits to predic- tive knowledge. He also shows that genomics science expresses both complexity and predictive determinism and reductionism, the latter stemming from commercial cultures, and by imagined publics who are important new constructed objects of institutional scientific concerns. In sustaining a strong anti-reductionist argument, Wynne shows and develops important and neglected dimensions of the interrelations of science-and- society. One of the very earliest works in the complexity area that sought to develop its implications for empirical social science was David Byrne’s Complexity Theory and the Social Sciences (1998). In his article here he Urry – The Complexity Turn 9 01_urry-1_057188 (jk-t) 20/9/05 8:56 am Page 9 © 2005 Theory, Culture & Society Ltd.. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. at FLORIDA STATE UNIV LIBRARY on August 28, 2007http://tcs.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 384. argues that the way to make complexity work as part of critical realist social science is through the comparative method and especially through its shaping of the tools of social science. This project he examines through a distinction between ‘simplistic complexity’ (rather like the reductionism Wynne argues against) and ‘complex complexity’. The latter involves a dialogical engagement with involved social actors seeking to transform social systems. He is less concerned with importing ideas from the sciences but rather with developing ways of thinking and challenging the social world through complexity understood as a more general epistème. Issues of social change are also examined in Christian Suteanu’s article, partly drawing upon his work within the physics of complexity. This article addresses complexity by selecting some of its key aspects that share the feature of the power to change. He especially examines the three main ‘pillars’ that are thought to constitute science: measurability, reproducibil- ity and prediction. He shows the disruptive consequences that complexity has for each of these pillars. Particular focus is directed to the implications of Madelbrot’s fractal theory. Suteanu goes on to examine in detail the nature of complexity’s resulting new geography, generating new landmarks, relationships among its elements, means of orientation and relationships between science and the public. Authors of the forthcoming Qualitative Complexity: Ecology, Cognition and the Re-emergence of Structure in Post-humanist Social Theory, Chris Jenks and John Smith analyse the relationships between complex processes of self-organization and the environment or ecology in which these dynamic processes take place (2005). They focus upon the role of information in the formation of complex structures. Through a detailed engagement with Prigogine, the authors develop an ontology that founds both material and informational structures and argues for a radical continuity between the general thermodynamics of emergent complex orders, cognitive theory and the complex structures of human thought and culture. They emphasize the qualitatively distinct modes of dynamic organizations involved in the inter- play of ‘given’ adaptation-enactment and the plasticities of human intelli- gence, culture and its technologies. Elements of the global and globalization are examined in the remain- ing articles. Indeed, it is the awareness of the ‘global’ that has helped to generate the complexity turn within the social and cultural sciences. The huge array of books, articles, journals and popular discourse surrounding globalization has authorized a return to the notion of ‘system’ that had, for a couple of decades, slipped from view (see Walby, 2006, on the return of ‘system’). Clearly, though, many complexity notions will be highly critiqued because of this systemic orientation. Nigel Clarke especially examines parallels and differences between the idea of the earth in interchange with a dynamic cosmos and the notion of a global complexity (and see Urry, this volume). He refers to the former as an ‘exorbitant globality’ and shows how it points towards a unaccount- able excess and a radical undecideability in future deliberations. He 10 Theory, Culture & Society 22(5) 01_urry-1_057188 (jk-t) 20/9/05 8:56 am Page 10 © 2005 Theory, Culture & Society Ltd.. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. at FLORIDA STATE UNIV LIBRARY on August 28, 2007http://tcs.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 385. analyses Lovelock’s Gaia thesis, and more generally the notion of the bio- sphere as a complex self-organizing system. Drawing upon Deleuze, De Landa and Derrida, Clarke problematizes the idea of a global system that is not closed to its immense surroundings. Indeed, we might ask what is the environment of the globe’s system? Indeed, could the universe itself be thought of as a non-equilibrium, self-organized system (see Smolin, 1997)? The planet recurs also within Graeme Chesters and Ian Welsh’s article on the relevance of a Deleuzian reading of complexity and of ‘becoming’ to interrogate the rise of networked social movements and extensive ‘weak ties’ operating across the globe. They examine the self-organizing anti-globaliz- ation ‘movement of movements’ and show how it cannot be pressed into a conventional social movements framework (see also We Are Everywhere, in part written by Chesters). They examine transnational gatherings, social fora, computer-mediated communications, the digital commons and unprecedented mobility, which serve to generate a fractal movement-space, a shadow realm that makes possible ‘global movement’. Especially signifi- cant is their analysis of the relations of affect and intensity generated within movement ‘plateaux’. The significance of complexity analysis for global relationships is also examined in Karin Knorr Cetina’s analysis of the ‘new terrorism’. She takes this as a significant exemplifying case for complexity theory – with major disproportionalities between cause and effect, unpredictable outcomes, and self-organizing, emergent structures. It also illustrates the emergence of global microstructures – a topic she importantly explores elsewhere – of forms of connectivity and coordination that combine global reach with microstructural mechanisms that instantiate self-organizing principles and patterns. Such global microstructures do not exhibit institutional complex- ity but rather the asymmetries, unpredictabilities and playfulness of complex (and dispersed) interaction patterns. The analysis of complex global microstructures suggests a theory of microglobalization, that the texture of a global world becomes articulated through microstructural patterns that develop in the shadow of (but liberated from) national and local institutional patterns, as Chesters and Welsh show in the case of the anti- globalization ‘movement’. Such processes are also examined by John Urry as he develops some arguments from Global Complexity (2003). He distinguishes between ‘global networks’ and ‘global fluids’, seeing new kinds of movement and of terror- ism as examples of the latter. More generally, through paradoxically drawing upon Marx’s analysis of the contradictions of capitalism, he seeks to show that globalization should be conceptualized as a series of adapting and co- evolving global systems each characterized by unpredictability, irreversibil- ity and co-evolution. This is to follow Wynne’s resolutely anti-reductionist view of globalization. It is argued that such systems lack finalized ‘equilib- rium’ or ‘order’; indeed, the many pools of order à la Prigogine heighten overall disorder. The global, then, is comprised of various systems, operat- ing at various levels or scales, each constitutes the environment for each Urry – The Complexity Turn 11 01_urry-1_057188 (jk-t) 20/9/05 8:56 am Page 11 © 2005 Theory, Culture & Society Ltd.. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. at FLORIDA STATE UNIV LIBRARY on August 28, 2007http://tcs.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 386. other. Thus criss-crossing ‘societies’ are many other mobile, material systems in complex interconnection with their environments. Finally, Paul Cilliers, author of the major Complexity and Post- modernism, discusses the implications of how if something is complex then this implies that our knowledge of it will always be limited. We cannot make complete, absolute or final claims about complex systems. He draws upon and discusses three arguments: that complexity-thinking lead to relativism; that they are subject to the performative contradiction; and that their claims are vague. It is shown that these critiques are not really effective and that a responsible approach to complexity involves modest and contingent but non-relativisitic claims. Thus, for the social and cultural sciences, complexity analyses bring out how there is order and disorder within these various systems. In particu- lar, we can see how the global order is a complex world, unpredictable and irreversible, disorderly but not anarchic. And elements of that disorderly world are mobile and transmuting notions of complexity science unpre- dictably emerging and holding a shape as they sweep into and transmute one discipline after another, as we have sought to describe and examine in The Complexity Turn in the social and cultural sciences. Acknowledgements I am very grateful to the authors of the articles appearing here who responded with enthusiasm to some significant editorial suggestions. I am also grateful to discussions on complexity within the Lancaster Complexity Network and especi- ally to my co-organizer, Kingsley Dennis. I am also very grateful for many lengthy conversations on complexity with Sylvia Walby whose Complex Social Systems: Theorizations and Comparisons in a Global Era (forthcoming, 2006) develops one of the first large-scale empirical studies deploying complexity notions within the social sciences. I am also very grateful for the assistance of Susan Manthorpe and Neal Curtis in getting this issue into publication, as well as more general advice from Mike Featherstone and the editorial board of TCS. References Arthur, B. (1994) Increasing Returns and Path Dependence in the Economy. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. Ball, P. (2004) Critical Mass: How One Thing Leads to Another. London: William Heinemann. Barabási, A.-L. (2002) Linked: The New Science of Networks. Cambridge, MA: Perseus. Buchanan, M. (2002) Small World: Uncovering Nature’s Hidden Networks. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Budiansky, S. (1995) Nature’s Keepers. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Byrne, D. (1998) Complexity Theory and the Social Sciences. London: Routledge. Capra, F. (1996) The Web of Life. London: HarperCollins. Capra, F. (2001) The Hidden Connections: A Science for Sustainable Living. London: HarperCollins. 12 Theory, Culture & Society 22(5) 01_urry-1_057188 (jk-t) 20/9/05 8:56 am Page 12 © 2005 Theory, Culture & Society Ltd.. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. at FLORIDA STATE UNIV LIBRARY on August 28, 2007http://tcs.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 387. Casti, J. (1994) Complexification. London: Abacus. Cilliers, P. (1998) Complexity and Post-modernism. London: Routledge. Cohen, J. and I. Stewart (1994) The Collapse of Chaos. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Coveney, P. (2000) ‘A Clash of Doctrines: The Arrow of Time in Modern Physics’, in P. Baert (ed.) Time in Contemporary Intellectual Thought. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Coveney, P. and R. Highfield (1990) The Arrow of Time. London: Flamingo. Davies, P. (2001a) ‘Before the Big Bang’, Prospect June: 56–9. Davies, P. (2001b) How to Build a Time Machine. London: Allen Lane. Davis, M. (2000) Ecology of Fear. London: Picador. De Landa, M. (1997) A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History. New York: Swerve. De Landa, M. (2002) Intensive Science and Virtual Philosophy. London: Continuum. Eve, R., S. Horsfall and M. Lee (eds) (1997) Chaos, Complexity, and Sociology. London: Sage Publications. Fraser, M., S. Kember and C. Lury (eds) (2005) Inventive Life: Approaches to the New Vitalism. Special Issue of Theory Culture & Society 22(1): 1–14. Gladwell, M. (2002) Tipping Points: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co. Gleick, J. (1988) Chaos. London: Sphere. Hawking, S. (1988) A Brief History of Time. London: Bantam. Hayles, N.K. (1999) How We Became Posthuman. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Helmreich, S. (1998) Silicon Second Nature. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Holland, J.A. (1998) Emergence. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Jenks, C. and J. Smith (2005) Qualitative Complexity: Ecology, Cognition and the Re-emergence of Structure in Post-humanist Social Theory. London: Routledge. Jervis, R. (1997) System Effects. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Jones, R. (2004) Soft Machines: Nanotechnology and Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kauffman, S. (1993) The Origins of Order. New York: Oxford University Press. Keil, L. and E. Elliott (eds) (1996) Chaos Theory in the Social Sciences. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. Kelly, K. (1995) Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines. London: Fourth Estate. Kelly, K. (1998) New Rules for the New Economy. London: Fourth Estate. Krugman, P. (1996) The Self-organizing Economy. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. Kwa, C. (2002) ‘Romantic and Baroque Conceptions of Complex Wholes in the Sciences’, pp. 23–52 in J. Law and A. Mol (eds) Complexities: Social Studies of Knowledge Practices. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Luhmann, N. (1995) Social Systems. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Maasen, S. and P. Weingart (2000) Metaphors and the Dynamics of Knowledge. London: Routledge. Mackenzie, A. (2002) Transductions: Bodies and Machines at Speed. New York: Continuum. Urry – The Complexity Turn 13 01_urry-1_057188 (jk-t) 20/9/05 8:56 am Page 13 © 2005 Theory, Culture & Society Ltd.. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. at FLORIDA STATE UNIV LIBRARY on August 28, 2007http://tcs.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 388. Malpas, J. and G. Wickham (1995) ‘Governance and Failure: On the Limits of Soci- ology’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology 31(3): 37–50. Maturana, H. (1981) ‘Autopoeisis’, in M. Zeleny (ed.) Autopoeisis: A Theory of Living Organization. New York: North Holland. May, R. (ed.) (1981) Theoretical Ecology: Principles and Applications. Oxford: Blackwell. Mingers, J. (1995) Self-producing Systems. New York: Plenum. Nicolis, G. (1995) Introduction to Non-linear Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Perrow, C. (1999) Normal Accidents. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Prigogine, I. (1997) The End of Certainty. New York: The Free Press. Prigogine, I. and I. Stengers (1984) Order out of Chaos. London: Heinemann. Rasch, W. and C. Wolfe (eds) (2000) Observing Complexity. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. Rescher, N. (1998) Complexity. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. Resnick, M. (1997) Turtles, Termites, and Traffic Jams. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Rycroft, R. and D. Kash (1999) The Complexity Challenge. London: Pinter. Smolin, L. (1997) The Life of the Cosmos. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Stewart, I. (1989) Does God Play Dice? The Mathematics of Chaos. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Surowiecki, J. (2004) The Wisdom of Crowds. London: Little Brown. Taylor, M. (2003) The Moment of Complexity: Emerging Network Culture. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Thrift, N. (1999) ‘The Place of Complexity’, Theory, Culture & Society 16(3): 31–70. Urry, J. (2003) Global Complexity. Cambridge: Polity. Van Loon, J. (2002) Risk and Technological Culture: Towards a Sociology of Virulence. London: Routledge. Walby, S. (2006) Complex Social Systems: Theorizations and Comparisons in a Global Era. London: Sage Publications. Waldrop, M. (1994) Complexity. London: Penguin. Wallerstein, I. (1996) Open the Social Sciences: Report of the Gulbenkian Commission on the Restructuring of the Social Sciences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Watts, D. (1999) Small Worlds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Watts, D. (2003) Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age. London: Heinemann. Whitehead, A.N. (1985) Process and Reality. New York: Free Press. Wolfram, S. (2002) A New Kind of Science. Champaign, IL: Wolfram Media Inc. Zohar, D. and I. Marshall (1994) The Quantum Society. New York: William Morrow. John Urry is Professor of Sociology at Lancaster University. He has recently published The Tourist Gaze (Sage, 2002), Global Complexity (Polity, 2003), Performing Tourist Places (Ashgate, 2004), Tourism Mobilities (Rout- ledge, 2004) and Automobilities (Sage, 2005). 14 Theory, Culture & Society 22(5) 01_urry-1_057188 (jk-t) 20/9/05 8:56 am Page 14 © 2005 Theory, Culture & Society Ltd.. All rights reserved. Not for commercial use or unauthorized distribution. at FLORIDA STATE UNIV LIBRARY on August 28, 2007http://tcs.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 389. Research Journal of Hospitality & Tourism DOI: 10.1177/1096348006297290 2007; 31; 194Journal of Hospitality &amp; Tourism Research Asli D. A. Tasci, William C. Gartner and S. Tamer Cavusgil Conceptualization and Operationalization of Destination Image The online version of this article can be found at: Published by: On behalf of: International Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education can be found at:Journal of Hospitality & Tourism ResearchAdditional services and information for Alerts: at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 390. 194 Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, Vol. 31, No. 2, May 2007, 194-223 DOI: 10.1177/1096348006297290 © 2007 International Council on Hotel, Restaurant and Institutional Education CONCEPTUALIZATION AND OPERATIONALIZATION OF DESTINATION IMAGE Asli D. A. Tasci Mugla University William C. Gartner University of Minnesota S. Tamer Cavusgil Michigan State University The destination image has received much attention for about three decades. Studies of var- ious aspects of destination images increased in volume during the 1990s. Echtner and Ritchie’s (1991) review of destination image literature resulted in several suggestions in terms of both the conceptualization and operationalization of destination image. This study looks at the evolutionary nature of tourism destination image studies from both theoretical and operational perspectives. Necessary adjustments in the methodological rigor and the focus of inquiry for destination image research are offered using Echtner and Ritchie’s review as a guide. A review of literature about destination image and other pertinent con- cepts indicated that several of Echtner and Ritchie’s recommendations have been followed, whereas others have not. Also, several other important conceptualization- and methodol- ogy-related issues identified in the destination image literature are addressed. KEYWORDS: destination image; image management; image measurement; image conceptualization; image formation One important aspect of destination marketing is destination image manage- ment. As an elusive and confusing construct, image is believed to have a rather strong effect on consumer behavior; thus, it has received increasing attention from destination marketers. It became a focus of tourism research in the early 1970s, and attention to this construct increased in the 1990s. This momentum coincides with the realization of the importance of the destination image in des- tination promotion by both academics and industry practitioners. It has been a relatively well-studied line of inquiry in the field of hospitality and tourism for more than 30 years. The results of tourism image research are used by marketers to conduct intel- ligent destination marketing, which means that important decisions regarding planning, development, positioning, and promotion depend on these results. Because the results of image research might affect the destination, the researchers at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 391. Tasci et al. / DESTINATION IMAGES 195 and the methodologies they use are very crucial factors for the destination. If the research reveals the wrong results due to methodological mistakes or faulty inter- pretations by the researchers, the destination might run the risk of spending tourism resources for the wrong purposes. Therefore, frequent and critical monitoring of the image construct through lit- erature reviews is required to shed light on the necessary adjustments of method- ological rigor and focus of inquiry. For example, Echtner and Ritchie (1991) reviewed many image studies and found some weaknesses in the conceptualization and measurement of the image construct. To correct this deficiency, they developed a scale to measure this construct in a comprehensive manner (Echtner & Ritchie, 1993). However, their review investigated literature prior to the 1990s, and a great deal of tourism image research has been conducted since then. The aim of this study is (a) to investigate the conceptualization and opera- tionalization of the destination image construct since the early 1990s, (b) to identify the shifts in the focus of inquiry due to Echtner and Ritchie’s (1991, 1993) critiques and suggestions, (c) to identify other issues overlooked by Echtner and Ritchie (1991), and (d) to identify the areas awaiting further research by image researchers. APPROACH To accomplish the study objectives, many empirical and conceptual image- related articles published in well-known journals of tourism and other related fields were reviewed. Empirical studies with a specific focus on destination image as well as theoretical literature on destination image are included in the detailed critical review. Most of these studies are conducted by researchers with tourism, hospitality, and leisure backgrounds. Scholars from other fields writing about the same subject include business, geography, psychology, and sociology. The contribution of outsiders to a field adds additional perspectives to the field of inquiry at both conceptual and methodological levels. Therefore, some arti- cles from related domains such as consumer behavior, store and brand image, advertising, and communication are also investigated to clarify concepts and explain the underlying theoretical basis in a comprehensive manner. Due to the complex nature of the image construct, which is inextricably inter- twined with several other constructs, conducting a comprehensive review of des- tination image studies exposes researchers to a large body of literature including not only destination image studies but also studies of related subjects. There are a number of studies of subjects that are actually similar, seemingly similar, or closely related to the destination image construct. To keep the review clear and concise while not compromising its comprehensiveness, literature about similar or related concepts is discussed briefly in the following paragraphs. First, because destination image is closely related to the field of environ- mental psychology (Fridgen, 1984; Stringer, 1984), destination image studies resemble studies in that field which utilizes assessment of cognitive or percep- tual mapping (Downs & Stea, 1973), environmental response (McKechnie, at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 392. 196 JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY & TOURISM RESEARCH 1974, 1977, 1978), environmental personality (Sonnenfeld, 1969), environmen- tal preference (Kaplan, 1977), and affective qualities of places (Russell & Pratt, 1980). Some of these techniques are also utilized by some destination image researchers (Baloglu & Brinberg, 1997; Baloglu & McCleary, 1999; Fodness, 1990; Fridgen, 1987; Luckett, Ganesh, & Gillett, 1999). Second, there is a group of studies seemingly investigating different constructs but indeed investigating the destination image with a different name. These seem- ingly different constructs are destination attractiveness (Formica, 2002; Gearing, Swart, & Var, 1974; Hu & Ritchie, 1993; Kozak & Rimmington, 1998; Var, Beck, & Loftus, 1977), destination awareness (Ritchie & Smith, 1991), destination eval- uation (Ross, 1993a), destination perception (Driscoll, Lawson, & Niven, 1994; Fodness, 1990; Goodrich, 1977; Jensen & Korneliussen, 2002; Richardson & Crompton, 1988; Vogt &Andereck, 2003; Weiermair, 2000), destination attributes (Calantone, Benedetto, Hakam, & Bojanic, 1989; Scott, Schewe, & Frederick, 1978), and destination quality (Crompton & Love, 1995; Weiermair, 2000). Using such new or different terminology to study the destination image construct might contribute to the body of literature, but it can also cause confusion for laypeople as well as avid researchers. Third, there are some studies investigating actually different constructs while utilizing operationalizations similar to those of image studies. These constructs are benefits and constraints or facilitators and inhibitors of a travel destination (Botha, Crompton, & Kim, 1999; Tian, Crompton, & Witt, 1996; Um & Crompton, 1990, 1992, 1999; Zins, 1998); travel motivation, travel demand, and pull factors (Baloglu & Uysal, 1996; Gilbert & Terrata, 2001; Klenosky, 2002); destination sat- isfaction (Kozak & Rimmington, 2000; Pizam & Ellis, 1999; Pizam, Neumann, & Reichel, 1978; Weiermair, 2000; Yuksel & Rimmington, 1998); and competitive destination analysis and destination peripherality (D. G. Pearce, 1997, 2002; Weaver, 1997).Although the studies using these subjects of inquiry address aspects different from image, they still utilize similar measurement techniques, namely either tourists’or experts’evaluation of destinations through a wide range of assess- ment techniques. Fourth, there is a group of studies about destination brands which also reflect on the concept of the destination image due to their close association with each other. Researchers agree that although image is different from branding, branding is cre- ated through image (Cai, 2002; Croy, 2003; Govers, 2003; Jensen & Korneliussen, 2002; Kotler & Gertner, 2002; Pritchard & Morgan, 2001; Ravinder, 2003). Finally, there are other studies investigating a single image attribute of a destination such as the price or cost, the value of money (Stevens, 1992), and distance (Harrison-Hill, 2001). To keep the review concise, studies about the abovementioned constructs are not included in the review process of this study. CONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE DESTINATION IMAGE Echtner and Ritchie (1991) identify that the definition of the destination image is vague, incomplete, or lacking in the literature, which led them to at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 393. Tasci et al. / DESTINATION IMAGES 197 conclude that it is not clear what component of image is measured in some stud- ies. They recognize that in most studies, image is conceptualized in terms of cognitive component—that is, lists of destination attributes. Referring to the root disciplines of image concept, they conclude that measuring image only by attribute lists would not capture the multidimensionality of the image concept, and they recommend that image be conceptualized as having components of three con- tinua: attribute/holistic, functional/psychological, and common/unique. Thus, they define image as the perceptions of individual destination attributes . . . [and] the holistic impres- sion made by the destination. [It] . . . consists of functional characteristics, con- cerning the more tangible aspects of the destination, and psychological characteristics, concerning the more intangible aspects. Furthermore, [it] . . . can be arranged on a continuum ranging from traits which can be commonly used to compare all destinations to those which are unique to very few destinations. (Echtner & Ritchie, 1991, p. 8) A substantial number of destination image studies have been conducted since Echtner and Ritchie’s review, and researchers have proposed different defini- tions for the same construct (i.e., the destination image). In doing so, some have introduced different aspects of image and have developed a more complete con- struct. Baloglu and Brinberg (1997), for example, borrow a general definition from some authors: “Image is the sum of beliefs, ideas, and impressions that people have of a place or destination” (p. 11). They also adapt its emotional, prejudicial, and imaginational aspects from others. In a similar manner, Dann (1996) uses Gensch’s (1978) image specification of “an abstract concept incor- porating the influences of past promotion, reputation and peer evaluation of alternatives,” and he also incorporates sociopsychological aspects from other scholars with which image becomes a dynamic and subjective “reflection or representation of sensory or conceptual information . . . built on past experi- ence and govern[ing] one’s action . . . often shared by similar people who also form part of that image” (Dann, 1996, p. 42). Some researchers use perception terminology such as image perception, per- ceived image, and tourist image, which call for clarification between the con- cepts of image and perception. Fridgen (1987) defines image as “a mental representation of an object, person, place, or event which is not physically before the observer” (p. 102). He differentiates between image and perception, both of which are part of environmental understanding and comprehension, by noting the presence of environmental stimuli for justification of perception, whereas no such stimuli for image exist. This means image might or might not include perception; thus, the use of tourists’ perception of an image is theoreti- cally an inappropriate combination for the cases in which potential tourists have not yet experienced perception through pictures or visitation. Sussmann and Unel (1999) object to the use of both perception and attitude as substitutes for image despite the similarities between them; they postulate that “they are quite at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 394. 198 JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY & TOURISM RESEARCH different: images are the result of composite perceptions which are, in turn, dic- tated by attitudes to result in a positive or negative image” (p. 211). A similar complexity exists in the use of “tourist image.” Bramwell and Rawding’s (1996) definition might clarify the conflict by differentiating between projected and received image: “Projected images are the ideas and impressions of a place that are available for people’s consideration” (p. 202). They purport that those images are transmitted or diffused through communication channels to the consumers who filter these image messages through their subjective states such as personalities, prior experiences, knowledge, needs, preferences, and motivations, thereby altering and forming them into “their own unique representations or men- tal constructs” (Bramwell & Rawding, 1996, p. 202). Similar image formation process-related definitions are provided by others (Court & Lupton, 1997; Fakeye & Crompton, 1991; MacKay & Fesenmaier, 1997). The definitions provided by Tapachai and Waryszak (2000) and Walmsley and Young (1998) are worth citing for theoretical clarification. Walmsley and Young (1998) identify the schematic nature of images, whereas Tapachai and Waryszak include the conative component while providing a definition of beneficial images. Although some researchers mention the conative (behavioral) component of image (Gartner, 1993) and some measure a destination image’s influence on certain behaviors (Bojanic, 1991; Chen & Hsu, 2000; Chen & Kerstetter, 1999; Court & Lupton, 1997; Dadgostar & Isotalo, 1992; Milman & Pizam, 1995; Ross, 1993b), the conative component is missing in many others’ definitions. Other researchers bring together distinctively different definitions but do not provide any synthesis or preference (Alhemoud & Armstrong, 1996; Chen & Kerstetter, 1999). Chen and Kerstetter (1999, p. 257), for example, cite both Crompton’s (1979) definition, “the sum of beliefs, ideas, and impressions that an individual has of a destination,” and Gartner’s (1986) definition, “one’s perception of attributes or activities available at a destination.” These are theo- retically contradictory descriptions because they are shaped by opposing infor- mation processing assumptions of the heuristic–systematic processing theory (Sirgy & Su, 2000), the piecemeal and category-based theory (Keaveney & Hunt, 1992), and the consumer involvement theory (Poiesz, 1989). In summary, central (systematic) processing, piecemeal-based processing, and high-involve- ment theories assume that the consumer is a logical thinker capable of effortful processing, who forms impressions by evaluating objects, attribute by attribute, each time. This is what Gartner’s (1986) definition is based on; it assumes the consumer will evaluate a destination on the basis of attributes and activities. On the other hand, peripheral (heuristic) processing, category-based processing, and low-involvement theories assume that the consumer does not have such a cognitive capability to evaluate objects, attribute by attribute, each and every time. Rather, the consumer tries to simplify the evaluation process by using dif- ferent criteria depending on the situation, thus having gestalt impressions instead of item-by-item evaluations. This is what Crompton’s (1979) definition rests on: the sum of beliefs and impressions, a total rather than its parts. Thus, some destination image researchers assume effortful processing on the part of at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 395. Tasci et al. / DESTINATION IMAGES 199 the consumer, and some assume limited processing; therefore, their definitions differ, eventually affecting operationalization of the construct as well. It is not surprising to find that there are numerous definitions for destination image. The reason is that each one of the abovementioned definitions is actually defining a particular aspect of destination image. They are not comprehensive def- initions in which all image components are given the same weight. For example, Gartner’s (1986) definition concentrates on attributes that are commonly measured in studies of destination image. The focus for this definition is on cognition and simple evaluation of the attributes that are assumed to exist within a destination. Crompton’s (1979) definition goes beyond the cognitive awareness and simple evaluation process to include elements of the affective component (i.e., how one feels about what exists). The same can be said for many of the other definitions because each deals with defining one or more of the components of the destination image. None actually account for all of the components. For scientific parsimony, it is necessary to clarify and define a destination image construct to be commonly used by destination image researchers in a uni- form manner. After synthesizing all the components proposed by destination image researchers, it is clear that three main components exist: cognitive, affec- tive, and conative. According to Boulding (1956), these three components take in what we know about an object (cognitive), how we feel about what we know (affective), and how we act on this information (conative). Other proposed com- ponents—namely, holistic, attributive, common, and unique—provide deeper insight into how each of the components is internalized. When clarifying cog- nition, affect, and attitude, Peter and Olson (1999) explain that both affect and cognition are mental responses to the stimuli in the environment, which form a dynamically interactive and “reciprocal system” (p. 23). Affect includes positive or negative feeling responses with varying intensity. At the high end of intensity are emotions such as love and anger, then come feeling states such as satisfac- tion and frustration, followed by moods such as boredom and relaxation, and at the low end of intensity are evaluations (attitudes) such as liking or disliking. Cognition, on the other hand, is defined as a mental response that involves thinking about, paying attention to, remembering, understanding, interpreting, evaluating (good/bad, favorable/unfavorable), and making decisions about stim- uli in the environment. Thus, image assessment involves factual knowledge, personal beliefs, meanings, memories, evaluations, and decisions. Anand, Holbrook, and Stephens (1988) state that an increase in cognition about an object might lead to an increase in affect toward that object. An interactive system of destination image components is illustrated as in Figure 1. At the core of this interactive system of components, there is cognitive knowledge of common and unique attributes of destination and the affective response toward those attributes. With the interaction between the knowledge of unique and common attributes and feelings toward them, a composite image (holistic or overall) is formed and used by the decision maker to simplify the task of decision making. Assuming the knowledge of common and unique at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 396. 200 JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY & TOURISM RESEARCH attributes is fact based, the more detailed the core is, the less stereotypical the holistic synthesis is. This is a dynamically interactive and reciprocal system in which every item could be both a cause and an effect of a change at any time, and factors cannot be comprehended in isolation; therefore, they should be studied in an integrated manner. Thus, a destination image is an interactive system of thoughts, opinions, feelings, visualizations, and intentions toward a destination. EVOLUTION AND OPERATIONALIZATION OF DESTINATION IMAGE RESEARCH Echtner and Ritchie’s (1991) much-cited work on destination image reaches conclusions similar to those of Dobni and Zinkhan (1990) and Poiesz (1989), who review brand image literature, and those of Keaveney and Hunt (1992), who review store image literature. Dobni et al. found that having different meanings used by different researchers in different periods of time leads to the image construct being defined and operationalized in multiple ways in the brand image literature. It is defined both by a single word such as “personality” (Poiesz, 1989, p. 462) and by specific definitions such as “the concept as the embodiment of the abstract reality that people buy products or brands for some- thing other than their physical attributes and functions” (Dobni & Zinkhan, Figure 1 Interactive System of Image Components at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 397. Tasci et al. / DESTINATION IMAGES 201 1990, p. 110). Therefore, these researchers postulate that the body of literature runs the risk of having incomparable and ungeneralizable results. Depending on how they conceptualize image, some brand image researchers measure it by using lists of attributes—on either semantic differential or Likert scales— describing individual dimensions of brand, whereas some use a single measure for overall brand image (Dobni & Zinkhan, 1990). Also, qualitative methods such as focus groups, free responses, and in-depth interviews are utilized for measuring brand image. However, Dobni and Zinkhan criticize that it is not clear which methods are better for measuring brand image and if the differences resulting from different methods are significant. A similar approach to conceptualizing and measuring image is identified by Keaveney and Hunt (1992) in the retail store image literature. They detect that store image is defined by both single words, such as “gestalt,” and elaborate and thick descriptions such as [Image] arises quickly and unthinkingly, is idiosyncratic, includes inferences, accurate or inaccurate, from the audience’s own stereotypes, is an overall com- posite whose whole is greater than the sum of its parts, may be positive or nega- tive, and once formed, perseveres, [and] may be different from objective reality . . . Customers will not only hold factually based opinions about a store but will feel certain ways toward it. (Keaveney & Hunt, 1992, pp. 165-166) Keaveney and Hunt (1992) identified methodological issues similar to those in the brand image literature—common use of semantic differential and Likert scales measuring individual attributes of the store—which they suspect measure only the objective reality of a store. They conclude that even when qualitative methods are utilized, the data is tied to yet another quantitative method such as semantic differential results, thus losing nonfitting responses in the process that could be critical indications of affect toward a store. Similar issues are identified by Echtner and Ritchie (1991) in the destination image literature, as discussed and quoted above in the Conceptualization of the Destination Image section. Their study was the initial attempt in the destination image literature to link the main components of image together in a useful and interactive way. Although definitions (i.e., Crompton, 1979) had been proposed previously that seemed to link the components, no seminal research to show what that meant had appeared. Echtner and Ritchie provided the qualitative and quantitative arguments for accomplishing that goal. Despite the insightful comments made by Echtner and Ritchie (1991), the image construct, together with its components, is still not clearly defined in the destination image literature. As can be seen from Table 1, a substantial number of destination image researchers do not provide any definition as a frame of ref- erence. Some researchers refer to the definitions provided prior to Echtner and Ritchie’s review (Bojanic, 1991; Lubbe, 1998; Ross, 1993b). Bojanic’s refer- ence is specific to foreign destinations; thus, it would not be applied to resi- dents’ images. Lubbe, on the other hand, adapts Gunn’s (1972) image formation at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 398. 202 JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY & TOURISM RESEARCH Table 1 Destination Image Definitions After Echtner and Ritchie’s (1991) Review Researcher(s) Image Definition Bojanic (1991, p. 353) Adapts Hunt’s (1975) country image: “the impressions that a person or persons hold about a country in which they do not reside.” Fakeye and Crompton (1991, p. 10) Adapt Reynolds’ (1965) definition: “the Court and Lupton (1997, p. 35) mental construct developed by a potential visitor on the basis of a few selected impressions among the flood of total impressions; it comes into being through a creative process in which these impressions are elaborated, embellished, and ordered.” Ahmed (1991, p. 331) Adapt Reynolds’ (1965) definition: “the Leisen (2001, p. 49) mental construct developed by the consumer on the basis of a few selected impressions among the flood of total impressions. It comes into being through a creative process in which these selected impressions are elaborated, embellished, and ordered.” Dadgostar and Isotalo “The overall impression or attitude (1992, p. 34) that an individual acquires of a specific destination. This overall impression is considered to be composed of the tourist’s perceptions concerning the relevant qualities of the destination.” Ross (1993b, p. 54) Adapts Crompton’s (1979) definition: “the sum of beliefs, ideas, and impressions that a person has of a destination.” Milman and Pizam “A sum total of the images of (1995, p. 21) the individual elements or attributes that make up the tourism experience.” Bramwell and Rawding Distinguish between projected and (1996, p. 201) received images. Projected image: “the ideas and impressions of a place that are available for people’s consideration.” MacKay and Fesenmaier “A compilation of beliefs and (1997, p. 537) impressions based on information processing from a variety of sources over time, resulting in an internally accepted mental construct . . . a composite of various products (attractions) and attributes woven into a total impression.” Lubbe (1998) Adapts Gunn’s (1972) image formation theory as the best description. Walmsley and Young (1998, p. 65) “A common structure or schema of evaluations that can be used to (continued)at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 399. Tasci et al. / DESTINATION IMAGES 203 differentiate between tourism destinations.” Choi, Chan, and Wu (1999, p. 361) “People’s beliefs, ideas, or impressions about a place.” Sussmann and Unel (1999, p. 185) “The result of composite perceptions which are, in turn, dictated by attitudes to result in a positive or negative image.” Tapachai and Waryszak (2000, p. 37) Beneficial image: “perceptions or impressions of a destination held by tourists with respect to the expected benefit or consumption values including functional, social, emotional, epistemic, and conditional benefits of a destination. These perceptions/impressions in turn lead to the decision to visit a country as a vacation destination.” Coshall (2000, p. 85) “The individual’s perceptions of the characteristics of destinations.” MacKay and Fesenmaier (2000, p. 417) “A composite of various products (attractions) and attributes woven into a total impression.” Day, Skidmore, and Koller (2002, p. 177) Adapt Kotler, Heider, and Rein’s (1993) definition: “Place image is the sum of beliefs, ideas and impressions that people have of a place.” Sonmez and Sirakaya (2002, p. 185) Adapt Crompton’s (1979) definition: “a mental conception held in common by members of a group and symbolic of a basic attitude and orientation.” O’Leary and Deegan (2003, p. 213) Identify Echtner and Ritchie’s (1993) definition of image components as the most comprehensive image definition: “Destination image comprises attribute, holistic, functional, psychological, common and unique components.” Ahmed (1996); Alhemoud and Armstrong (1996); Cite multiple definitions. Baloglu and Brinberg (1997); Chen and Kerstetter (1999); Dann (1996); Fakeye and Crompton (1991); Milman and Pizam (1995); Rezende-Parker, Morrison, and Ismail (2003) Baloglu (2001); Baloglu and Mangaloglu (2001); No specific definition. Baloglu and McCleary (1999); Chen (2001); Chen and Hsu (2000); Chon (1991); Gartner (1993); Joppe, Martin, and Waalen (2001); Litvin and Kar (2004); McLellan and Fouschee (1983); Murphy (1999); P. L. Pearce (1982); Rittichainuwat, Qu, and Brown (2001); Schroeder (1996); Selby and Morgan (1996); Sirgy and Su (2000); Young (1999) Table 1 (continued) Researcher(s) Image Definition at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 400. 204 JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY & TOURISM RESEARCH stages, namely, organic and induced images, as the “. . . best known description” and builds on this description by supplementing it with Fakeye and Crompton’s (1991) “complex image” and Chon’s (1989, p. 23) “primary images.” However, as shown above, these concepts are different stages related to the destination image construct rather than to its definition. Echtner and Ritchie (1991) argue that destination image research depends heavily on quantitatively oriented studies with structured questionnaires. They realize that there is a relationship between the way image is conceptualized and the way it is operationalized or measured. Previous studies measured mostly the cognitive component of the destination image, with emphasis on lists of desti- nation attributes. Previous studies also used secondary sources such as general literature, brochures, and interviews with authorities to develop image attribute lists, which were reviewed by judges or subjected to pilot tests. Echtner and Ritchie recognize the expensive nature of qualitative research in terms of time and monetary costs, yet they stress that qualitative research is a must for cap- turing a complete list of image attributes. They suggest the use of a combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies to operationalize their multicom- ponent image concept completely. They propose a quantitative approach to reveal common characteristics and destination attributes and a qualitative approach for identifying holistic and psychological impressions associated with destination image. They empirically conducted the application of both qualita- tive and quantitative methods. They used a rather extensive, rigorous research to develop an image measurement instrument with a complete list of destination image attributes and questions measuring all components of an image. This process included a literature review of previous image studies, incorporation of input from judges and focus groups, and a pilot test of the preliminary instru- ment. Standardized scales were developed for capturing functional and psycho- logical attributes, and open-ended questions were formulated for measuring holistic and unique features of the destination. Critiques and recommendations of Echtner and Ritchie’s (1991, 1993) work generated widespread response in destination image research. As can be seen in Table 2, studies using qualitative and a combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods proliferated after the publication of Echtner and Ritchie’s studies. The use of qualitative data collection modes such as case study, in-depth interview, picture interpretation, and content analysis increased. The multistage scale development was adapted by many destination image researchers (Chen & Kerstetter, 1999; Court & Lupton, 1997; Joppe, Martin, & Waalen, 2001; MacKay & Fesenmaier, 1997; Milman & Pizam, 1995; Murphy, 1999; O’Leary & Deegan, 2003; Rezende-Parker, Morrison, & Ismail, 2003; Tapachai & Waryszak, 2000; Young, 1999). Interviews and focus groups are used to elicit the constructs and attributes that were developed into Likert and semantic dif- ferential scales to be rated in a quantitative manner. Also, more researchers began to use focus groups to incorporate customer input into their studies (Chen & Kerstetter, 1999; MacKay & Fesenmaier, 1997; Milman & Pizam, 1995; Murphy, 1999; Rezende-Parker et al., 2003; Tapachai & Waryszak, 2000). at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 401. 205 Researcher(s) Hunt(1975) Goodrich(1977) Crompton(1979) P.L.Pearce(1982) McLellanand Foushee(1983) Gartner(1986) Gartnerand Hunt(1987) Gartner(1989) Embacherand Buttle(1989) Reilly(1990) Chon(1991) Fakeyeand Crompton(1991) Dadgostarand Isotalo(1992) Method(s) Quantitative Quantitative Quantitative Semiexperimental Quantitative Quantitative Quantitative Quantitative Qualitative Qualitative Quantitative Combination Combination MainMode(s)ofData Collection Mailsurvey Mailsurvey On-site,self- administered Kelly’srepertory gridanalysis Mailself-administered 2-wavemailself- administered 2-wavemailself- administered Mailsurvey Kelly’srepertory gridanalysis Freeelicitation On-siteself- administered 3-wavemailsurvey (Dillman’s[1978] totaldesignmethod) Mailsurvey ImageComponent(s) Measured Cognitive Cognitive Cognitive — Cognitive Cognitive Cognitive Cognitive — — Cognitiveandaffective Cognitive Affective(unidimensional statedimage)and cognitive(attribute scoringtomeasure thecalculatedimage) MainModeQuestions Structured Structured Structured Minimumcontextform (triadicmethod) Structured Structured Structured Structured Minimumcontextform (triadicmethod) Open-ended Structured Structured Structured No.of Attributes 18 10 30 13constructs 12 13 10 15 296constructs — 26 32 11 No.of Factors — — — — — — — 2 11 — 7 5 — Table2 MethodologiesofDestinationImageStudies (continued) at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 402. 206 Gartnerand Shen(1992) Echtnerand Ritchie(1993) Ross(1993b) Milmanand Pizam(1995) Ahmed(1991) Ahmed(1996) Alhemoudand Armstrong(1996) Bramwelland Rawding(1996) Dann(1996) Quantitative Combination Quantitative Combination Quantitative Quantitative Qualitative Qualitative 2-wavemailsurvey (beforeand1year aftertheTiananmen event) Self-administeredsurvey (inclassroom) On-site,self- administered survey Focusgroupsand telephonesurvey Mailsurvey Self-administered survey(inclassroom) fordomestics,and personalinterviews (inresidence)for foreigners Contentanalysisand in-depthinterviews Casestudy(interview andphoto interpretation) Cognitive 3continua:attribute/ holistic,functional/ psychological,and common/unique Cognitive Cognitive Cognitiveandtotal image(attributes measuredand calculatedfortotal image) Cognitiveratingsof attractions — Affective Structured Structuredand open-ended Structured Structured Structured Structured Open-ended Open-ended 32 35 24 14 22 20 — — — 6 8 — 3 4 4 — — — Table2(continued) MainMode(s)ofDataImageComponent(s)No.ofNo.of Researcher(s)Method(s)CollectionMeasuredMainModeQuestionsAttributesFactors at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 403. 207 Schroeder(1996) Selbyand Morgan(1996) Balogluand Brinberg(1997) Courtand Lupton(1997) MacKayand Fesenmaier(1997) Walmsleyand Young(1998) Lubbe(1998) Balogluand McCleary(1999) Chenand Kerstetter(1999) Choi,Chan,and Wu(1999) Murphy(1999) Young(1999) ChenandHsu(2000) Tapachaiand Waryszak(2000) Quantitative Qualitative Quantitative Combination Combination Quantitative Qualitative Quantitative Combination Combination Combination Combination Quantitative Combination Mailsurvey Casestudy(interview) Self-administered (inclassroom) Mailsurvey Self-administeredon-site andmallintercept Self-administered surveydeliveredto residence Non-directed,controlled, in-depthinterview Mailsurvey 2-wavemailsurvey Personalinterviews Self-administered (deliveredto accommodation) On-siteself-administered On-site,self- administered (atairport) Self-administered (inclassroom) Cognitive Notclear Affective Cognitive Cognitiveandaffective Affective Cognitiveandaffective Cognitive,affective,and overallimage(global impression) Cognitive 3continua:attribute/ holistic,functional/ psychological,and common/unique Cognitiveandaffective Cognitiveandaffective Cognitiveandoverall — Structured Notdiscussed Structured Structured Structured Structured Open-ended Structured Structured Structuredandopen- ended(adapted fromEchtner& Ritchie,1993) Structured Structured Structured Open-ended 20 — 4 24 18 — — 14 48 25 8 30 17 — 4 — — 4 4 6 — — 4 4 — — — — (continued) at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 404. 208 Balogluand Mangaloglu (2001) Chen(2001) Joppe,Martin,and Waalen(2001) Leisen(2001) Rittichainuwat,Qu, andBrown (2001) Day,Skidmore,and Koller(2002) Sonmezand Sirakaya(2002) Litvinand Kar(2004) O’Learyand Deegan(2003) Rezende-Parker, Morrison,and Ismail,(2003) Combination Quantitative Combination Quantitative Quantitative Qualitative Quantitative Quantitative Combination Combination Mailsurvey On-siteself-administered Self-administered (insertedinmagazine) Mailsurvey On-siteself-administered Focusgroups(4) Mailsurvey Onsiteself-administered Self-administered (distributedon-site, mailedback) Onlineself-administered Cognitiveandaffective Cognitive Cognitiveandaffective Cognitive Cognitiveandaffective — Cognitive,affective, andholistic(adapted andmodifiedlistby Echtner&Ritchie,1993) Self-image/destination imagecongruity scale,individualism andcollectivismscale Cognitive,affective, andholistic Cognitive,affective, andholistic Structuredand open-ended Structured Structured Structured Structured Ratingsofpromotional images Structured Structured Structuredandopen- ended(adapted fromEchtner& Ritchie,1993) Structuredandopen- ended(adapted fromEchtner& Ritchie,1993) 14 17 15 24 31 — 82 — 18 39 — — — 4 7 — 10 — — 8 Table2(continued) MainMode(s)ofDataImageComponent(s)No.ofNo.of Researcher(s)Method(s)CollectionMeasuredMainModeQuestionsAttributesFactors at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 405. Tasci et al. / DESTINATION IMAGES 209 Those studies measuring only the cognitive component of the destination image still use solely quantitative methods with structured lists of destination attractions and attributes during the main data collection stage, whereas those measuring affective or both affective and cognitive components utilize a combi- nation of methods. The underlying reason is that the cognitive component com- prises objective reality of destination attributes, whereas the affective component includes rather subjective attitudes toward the destination’s properties, and these subjective attitudes can be understood through free descriptions of the respon- dents (Dann, 1996; Echtner & Ritchie, 1993; Embacher & Buttle, 1989; Lubbe, 1998; MacKay & Fesenmaier, 1997; Murphy, 1999; O’Leary & Deegan, 2003; Rezende-Parker et al., 2003; Selby & Morgan, 1996; Tapachai & Waryszak, 2000; Walmsley & Young, 1998). Echtner and Ritchie (1991) draw attention to the differences between images formed by secondary sources and images formed by firsthand experiences, and they recommend separating them “by either controlling for or monitoring those individuals that have visited the destination” (p. 4). This pertains especially to the studies with a sampling frame of the general population rather than actual visitors. After Echtner and Ritchie (1993), a few researchers conducted com- parisons of visitors and nonvisitors to identify the differences between images by secondary sources versus firsthand experience. However, some recommendations of Echtner and Ritchie (1991) were not followed. Echtner and Ritchie caution about the attribute lists used by different researchers; more specifically, the attribute lists prepared by different researchers might be incomplete or missing some relevant destination charac- teristics. As can be seen from Table 2, the problem still persists. There are con- siderable differences between the attributes included and factors derived from these attributes. Both the number of attributes and resulting factors revealed by data reduction analyses are different for different researchers even when they are measuring the image of the same destination. RELATED ISSUES Although Echtner and Ritchie’s (1991) study is considered a seminal contri- bution moving the field of destination image research forward, there are still a number of issues that have not been dealt with, or have been dealt with only superficially, that deserve more attention. Issues such as frame of reference, associational investigation, validity and reliability, test of theories, and provi- sion of implications have been largely ignored. Some destination image researchers attempt to display relationships between variables in an attempt to clarify the image formation process and/or the effect of image. As can be seen from Table 3, respondent characteristics such as region of residence/origin of visitors, distance from the destination, religious orienta- tion, age, gender, income, class standing, household status, familiarity through previous visitation, and other variables such as ad exposure, media, and travel at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 406. 210 JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY & TOURISM RESEARCH context are tested as possible determinants of destination image. Some of these factors are commonly found to be correlated with destination image. Region of residence, origin of visitors, and distance from the destination, for example, are commonly found to be correlated with image, whereas the findings on the corre- lation of previous visitation with an image are different for different researchers, similar to that of age, marital status, and household status. The variables for which image is found to be effective are time spent at a destination or length of trip, enjoy- ment and positive evaluations of the destination or satisfaction with the destination, revisit intention, willingness to recommend the destination, intention to visit, sup- port for tourism development, desirability of the destination, trip-planning time frame, budgeted travel costs, the likelihood of repeat travel, and the likelihood of choosing the destination for the next vacation. Some researchers provide contexts or frames of reference for the respondents who are thinking about the destinations whose images are being measured. Some of these contextual frames are rather general such as the place or country as a tourist or tourism destination (Alhemoud &Armstrong, 1996; Baloglu & Brinberg, 1997; Choi, Chan, & Wu, 1999; Echtner & Ritchie, 1993; Schroeder, 1996; Walmsley & Young, 1998), vacation or holiday destination (Crompton, 1979; Goodrich, 1977; Milman & Pizam, 1995; P. L. Pearce, 1982; Tapachai & Waryszak, 2000), or international travel destination (Rittichainuwat, Qu, & Brown, 2001). However, some others are more specific such as summer vacation destina- tion (Baloglu & McCleary, 1999; Embacher & Buttle, 1989), winter or winter visit destination (Crompton, Fakeye, & Lue, 1992; Dann, 1996; Fakeye & Crompton, 1991), or rural tourism destination (Chen & Kerstetter, 1999). Most destination image researchers provide implications from the results of their studies. These implications are managerial, theoretical, and methodologi- cal; some also provide future research suggestions. Some test theories or con- cepts and supply the applicability of these theories and concepts within the destination image framework, and some tie their results to a theoretical basis ex post facto. For example, P. L. Pearce (1982) tested the existence of the “spread of effect” phenomenon in the tourism destination context. His work revealed that tourists who undergo a change in perception for a particular destination may also change their perceptions of other similar destinations. If Pearce’s work had been replicated, which it has not, and found to be defensible, then the affective image component is not tied, as previously believed, to just the destination under study. The complex image (Figure 1) would apply then to a specific des- tination and others like it. Walmsley andYoung (1998) tested the applicability of two evaluative dimen- sions, arousing/sleepy and pleasant/unpleasant, at the local and international levels. Their theoretical implication is that this basic evaluative schema exists for the evaluation of a destination at the international level but not at the local level due to the confounding factors of personal experience and close knowl- edge of the local destination. Litvin and Kar (2004) tested the applicability of at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 407. 211 Author(s) Hunt(1975) Crompton(1979) P.L.Pearce(1982) Gartner(1986) Gartner&Hunt(1987) Reilly(1990) Bojanic(1991) Chon(1991) Fakeye&Crompton(1991) Crompton,Fakeye,&Lue(1992) Dadgostar&Isotalo(1992) Gartner&Shen(1992) Ross(1993b) Milman&Pizam(1995) RelationshipInvestigated BetweenVariables Regionofresidenceandimage(+) Regionofresidence(distance) andimage(+) Imageandvisitation(±) Imageandtime(±) Imageanddistance(+) Imageandgeography(+) Exposuretoadvertisingand attitudestowardthedestination (image)(+) Imageandvisitation(+) Lengthofstayandimage(+) Distanceandimage(+) Descriptiveimageandprevious visitation(+) Imageandplantoreturn(forvisitors) orintentiontovisit(fornonvisitors)(+) Imageandtimespentatthe destination(+) Imageandmedia(+) Imageattributesandenjoyment(±) Imageattributesandrevisitation intention(±) Imageattributesandpositive evaluations(±) Imageattributesandwillingness torecommend(±) Familiarity(previousvisitation) andimage(+) Awarenessandimage(-) DependentVariable(s) Image Image Image Image Image Image Attitude(image) Image Image Image Timespentatthedestination Image Enjoymentratings Revisitationintentions Positiveevaluations Willingnesstorecommend Image Image IndependentVariable(s) Regionofresidence Regionofresidence Visitation Time Distance Geography Adexposure Visitation Lengthofstay Distancefromthedestination Previousvisitation Plantoreturnorintentiontovisit Image(alongwithothervariables) Media Imageattributes Familiarity(previousvisitation) Awareness Table3 DestinationImageStudiesMeasuringRelationshipsBetweenVariables (continued) at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 408. 212 Author(s) Ahmed(1991) Ahmed(1996) Alhemoud&Armstrong(1996) Dann(1996) Schroeder(1996) Court&Lupton(1997) MacKay&Fesenmaier(1997) Lubbe(1998) Walmsley&Young(1998) Baloglu&McCleary(1999) Chen&Kerstetter(1999) Young(1999) RelationshipInvestigated BetweenVariables Imageandpreviousexperience(+) Imageandregionofresidence(+) Sociodemographicsandimage(+) Imageandexperiencethrough visit(+) Imageandsupportfortourism development(+) Imageandintentiontovisit(+) Thelandscapeperception dimensionsandimage dimensions(+) Demographicsandimage dimensions(±) Familiarityandimagedimensions(+) Cultureandimage(+) Familiarityandaffectiveimage(+) Imageandexperiencethrough priorvisitation(+) Imageandintentiontovisitin thefuture(+) Imageandpreviousvisitation(-) Imageandsociodemographic variables(+) Imageandusualresidence (Australiaoroverseas)(+) Imageandpreviousplacevisitation(-) Imageandpreviousrainforest visitation(+) Imagefrequencyofholidaying innaturalenvironments(+) DependentVariable(s) Totalimageanditsdifferent constituents Image Image Supportfortourismdevelopment Intentiontovisit Imagedimensions Image Affectiveimage Image Intentiontovisit Image Image Image IndependentVariable(s) Amountoftouringexperience Geographicalregion Proximity(familiarity),religious orientation,age,residence Experiencethroughvisit Image Image Landscapeperceptiondimensions Demographics:age,maritalstatus, sex,income Familiarity Culture Familiarity Experiencethroughpriorvisitation Image Previousvisitation Sociodemographics:homecountry, culture,gender,householdstatus,class Usualresidence(Australiaoroverseas Previousplacevisitation Previousrainforestvisitation Frequencyofholidayinginnatural environments Table3(continued) at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 409. 213 Chen&Hsu(2000) MacKay&Fesenmaier(2000) Baloglu(2001) Joppe,Martin,&Waalen(2001) Leisen(2001) Rittichainuwat,Qu,&Brown (2001) Sonmez&Sirakaya(2002) Imageandnumberofdays spentinthearea(-) Imageandstyleoftravel (independentorguided)(+) Imageandwhetherbrochureswere usedasaprimarysourceofinfo(-) Thedesirabilityofadestination anditsimageattributes(+) Trip-planningtimeframeand imageattributes(+) Budgetedtravelcostsandimage attributes(+) Lengthoftripandimageattributes(+) Imageandculture(+) Imageandfamiliarity(+) Imageanddemographics(±) Importantattributesandoriginof visitors(+) Levelofsatisfactionwiththe attributesandoriginofvisitors(+) Imageandintentiontovisit(+) Imageandthelikelihoodofrepeat travel(+) Repeatvisitsandimage(+) Imageanddemographics(±) Imageandlikelihoodofchoosing thecountryasthenext vacationdestination(±) Image Desirabilityofdestination Trip-planningtimeframe Budgetedtravelcosts Lengthoftrip Image Image Image Importantattributes Levelofsatisfactionwiththe attributes Image Likelihoodofrepeattravel Image Image Likelihoodofchoosingthe countryasthenextvacation destination Numberofdaysspentinthearea Styleoftravel(independentorguided) Whetherbrochureswereaprimary sourceofinfo Imageattributes Culture Familiarity Demographics:age, gender,education,income, maritalstatus Originofvisitors Intentiontovisit Image Repeatvisits Demographics:maritalstatus,age group,occupation,levelof education,countryofresidence Cognitive,affective,andholistic imagecomponents at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 410. 214 JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY & TOURISM RESEARCH Chon’s (1992) theory of self-image/destination image congruity. With a study of postvisit satisfaction, they investigated whether there is a “relationship between one’s self-image and one’s image of a product or service” and conclude that it does exist (Litvin & Kar, 2004, p. 23). Young (1999) developed a model of place production and place consumption ex post facto. In this model, he delin- eates a “zone of consensus” where the place production (projected image) and the place consumption (received image) overlap. Hunt (1975) also draws implications about tourist expectations and the comfortable level of exoticism in a destination. Similarly, researchers using different methodologies draw implications about the applicability of these new methodologies. Multidimensional scaling (Gartner, 1989; Goodrich, 1977; MacKay & Fesenmaier, 2000), Kelly’s reper- tory grid analysis (Embacher & Buttle, 1989; P. L. Pearce, 1982), and corre- spondence analysis (Chen, 2001) are tested analysis tools for measuring destination image. Yet they may, once again, be measuring only one component of the destination image. Other researchers, possibly picking up subconsciously (it is never clearly stated) on the need to include the affective component along with the cognitive when measuring destination image, conclude that there is a need to include qualitative methodologies when measuring destination image (Dann, 1996; Echtner & Ritchie, 1993; Lubbe, 1998). O’Leary and Deegan (2003) and Rezende-Parker et al. (2003) specifically test the validity of the des- tination image measurement approach developed by Echtner and Ritchie (1993) and agree with their recommendations. Tapachai and Waryszak (2000), on the other hand, test the category-based approach instead of the piecemeal-based approach suggested by Keaveney and Hunt (1992) and conclude that measuring destination image as a holistic concept rather than lists of attributes is an effec- tive way to proceed. Managerial implications are common in image studies. They are mostly about positioning (Baloglu & Brinberg, 1997; Baloglu & McCleary, 1999; Goodrich, 1977; Rittichainuwat et al., 2001; Walmsley & Young, 1998), pro- motion (Ahmed, 1996; Bojanic, 1991; Chen & Hsu, 2000; Chen & Kerstetter, 1999; Crompton et al., 1992; Day, Skidmore, & Koller, 2002; Fakeye & Crompton, 1991; Goodrich, 1977; Joppe et al., 2001; Leisen, 2001; Milman & Pizam, 1995; Murphy, 1999; Rittichainuwat et al., 2001; Tapachai & Waryszak, 2000), product development or improvement (Crompton, 1979; Hunt, 1975; Murphy, 1999; Selby & Morgan, 1996), segmentation (Crompton, 1979; Hunt, 1975; Leisen, 2001; Walmsley & Young, 1998), and policy development (Ross, 1993b; Schroeder, 1996; Selby & Morgan, 1996) in relation to the image held by the current and potential markets. Some researchers also provide future research suggestions. Obviously, there is a need for more causal studies because investigation of causal relationships between some variables is suggested by some researchers (Chen & Hsu, 2000; Fakeye & Crompton, 1991; Joppe et al., 2001; Murphy, 1999; Sonmez & Sirakaya, 2002). Study replication would help sort out cause and effect rela- tionships. Hunt (1975) suggests the identification of significant destination at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 411. Tasci et al. / DESTINATION IMAGES 215 attributes, which has been supported by others (e.g., Chen & Hsu, 2000; Fakeye & Crompton, 1991; Joppe et al., 2001; Ross, 1993b). Choi et al. (1999) suggest periodic monitoring of image, an idea that has not received much attention because most published image studies are of a one-off nature. Respondents’ atti- tudes, and thus their images that are formed within the affective component, might change through time. Therefore, there is a need for more longitudinal studies in which destination image is evaluated and monitored periodically to understand better the factors playing an important role in image formation and the change process. Such periodic monitoring could also facilitate development of a well- accepted and standardized image measurement tool for destination image researchers, which is an already articulated need (Leisen, 2001). The follow-up studies need to be conducted using the same scales to assure the validity of the scales through sufficient replication (Flynn & Pearcy, 2001). A few studies have assessed image change through time (e.g., Gartner, 1986; Gartner & Hunt, 1987; Gartner & Shen, 1992) using the same methodology, but there are not many. Realizing one of the major limitations of their own and other destination image researchers’ studies, Crompton et al. (1992) suggest the use of a more representative sample. Bramwell and Rawding (1996) suggest broadening the underlying conceptual base of the destination image by including views from various disciplines. And Sonmez and Sirakaya (2002) suggest using experimen- tal studies to define causes of changes in tourists’ images. Sampling frame, including method and size, is a source of limitation in some destination image studies. Studies using qualitative approaches generally use small sample sizes due to the demanding nature of gathering data and include techniques such as the in-depth interview and the triadic method (Embacher & Buttle, 1989; Lubbe, 1998; P. L. Pearce, 1982). Some studies using quantitative approaches also use very small samples (Baloglu & Brinberg, 1997; Walmsley &Young, 1998). Some studies use sampling populations (e.g., students) that are not necessarily representative of the potential market of the study destination (Alhemoud & Armstrong, 1996; Baloglu & Brinberg, 1997; Chen & Kerstetter, 1999; Crompton, 1979; Echtner & Ritchie, 1993; MacKay & Fesenmaier, 2000; Tapachai & Waryszak, 2000). Some use proxy populations such as travel agents and experts for the target population (Lubbe, 1998; McLellan & Foushee, 1983).Yet others use specific groups identified in ways other than random selec- tion (Baloglu, 2001; Baloglu & McCleary, 1999; Embacher & Buttle, 1989; Gartner & Shen, 1992). Many studies use purposive, accidental, or convenience sampling. Some studies use actual visitors as the sampling population for the study but could not maintain randomness of the sample (Choi et al., 1999; Dann, 1996; Fakeye & Crompton, 1991; Joppe et al., 2001; Murphy, 1999; Ross, 1993b; Selby & Morgan, 1996). Therefore, the images measured by these types of destination image studies may be specific to only their sample popula- tion rather than that held by the potential markets of the destinations. Again, one can look at the components of destination image to see what the issue is here. If a sampling frame is used that does not accurately reflect the actual or potential at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 412. 216 JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY & TOURISM RESEARCH visitors to a destination, then the results can be quite misleading. There is no reason to suspect that the main components of image may be internalized in the same way by different populations. The potential market for a destination may, and probably does, focus on different destination attributes (i.e., cognitive), have different feelings toward that destination (see Table 3 for the various socioeco- nomic characteristics that have been linked to image), and select different des- tinations (conative) than other groups with different interests and experiences. Although not related directly to the discussion of image components, methodological concerns can greatly affect reported results. Many destination image studies deal with issues of low response, nonresponse, reliability, valid- ity, and other limitations caused by the methodologies applied. However, only a few researchers address these issues and acknowledge the limitations inherent in their studies. Acknowledging such limitations is important in terms of allow- ing the reader to interpret results with appropriate caution. For example, few researchers address nonresponse bias. Court and Lupton (1997) and Leisen (2001) take the nonrespondents as similar to late respondents and compare early respondents with late respondents on key variables. Other researchers use a dif- ferent mode to reach the nonrespondents and compare them with respondents on possibly differentiating variables (Ahmed, 1996; Baloglu & McCleary, 1999; Sonmez & Sirakaya, 2002). As mentioned before, some researchers develop scale items through steps such as interviewing knowledgeable parties, literature reviews of previous research, content analysis of tourism brochures, expert input, focus groups with related parties, and pilot tests that contribute to both reliability and content validity of the scales. The internal consistency of the scale items is assured by the use of Cronbach’s α by the majority of the destination image studies pub- lished. In contrast, qualitative methods must use some other measure for relia- bility. For example, using a qualitative approach, Lubbe (1998) used intraindividual reliability measures. However, instability of response sets due to respondents’ familiarity with the instrument or its content, fatigue, and/or desire for cognitive consistency is mostly overlooked except by MacKay and Fesenmaier (1997). Instability of response sets due to respondents’ familiarity with the instrument or its content is also an issue, especially when linking the cognitive and affective components. Respondents’ familiarity with the items on the importance set might influence their responses on the performance set, and overlooking this aspect of cognitive consistency might lead to biased results. Issues of both internal and external validity of destination image research might be at risk due to an overreliance on self-administered surveys for which the researcher has limited control. Demand effects due to respondents’ guessing the purpose of the study is another threat for those studies that supply clues to the respondents. Destination image research also runs the risk of limited external validity, that is, the potential inability to generalize the results to other target markets. at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • 413. Tasci et al. / DESTINATION IMAGES 217 CONCLUSION A close look at image theory in the tourism context reveals that a systematized structure has not been achieved in either conceptualizing or operationalizing the destination image construct. Even with the evolutionary advances provided by Echtner and Ritchie (1991), defining and measuring destination image is still fuzzy in most of the literature. Researchers use different definitions of image, or none at all, which could run the destination image literature into the risk of being atheoretical and nonscientific. Also, the destination image literature contains many methodological issues that still need to be addressed. Although researchers responded to the comments of Echtner and Ritchie by incorporating their sugges- tions in much of the image research that followed their contribution, there are other issues that were not investigated by Echtner and Ritchie that still affect the measurement of the destination image construct. These issues include sampling strategy leading to questions of reliability and validity. Other issues of importance include the reliance on one-off cross-sectional destination image studies and the different forms of bias that can affect results. As detailed above, the study of destination image is not without its theoretical base. Yet that theoretical base does not appear to be readily accepted, as evidenced by the plethora of definitions that are offered for the destination image. Further analysis shows, however, that most of those definitions do relate to the theoretical basis for image assessment as first proposed by Boulding in 1956. The introduction by Echtner and Ritchie (1991, 1993) of a holistic view of the destination image fits perfectly into the theoretical base because it extended image measurement beyond the cognitive component into the affective and conative spheres of influence. What is potentially more troubling to image assessment research are the forms of bias that can result from inappropriate methods being used to identify and measure the different aspects of destination image. During the 30 years or more since the tourism destination image appeared as a research line of inquiry, many advances have been made in both conceptualizing and measuring the des- tination image construct. Many of those advances are identified and traced in this article. What is apparent from this review is that as much attention has been paid to defining image as anything else. But as this study attempts to show, there is much more to measuring image than simply accepting a standardized defini- tion, especially when most of those definitions are related to the construct’s the- oretical base anyway. Other issues that affect the validity of results and hence managerial performance are probably a greater concern and should be addressed with increasing alacrity. REFERENCES Ahmed, Z. U. (1991). The influence of the components of a state’s tourist image on prod- uct positioning strategy. Tourism Management, 12(4), 331-340. Ahmed, Z. U. (1996). The need for the identification of the constituents of a destination’s tourist image: A promotion segmentation perspective. Journal of Promotional Services Marketing, 14(1), 37-60. at TAYLORS SCHOOL OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT on July 21, 2009http://jht.sagepub.comDownloaded from
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  • 420. Benchmarking Sustainability: the use of Indicators Introduction The concept of sustainable development is both very popular and elusive. The overwhelming appeal of sustainability is situated in the strong belief of mutual care for the world, hindering or excluding unwanted environmental effects of development, and responsibility towards future generations (Wheeller, 1993). However, while appropriate and praiseworthy in principle, this conception appears to be too vague to provide an adequate basis on which to build a generally shared perception of sustainable development (Butler, 1998). For many people, this is an important reason to discard the notion and argue about the actual effects of such an approach. Defining and achieving sustainable development has become one of the major policy debates of our generation. Since the term “sustainable development” first came to public attention with the publication of the Brundtland Report (or “Our Common Future”) in 1987, it has been much contested by international forums, academics, scientists, public sector institutions, and private businesses (Eber, 2002). However, it is fair to say that much of the discussion on the concept has been structured around the World Commission on Environment and Development’s (WCED, 1987, p. 43) well-known definition of sustainable development as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Milne, 1998). For the WCED, this involves a process of change in which economic prosperity must be integrated with environmental integrity in a manner that is socially equitable and preserves the culture of a society. In this sense, sustainable development is a comprehensive and inclusive approach which stresses the interdependence of the natural environment with economy and society – the “triple-bottom-line”. Evidently, the concept of sustainable development is complex both in theory as well as implementation. In an ideal situation we would be looking at a strategy that promotes environmental conservation, development of peripheral areas, enhanced natural resource management, community support etc. Furthermore, in addressing sustainable development, different levels of analysis may be used from global to the destination level, or from household to individual level (Butler, 1998). The relative weight and importance of the subjects related to sustainable development is hardly objectively determinable with universally true standards and depends on the values and ideologies of various stakeholders (Hall, 1998). All the above seem to have created a lot of confusion regarding sustainability and its indented use depending on the point of reference we choose to employ which in turn has led over the years to a lot of …convenient criticism and many lost opportunities. In fact, and for no obvious reason, sustainable development was for a long time synonymous to environmental protection. (Garrod and Fayal, 1998) EUROMED SUSTAINABLE CONNECTIONS ANNA LINDH FOUNDATION POLICY ANALYSIS 3:4. BENCHMARKING SUSTAINABILITY: THE USE OF INDICATORS April, 2008
  • 421. Theodore S. Benetatos POLICY ANALYSIS 3:4 BENCHMARKING SUSTAINABILITY: THE USE OF INDICATORS EUROMED Sustainable Connections: Benchmarking Sustainability: the use of Indicators 2 and this partially true reality led all the developments in the field for some years and up to the late 80s. Sustainability and Community Development Since the 1990s a social movement has emerged focusing more on sustainable community development. (Innes & Booher, 2000) thus broadening the initially perceived spectrum of sustainability. It may be argued that the social element was already incorporated in the core idea of sustainability but it is also true that it was never explicitly stated or clearly defined. In reality, social wellbeing would be considered more as an aftereffect of the proposed acts for environmental conservation. However, this clarification did not wave the complexity of sustainability but it did lead to new theories concerning sustainable development and its community context. The key element in this approach can be found in the very definition of what constitutes a sustainable community. Obviously, the description of a sustainable community may vary upon perspective and should be geographically, economically and historically defined (Benetatos, 2008). You do need however a starting point and if we had to agree upon a generic definition then we might say that: “Sustainable is a community that meets the diverse needs of existing and future residents, their children and other users, contributes to a quality of life and provides opportunity and choice. They achieve this in ways that makes effective use on natural resources, enhances the environment, promotes social cohesion & inclusion, protects the human rights and strengthens economic prosperity” (Modified from the Eagan review-UK, 2004) But the question still remains. How do we reach to the point of creation of such a community and how do we create effective policies and measures to validate our strategy. Some of the answers may be found in the usage of the wide spread techniques of policy axis that denote priorities and indicators that provide the measurement instruments. Using Performance Indicators The most widely accepted and at the same time challenged method of measuring sustainability refers to the use of Sustainability Indicators. There are many definitions available for indicators and we can accept that an indicator may be defined as the measure that enables you to understand your position in relation to where you want to go and under certain conditions; it shows you the way to do so. In other words we are using indicators to provide a point of reference when comparing effects of development in different points in time thus evaluating whether our strategy and policy measures had the anticipated result. As an afterthought such a system can also provide with valuable information about the reasons of success or failure. However it has been said that the use of indicators is an intellectually appealing idea with little practical application (Wheeller, 1996). In fact it has been argued that: “Millions of Dollars and much time of talented people has been wasted on indicator reports
  • 422. Theodore S. Benetatos POLICY ANALYSIS 3:4 BENCHMARKING SUSTAINABILITY: THE USE OF INDICATORS EUROMED Sustainable Connections: Benchmarking Sustainability: the use of Indicators 3 that remain on the shelf gathering dust” (Innes, 2000), representing some of the heavy criticism addressed towards the use of indicators. In any case it is always important to remember that: “Everything that can be counted does not necessarily count;…and everything that counts cannot necessarily be counted ” Albert Einstein It is reported that the use of indicators has some very important limitations that need to be taken under consideration when engaging in employing such a system. Indicator Limitations • The role of an indicator indicate…not to dictate: This implies that the actual scores of an indicator are not the goal but only the means to our broader plan. • In order to provide meaningful information an indicator must be seen through an evaluation process like benchmarking. • Indicators are created in a given moment in time and a community is not a machine. A community is a living organism that usually evolves faster than the supporting theory of the indicators. • Some indicators are too demanding in terms on data requirements. Furthermore, these indicators may have been developed based on information provided by a more organized society that already possesses significant data collection systems. In this case, and even though such indicators may be tested and found to be of great value in a specific societal context, they may be also rendered useless in other destinations where there is lack in appropriate data. • Indicators produce only a snapshot in time. In order for such a system to be effective we need to secure continuity. Indicators and Benchmarking As quoted above, a set of indicators may have effect only when seen through a relevant benchmarking system that will give meaning to the produced measurements. Benchmarking off course is widely used in business terminology in an effort to measure effectiveness. However, in our case we would like to consider benchmarking in a different manner: “…not though the spectrum of competitiveness. We would rather view this as a process that exemplifies average and best known practices” (Modified from the Eagan review-UK, 2004) This is not a process that will lead us from “bad to good” but from “bad to better” in an ongoing improvement development. A partially self regulating and self adjusting procedure to match the evolving nature of a community, leading to the best possible outcome given resources, place and time. Creating a benchmarking Model It is not in the nature of this study to test a benchmarking model for our indicators. This would require resources such as testing time that is not available. Thus, we chose to use as a basis already
  • 423. Theodore S. Benetatos POLICY ANALYSIS 3:4 BENCHMARKING SUSTAINABILITY: THE USE OF INDICATORS EUROMED Sustainable Connections: Benchmarking Sustainability: the use of Indicators 4 established models such as the EU Sustainable Development Indicator report that was revised over a period of about 10 years as well as the UK model for Sustainable Communities issued in 2004. Focal Point: with an international group of experts in the broader field of sustainability, academics and partnering to the EUROMED program community representatives we adjusted the appropriate elements of existing theory to create a tailor made sustainability model. This model was designed: • to address the particularities of the participating regions (Greece, Tunisia, Italy, Palestine & Jordan) as a pilot for the broader area of the Mediterranean • to suit the needs of a fair trade driven local economy based on producing and exporting olive oil to US and EU Markets. The model develops indicators in seven major categories, all aiming to provide a framework for policy making that will lead to our vision of a sustainable community as presented in previous points. More specifically these areas include the following: (Bellagio 2008) Based on these areas we produced 25 indicators: Governance 1. Provide Continuous Process of Participation  Document frequency of meeting and participant participation processes  Establish indicators of participation (composition, demographics)  Document meetings and responses (Establish record of public participation)  Provide for local community access to information and feedback 2. Establish means for continuous monitoring  Develop evaluative assessment tool for measuring goal attainment  Establish strategic milestones  Provide participation for multiple respondents (farmers, producers, community, partners) 3. Promote local community resiliency  Establish “over-time” collection of measurement date on participation  Document participation changes over time  Measure progress towards goal attainment  Establish an index measuring residents’ ability to achieve agreement Economics 4. Optimize benefits to households  Collect data on employment and income  Establish profile relating to cooperative venture  Establish indicators relating to housing residency and other permanency factors  Employ economic data sets measuring individual wealth  Employ indicators to measure local “good life” factors  Establish community health index 5. Optimize direct consumer and producer linkage  Monitor types and amount of contact (i.e. website hits)  Develop education and promotion materials about producers  Promote open houses in villages  Promote youth exchange programs  Create website Sustainable Community Global Partnerships Labor Capital Social & Cultural Governance Economics Environmental Quality
  • 424. Theodore S. Benetatos POLICY ANALYSIS 3:4 BENCHMARKING SUSTAINABILITY: THE USE OF INDICATORS EUROMED Sustainable Connections: Benchmarking Sustainability: the use of Indicators 5 6. Emphasize social and environmental business models  Incorporate elements of presentations at Bellagio workshop as aspect of business plan  Reduce carbon footprint of cooperative venture  Incorporate an environmental management, social and cultural element in business plan regarding production and delivery process  Attempt to achieve “zero waste” production and operational goals 7. Invest in local capacity  System for identification of local needs through surveys, meetings and other means  Measurement of investments in local community  Rate of return on community investments Social and Cultural 8. Ensure adequate local olive oil supply  Establish export surplus quota respecting adequate local supply to community  Measure affordability and availability of local oil supply 9. Reverse rural abandonment  Measure number of people returning/remaining in village  Migration profile indicators  Overall growth of local economy (i.e. new business starts)  Assessment of future goals of residents through attitude surveys 10. Promote education and cross communication  Workshops and meetings  Online networking  Technical services  Reflection of program objectives in local school curriculum 11. Provide equitable returns  Establish system of fair profit distribution 12. Respect cultural and legal norms  Promotional material about local communities  Compliance with local and national laws  Co-authorship of locally produced materials reflecting communities 13. Protect Heritage and Enhance community resiliency  Curriculum in schools  National publications and news releases  Visible manifestation of cultural practices  Regional and global workshops and festivals 14. Promote family identity and wellbeing  Measure family connectivity to community  Increase of Diaspora connectivity 15. Special attention to non-native workers  Provision of directed social services  Perform satisfaction surveys  Inclusion of non-native workers through interviews to assess sense of “belonging” 16. Opportunities for women/youth  Provisions for inclusion in all aspects of project  Increase in wages and monitoring of unemployment rates  Subsidies provided through available grant-in-aid programs  Survey of expectations of work conditions compared to experienced work conditions  Inclusion of youth and woman in conduct of planning evaluation and surveys Environment 17. Environmental friendly processes  Air and water quality assessment of production processes  Application of ‘best management practices/ in all phases of production  Evaluation of local versus imported production inputs  Achievement of FLO (Organic product) compliance and certification 18. Practice Regenerative Agriculture  Employ soil testing monitoring and practices for organic certificiation  Conduct water quality testing  Emphasize bio diversity in orchard management practices  Encourage collaboration with universities for research of data and testing  Establish school curriculum enabling students to engage in local monitoring for environmental quality 19. Increase resiliency to hazards  Measure local preparedness to hazard events
  • 425. Theodore S. Benetatos POLICY ANALYSIS 3:4 BENCHMARKING SUSTAINABILITY: THE USE OF INDICATORS EUROMED Sustainable Connections: Benchmarking Sustainability: the use of Indicators 6  Develop hazard prevention and fire prevention plan  Develop protocol for hazard mitigation drills and evacuation  Incorporate resiliency to hazards plan in business plan Quality 20. Establish traceability  Certification of product origin, type, place of production  Emphasize traceability in marketing and labeling  Establish independent testing laboratories to assure quality product evaluation  Emphasize quality in terms of objective measurement as well as subjective, based on local expert evaluation 21. Implement Best Practices employing scientific and local knowledge  Establish protocols for product production  Emphasize local beliefs, traditions, and wisdom in local product production  Emphasize aesthetic qualities and functionality of packaging  Ensure quality in storage for pre and post bottling of product Labor 22. Fair Wage and Protection of Workers  Meet International Certification Rules (FTO, others)  Meet ICO and UN standards, as applicable  Ensure human working conditions  Conduct continuous research on worker conditions  Establish system for worker conditions monitoring and assessment 23. Non-Exploitive Relations  Provide for worker access to voice opinions and concerns  Inspection and monitoring mechanisms ensuring evaluation and investigation of worker complaints Global Partnerships 24. Understanding Diversity and Commonality among partners in promoting peace and justice in Mediterranean Region  Promote programs for inter-cultural exchange (including youth exchange)  Develop sense of broader collaborative and dependency among cooperative partners  Promote system for exchange of technology and traditional practices among partners  Encourage direct, cross-cultural and producer-consumer connectedness 25. Cross-cultural connection among consumers and producers  Establish programs promoting exchange of local and technical knowledge for producers and farmers.
  • 426. Theodore S. Benetatos POLICY ANALYSIS 3:4 BENCHMARKING SUSTAINABILITY: THE USE OF INDICATORS EUROMED Sustainable Connections: Benchmarking Sustainability: the use of Indicators 7 Bibliography and References Abbott (2002) “Sustainability Initiatives Benchmarking Report” City of Seattle Airey D. (2003) Tourism Education: From Practice to Theory, Paper presented at the WTO 15th General Assembly, Beijing. Bramwell B. (1996) Sustainable tourism management education in Europe, Tourism Management 17(4), 307-310. Butler R. (1998) Sustainable tourism – looking backwards in order to progress? In C.M. Hall & A.A. Lew (Eds.) Sustainable Tourism: A Geographical Perspective, Essex: Longman, 25-34. Eber S. (2002) Guidelines for Integrating Sustainability into the Undergraduate Curriculum: Leisure and Tourism, London: University of North London & Tourism Concern. European Commission (2007) “A Sustainable Future in Our Hands”, EU Sustainable Development Guide. Eurostat (2007) “Measuring Progress to a more Sustainable Future”, Monitoring Report of the EU Sutainable Development Report. Innes J & Booher D (2000) “Indicators for Sustainable Communities” Hall C.M. (1998) Historical antecedents of sustainable development and ecotourism: new labels on old bottles? In C.M. Hall & A.A. Lew (Eds.) Sustainable Tourism: A Geographical Perspective, Essex: Longman, 13-24. Jurowski C. & Liburd J. (2001) A multi-cultural and multi-disciplinary approach to integrating the principles of sustainable development into human resource management curricula in hospitality and tourism, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Education 13(5), 36-50. Milne S. (1998) Tourism and sustainable development: the global-local nexus. In C.M. Hall & A.A. Lew (Eds.) Sustainable Tourism: A Geographical Perspective, Essex: Longman, 35-48. Redclift M. (1988) Sustainable development and the market: a framework for analysis, Futures 20(6), 638. The Egan Review, (2004) “Skills for Sustainable Communities” Urry J. (1996) Consuming Places, London: Routledge. Wheeller B. (1993) Sustaining the ego, Journal of Sustainable Tourism 1(2), 121-129. Wight P. (2002) Tourism Strategies for Sustainability and Profit: Is Balance Possible? World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) (the Brundtland Report) (1987) Our Common Future, London: Oxford University Press.