L3Vision CCD TechnologyClick to edit Master title style INTRODUCTION
L3Vision Technology How sensitive is atitle style Click to edit Master CCD?Three key factors determine the low light sensitivity of a CCD: • Number of photons / pixel / unit time Dependent on pixel area Frame With all else equal, a 16 µm square pixel gathers 4x the transfer light of an 8 µm square pixel • How well light is converted to signal electrons High quantum efficiency Back illuminated CCDs convert over 90% of 550 nm light to signal electrons • Maximum open area ratio Frame transfer CCDs are 100% fill factor Interline transfer CCDs are not 100% fill factor Interline • How low the noise floor is transfer Noise sets the limit to the minimum detectable signal
L3Vision Technology MaximizingMaster title Noise Click to edit Signal to styleMain Sources of Noise• Shot Noise on the Dark Signal Cool sensor to eliminate dark current• Noise from the CCD Output Amplifier Reduce readout rate Benefit from L3Vision• Noise added by the video chain electronics Technology Optimise design of electronics Reduce the noise = Improve the CCD Sensitivity
L3Vision TechnologyWhat to edit Master title styleClick L3Vision is…• Low Light Level Technology• A CCD technology that provides <1 photo-electron equivalent read noise at video rates or higher• An impact ionisation gain process within the CCD that amplifies signal electrons up to 1000 times so that they may be detected above the CCD output and electronics noise.• A unique technology developed by e2v technologies
L3Vision TechnologyWhat to edit Master NOT…Click L3Vision is title style• L3Vision CCDs do NOT use image intensifiers• L3Vision CCDs are NOT electron bombarded CCDs (EBCCDs).• L3Vision CCDs are NOT CMOS image sensors… L3Vision CCDs are simply CCDs… and are sometimes known as EMCCDs (Electron Multiplying CCDs)
L3Vision TechnologyConventional CCD styleClick to edit Master title φ Iφ1 φ Iφ2Image/Store Areas φ Iφ3 Charge to Voltage ConversionReadoutRegister φ φ φ Rφ1 Rφ2 Rφ3
L3Vision TechnologyHow the gain processstyleClick to edit Master title works • The charge multiplication elements
L3Vision TechnologyOther noise sources styleClick to edit Master title• Dark current The CCD must be cooled to completely eliminate dark current – even at 1000 frames per second• Clock-induced charge or spurious charge Can be almost eliminated by reducing clock rise times & careful voltage adjustment <0.1 e/pixel/frame is possible in inverted mode, <0.003 e/pixel/frame is possible in non-inverted mode See L3Vision Technical Note #4 for more details….• Excess Noise Factor… The gain process adds noise due to the gain probability distribution. σout2 = σin2 x Gmean2 x F 2 Where σout2 = variance of output signal σin2 = variance of input signal Gmean = mean gain F = excess noise factor
L3Vision TechnologyL3Vision CCDs vs ICCDsClick to edit Master title styleICCD Advantages• Gated operation• Mature and accepted technology Image Intensifier• Low power consumptionICCD Disadvantages CCD• Poor daylight performance• Susceptible to damage• Poor resolution• High excess noise factor Fiber optic coupling
L3Vision TechnologyL3Vision CCDs vstitle styleClick to edit Master ICCDsL3Vision CCD Advantages• Increased spatial resolution & SNR giving greater dynamic range• No halo from bright sources allowing visible detail in adjacent pixels• Not susceptible to damage from bright lights• No scintillations giving improved image quality• High photo-sensitivity (QE up to ~95%)• Solid state giving lower life-cycle cost• No high voltages required• Excellent for day and night operationL3Vision CCD Disadvantages• Moderate power consumption
L3Vision Technology Cameraedit Master title style Click to Features• High Dynamic Range
L3Vision Technology Cameraedit Master title style Click to Features• Fast recovery frombright lights
L3Vision Technology Cameraedit Master title style Click to Features• Spot light performanceis far superior to Gen IIIICCD
L3Vision Technology Featureedit Master title style Click to Summary• Electron Multiplication allows even the smallest signals to be seen• Back-illumination means superb quantum efficiency ~95% QE at 550 nm with mid-band AR coating• Square pixels, scientific format sensors are available• Large pixels for high signal to noise ratio available High full well capacity and dynamic range• Cameras are available that fully exploit the L3vision features Automatic level control Digital image enhancement (filtering, dynamic gamma) Digital & analogue outputs Ultra-low light level performance
L3 Vision Technology Cameraedit Master title style Click to comparison QuarterMoonlight e2v e2v L3C95 L3C65 Digital Analogue Omni-4 Sony Gen3 ICCD Ex-view
L3 Vision Technology Cameraedit Master title style Click to comparison Sub Starlight(0.5 mlux) e2v e2v L3C95 L3C65 Digital Analogue Omni-4 Sony Gen3 ICCD Ex-view
Custom L3Vision camera forC130-J upgradeClick to edit Master title style
L3 Vision - Defence & Aerospace Market Click to edit Master title style•ReconnaissancePodImages courtesy of Thales Optronics UK
L3Vision TechnologyLegacy edit Master title styleClick to Camera ProductsL3C60 128(H) x 128(V) 500 frames per second Analog video output Internally cooled CCD for reduction of dark current IMO for reduced dark current Automatic gain control adjusts to varied lightingL3C65 576(H) x 488(V) or 576(H) x 576(V) Analog video output Internally cooled CCD for reduction of dark current Automatic gain control adjusts to varied lightingL3C95 / L3C85 768(H) x 488(V) or 768(H) x 576(V) Analog or Digital video output Internally cooled CCD for reduction of dark current Digital control of operating modes – USB2.0 or RS232 Real time digital image enhancement Extremely low minimum usable light level (10x lower than L3C65) Fully automatic operation over NINE decades of illumination.Customization available
L3Vision Technology New Video Master title style Click to edit Camera ProductL3C216 768(H) x 488(V) or 768(H) x 576(V) Analog or Digital video output Internally cooled CCD for reduction of dark current (fan-less) Back-thinned L3Vision CCD with QE up to ~95% Digital control of operating modes – Camera Link or RS232 Real time digital image enhancement Extremely low minimum usable light level (10x lower than L3C65) Fully automatic operation over NINE decades of illumination. Reduced power consumption (6W typical, 12W max) Reduced size (and modular design version planned) RoHS CompliantCustomization available
L3Vision Technology Video Camera Customization Click to edit Master title style• Camera customisation to meet military specifications and airborne applications• Also available as a sensor-head board and driver board-set and as CCD sensorsPlease send us you requirements!
L3Vision TechnologyScientific CCD productsClick to edit Master title style• Back-illumination and sub-electron-equivalent read noise Basic process mid-band and broadband AR coatings available QE up to ~95%. Near theoretical detection limit• CCD201 (BI and FI) • CCD39 (BI and FI) 1024 x 1024 frame transfer 80 x 80 split frame transfer 13um square pixels 24um square pixels Up to 15MHz readout Up to 1000 Frames per second Dump drain for fast ROI readout Particularly suited for the tracking of point source objects• CCD97 (BI and FI) 512 x 512 frame transfer 16um square pixels Up to 10 MHz readout Dump drain for fast ROI readout• CCD60 (BI and FI) 128 x 128 frame transfer 24um pixels Up to 1000 fps Dump drain for fast ROI readout
L3Vision TechnologyApplicationMaster title styleClick to edit areas• Scientific imaging Single molecule fluorescence High throughput screening Adaptive optics / wave-front sensing Photon counting Ground based astronomy See www.ing.iac.es/~smt/LLLCCD/marcl3.htm• Surveillance and Reconnaissance TV format Airborne & Ground-based surveillance Underwater Imaging Driver view enhancement Commander’s night-sight Pushbroom imagers
L3Vision TechnologyClick to edit Master title style The End Thank you for listening, do you have any questions?
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