Group 11.


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Group 11.

  1. 1. GROUP 11     Brin, Bernadette L. Perez, Ferlita Jasmin Regis, Cindy San Diego, Shiela L.
  3. 3. WHAT  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. IS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT ? Performance management refers to the procedures and systems designed to improve employee outputs and performance, often through the use of economic incentive system. Apart from economic incentives, the other means used to improve employee performance are; Goal setting Streamlined organizational structure Better technology New arrangement of working schedules High involvement of employees Better motivation of employees
  4. 4. STAFFING   1. 2. 3. 4. refers to the HR planning, acquisition, and development aimed at providing the talent necessary for organizational success. The staffing process consist of the following: Job analysis Recruitment Selection Socialization
  5. 5. JOB ANALYSIS   1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A technical procedures used to definite the duties, responsibilities, and accountabilities of a job. The result of job analysis are very useful in: Preparing job descriptions Evaluating and classifying jobs Training and career development Performance appraisal Other HR aspects
  6. 6. RECRUITMENT   1. 2. 3. May be defined as a human resource management practice designed to locate and attract job applicants for particular positions. Recruitments involves the following Advertisement of a position vacancy Preliminary contact with potential job candidates Preliminary screening to obtain a pool of candidates
  7. 7.  Recruitments are of two types Internal recruitment. It is a process for attracting job applicants from those currently working for the firm.  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Advantages or internal recruitment: It is good public relations. It builds morale. It encourages good individuals who are ambitious. It improves the probability of good selection, since information on the individual’s performance is readily available. It is less costly than external recruitment. Those chosen internally already know the organization. When carefully planned, promoting from within can also act as training device for developing middle and top-level managers.
  8. 8.  1. 2. 3. 4. Disadvantages of internal recruitment: It can be dysfunctional to the organization to utilize inferior internal sources only because they are there, when excellent candidates are available on the outside. It may generate infighting among the rival candidates for promotion. It may decrease the moral levels of those not selected. It may promote “inbreeding”.  Methods of internal recruitment: 1. Computerized career progression system Supervisor recommendations Job posting Career development system 2. 3. 4.
  9. 9. External recruitment. it is a process of attracting job applicants from outside the organization. It is undertaken when no suitable candidates are available from within the organization. This recruitment source tends to bring in “new blood” and fresh ideas to the organization.  Methods of external recruitment: 1. Employee referrals Applicant-initiated recruitment Help-wanted advertisement Private employment agencies and executives search firms Campus recruiting 2. 3. 4. 5.
  10. 10. SELECTION This involves assessing and choosing among job candidates. The selection process involves the following steps: 1. Completing the application form; 2. Conducting an interview; 3. Completing any necessary tests; 4. Background investigation; 5. Physical and medical examination; and 6. A decision to hire or not.
  11. 11. SOCIALIZATION Final step in the staffing process. It involves orienting new employees to the organization and its work units, especially the work units where the newly hired employee will be working. The purpose of socialization is to enable new employees to quickly become productive members of the organization. In socialization, the new employees are provided with information about the following: 1. 2. Key organization factors Department and job-related issues
  12. 12. TRAINING AND CAREER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT  Training Process of changing employee behavior, attitudes, or opinions through some type of guided experience.  1. 2. There are many ways to conduct training programs and they may be classified as follows: on-the-job Training off-the-job Training
  13. 13. On-the-job Training. Training method is conducted which employees perform job-related tasks. It is the most direct approach training. 1. 2. 3. The common forms of on-the-job training are: Internship Apprenticeships Job rotation Off-the-job Training. Type of training deals with work skill in settings away from ordinary workplace.
  14. 14. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The various off-the-job training techniques are: Classroom lectures Videos and films Simulation exercise Computer-based training Vestibule training Programmed instruction Career Planning and Development  Career . The pattern of work-related experiences that span the course of a person’s life.
  15. 15.  Career Stages. Refers to the distinct stages that individuals go through in their careers, typically including establishment, advancement, maintenance, and retirement. 1. Establishment stage. One of apprenticeship where the young employee enters an organization who may be technically able but often without an understanding of the organization’s demands and expectations. 2. Advancement stage. The employee seeks growth and increased responsibility through the continued development and utilization of his skills.
  16. 16. 3. Maintenance stage. The employee may experience continued growth of performance and accomplishment, or he may encounter career stability. 4. Retirement stage. The individual learns to accept a reduced role and less responsibility. Depending on the individual this can be either a very positive or a highly upsetting stage of one’s career.
  17. 17. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Is a key aspect of performance management.  The process of evaluating the performance of employees, sharing that information with them, and searching for ways to improve their performance. 
  18. 18. FUNCTIONS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL 1. 2. 3. 4. To give employees feedback on performance; To identify the employee’s development needs; To make promotion and reward decisions; To develop information about the organization’s selection and placement decisions.
  19. 19. CRITERIA FOR PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL The three most popular sets of criteria are: 1. 2. 3. Individual task outcomes; Behaviors Traits
  20. 20.   Individual Task Outcomes. One way of appraising performance is evaluating the employee’s task outcomes. Behavior. There are instances when it is difficult to measure an individual’s task outcomes. This is so on advisory jobs or support positions and those who are assigned to work in a group.
  21. 21.  Traits. It is weak because it has little connection with the actual performance of the job. The traits commonly used as basis for performance appraisal include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Good attitude Showing confidence Being dependable Looking busy Possessing a wealth of experience
  22. 22. The Process of Performance Appraisal Establishment of performance standards  Mutually set measurable goals  Measure actual performance  Compare actual performance with standards  Discuss the appraisal with the employee  If necessary, initiate corrective action 
  23. 23. To determine what actual performance is, it is necessary to acquire information about it. Information may be derived from the following sources: 1. 2. 3. 4. Personal observation Statistical reports Oral reports Written reports
  24. 24. METHODS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL 1. 2. 3. Absolute standards; Relative standards; Objectives.
  25. 25. Absolute Standards. The subjects of appraisal are not compared with other persons. This approach consists of the following methods:    The essay appraisal  A performance appraisal method whereby an appraiser writes a narrative about the employee. The critical incident appraisal  A performance appraisal method which requires effective or ineffective performance for each employee being appraised. The checklist  A performance appraisal method wherein the evaluator uses a list of behavioral descriptions and checks off those behaviors that apply to the employee.
  26. 26. The adjective rating scale  Also known as graphic rating scale, a performance appraisal method that lists a number of traits and a range of performance for each.  Forced choice  A type of performance appraisal in which the rater must choose between two or more specific statements about an employee’s work behavior.  Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)  A rating instrument comprised of traits anchored by job behaviors. 
  27. 27. Relative Standards. This category of appraisal methods compare individuals against other individuals. The most popular in this category are:  Group order ranking  Individual ranking  Paired comparison
  28. 28. Group order ranking is a relative standard of performance characterized as placing employees into a particular classification such as top “one-fifth”.
  29. 29. The individual ranking method requires the evaluator merely to list the employees in order from highest to lowest.
  30. 30. Paired comparison is an appraisal method whereby subordinates are placed in all possible pair and the supervisor must choose which of the two in each pair is the better performer.
  31. 31. Objectives. Also known as management by objectives (MBO), is a process of joint goal setting between a supervisor and a subordinate. MBO consist of four steps: goal setting, action planning, self control, and periodic reviews. In goal setting, the individual objectives are set based on the organization’s overall objectives. In action planning, realistic plans are developed to attain the objectives. Self control refers to the systematic monitoring and measuring of performance. Periodic reviews are the means used to determine whether there is a need for corrective action.
  32. 32. THE ADVANTAGES OF MBO ARE THE FOLLOWING: 1. 2. 3. It improves job performance by monitoring and directing behavior; It is practical and inexpensive; and It fosters better communication between employees and supervisors.
  33. 33. THE DISADVANTAGES OF MBO ARE THE FOLLOWING: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. It does not specify the behavior required to reach goals; It tends to focus on short-term goals; The successful achievement of MBO goals may be partly a function of factors outside the worker’s controls; MBO does not provide a common basis for comparison of performance standard; and It often fails to gain acceptance.
  34. 34. ERRORS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL The following are brief descriptions of errors in performance appraisal. Halo Error. This is a rating error that occurs when a rate assigns rating on the basis of an overall impression (positive or negative) of the person being rated. Leniency Error. This is a rater’s tendency to give relatively high ratings to virtually everyone. The opposite of this is strictness error where the raters tend to give everyone a low rating.
  35. 35. Central Tendency Error. This occurs when a rater lump everyone together around the average, or middle, category. The idea is that there are no very good or very poor performers on the dimension being rated. Recency Error. This is a biased rating that develops by allowing the individual’s most recent behavior to speak for his or her overall performance on a particular dimension. Personal Bias Error. This occurs when a rater allows specific biases, such as racial, age, and gender, to enter into performance appraisals.
  36. 36. REWARDS A final requirement is necessary to ensure effective performance. The requirement refers to the design and implementation of reward systems.
  37. 37. TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL INCENTIVES 1. 2. 3. Intrinsic or extrinsic Financial or nonfinancial Performance-based or membershipbased
  38. 38. Intrinsic rewards are those that the worker receives from the job itself, such as pride in one’s work, a feeling of accomplishment, or being part of a team. Extrinsic rewards are those that the workers get from the employer, usually money, a promotion, or benefit. Financial rewards are those that enhance an employee’s financial well-being directly through wages, bonuses, profit sharing, and the like.
  39. 39. Nonfinancial rewards are indirect enhancement of an employee’s financial well-being. This is done through supportive benefits like pension plans, paid vacations, paid sick leaves, and purchase discounts. Performance-based rewards are those given using performance as basis. These rewards take the form of commissions, piecework pay plans, incentive systems, group bonuses, or other forms of merit pay. Membership-based rewards refer to those that are given to all employees regardless of performance. This type includes cost-of-living increases; benefits; and salary increases attributable to labor-market conditions, seniority or time in rank, credentials such as a college degree, or future potential such as a new MBA degree from a prestigious university.