1. Reproductive Ailments
Bernadeta Tan Galea
Sto, Rosario Elementary School
Division of Taguig City and Pateros
• Cervicitis, sometimes called non-specific
cervicitis or NSC, is inflammation of the cervix
(the neck of the womb) that may causevaginal
Cervicitis is common and causes of cervicitis
include bacteria and sexually transmitted
• Determining the cause of cervicitis is
important. If an infection is the problem, it
can spread beyond the cervix to the uterus
and fallopian tubes. This may cause problems
with fertility --the ability to become pregnant.
Or it may cause problems with your unborn
baby if you are already pregnant.
• Here's what you need to know about
symptoms, causes, risk factors, tests, diagnosis
and treatment of cervicitis.
4. What is cervicitis?
• Cervicitis is inflammation of the cervix, which
can be due to:
• Injury of cells that line the cervix
• These irritated or infected cells may become
red, swollen, and ooze mucus and pus. They
may also bleed easily when touched.
5. What causes cervicitis?
• Severe cases of inflammation are usually caused
by infections that are passed during sexual
• Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may
cause cervicitis include:
• *Genital herpes
6. But many women with cervicitis don't test positive for any
type of infection. Other causes of the inflammation may
• Allergies to chemicals in spermicides, douches, or to the latex
rubber in condoms.
• Irritation or injury from tampons, pessaries, or from birth
control devices like diaphragms.
• Bacterial imbalance. Normal, healthy bacteria in the vagina are
overwhelmed by unhealthy or harmful bacteria. This is also
called bacterial vaginosis.
• Hormonal imbalance. Having relatively low oestrogen or
high progesterone may interfere with the body's ability to
maintain healthy cervical tissue.
• Cancer or cancer treatment. Radiotherapy or cancer may, in
very rare cases, cause changes to the cervix consistent with
7. Symptoms of cervicitis
• Many women with cervicitis don't have any
symptoms. The condition may be discovered only
after a routine examination or test.
• Signs and symptoms, if present, may include:
• Greyish or pale yellow vaginal discharge.
• Abnormal vaginal bleeding, such as bleeding after
sex or between periods.
• Pain during sex.
• Difficult, painful or frequent urination.
• Pelvic or abdominal pain or fever, in rare cases.
8. Risk factors for cervicitis
• You may be at greater risk of cervicitis if you:
• Had recent sexual intercourse without a
• Recently had multiple sexual partners.
• Had cervicitis before.
• Studies show that cervicitis will recur in 8% to
25% of women who get it.
9. Diagnosing cervicitis
• If your doctor suspects you have cervicitis, he or she may
do a pelvic examination. This lets the doctor get a closer
look of the cervix.
• The doctor will probably also swab the cervix to collect
vaginal fluids or to see how easily it bleeds.
• Your doctor will also probably ask questions about your
sexual history. The doctor will want to know:
• The number of partners you've had in the last 60 days.
• Whether or not you've had sex without a condom.
• The kind of contraception you used.
• Even if you don't have specific symptoms of cervicitis, your
doctor will perform a routine examination to look for
cervicitis if he or she thinks you are at risk of an STI or you
have other symptoms of a possible gynaecological problem.
10. Tests for cervicitis
• Your doctor will test your vaginal fluid for the
presence of harmful bacteria or viruses.
• He or she may also swab the cervix to check for
discharge, swelling, tenderness and bleeding.
• Cervicitis Treatment
• You may not need treatment for cervicitis if a
sexually transmitted infection is not the cause.
• If an infection is suspected, the main goal of
treatment is to prevent it from spreading to the
uterus and fallopian tubes, or if you are pregnant,
to your baby.
11. • Depending on what organism is causing the infection, your
doctor may prescribe:
• Antifungal medication
• Antiviral medication
• Your doctor may also recommend that your partner be
treated to make sure you don't get infected again. You
should not have sex until you and your partner have
• Treatment is especially important if you are HIV positive.
That's because cervicitis increases the amount of virus that
is shed from the cervix. This may increase your chances of
infecting a partner. Also, having cervicitis can make it easier
for you to get HIV from an HIV-positive partner.
• If your symptoms persist despite treatment, you should be
evaluated by your doctor.
• Non drug treatments like douches or yoghurt-based
therapy do not work for cervicitis.
12. Preventing cervicitis
• You can decrease your risk of getting cervicitis by
taking the following steps:
• Always use condoms during sex.
• Limit the number of people you have sex with.
• Don't have sex with a partner who has genital sores or
• If you get treatment for a sexually transmitted
infection, ask your doctor if your partner should also
• Don't use feminine hygiene products. These may cause
irritation of your vagina and cervix.
• If you have diabetes, try to maintain good control of
your blood sugar.