Berlin 6 Open Access Conference: Matthew Cockerill
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Berlin 6 Open Access Conference: Matthew Cockerill





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Berlin 6 Open Access Conference: Matthew Cockerill Berlin 6 Open Access Conference: Matthew Cockerill Presentation Transcript

  • Business Models for Open Access Publishing Matthew Cockerill Publisher, BioMed Central
  • What is fundamentally different about an Open Access publishing business model?
  • Traditional research publishing
    • The research community transfers the rights to the research to the publisher
    • The publisher covers its costs by selling access to the content
    View slide
  • Open Access research publishing
    • There are no barriers to access
    • The publisher generally does not acquire any exclusive rights
    • Typically the publisher is paid for the service of publication
    View slide
  • Revenue streams for open access publishers
    • Publication fees
      • From authors
      • From meeting organizers
      • From sponsoring organizations
    • Subscription content (e.g. reviews)
    • Services (e.g. Open Repository)
    • Advertising
    • Implicit/explicit subsidy
  • BioMed Central journals which do not charge author fees
    • Chinese Medicine
    • Chiropractic & Osteopathy
    • Italian Journal of Pediatrics
    • Journal of Biomedical Science
    • Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
    • Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
    • Journal of the International AIDS Society
    • Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
    • Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology
  • Some journals operate mixed models
    • Author’s pay publication fee for research articles
    • DFG funding covers cost of additional articles
  • BioMed Central journal’s with additional subscription content Coming soon…
  • Examples of additional services
    • A hosted digital repository solution
    • Integration ensures articles published in OA journals can easily be included
  • Advertising?
    • Some potential editors ask: “can we support a journal entirely with advertising?”
    • Unlikely - advertising is tiny fraction of BioMed Central’s revenue
  • OA Publication Fees
  • Putting Open Access fees in the context of the traditional system
    • Top-down and bottom-up analyses come to similar conclusion
    • Average publisher revenue per STM article is around £3000 ($4700)
  • What do OA publication fees cover?
    • Open access publishing has most of the same costs as the traditional system:
      • Editorial
      • Technical
      • Production
      • Customer services
      • Marketing ( e.g. conference attendance)
  • OA publication fees
    • BioMed Central $780-$2100
    • Public Library of Science $1300-$2850
    • Company of Biologists $3100
    • Oxford University Press $3000
    • Royal Society ~$3000
    • Springer $3000
    • Taylor & Francis $3250
    • Wiley $3000
  • How do OA publication fees get paid?
    • Authors may pay out of grant funds
    • Some funders provide dedicated funds for open access publishing costs
    • Institutions may cover costs centrally (via open access funds and/or membership arrangements with OA publishers)
    • Some journals are run by organizations which cover costs themselves
  • BioMed Central membership
    • Prepay membership
      • Institution pays funds into a deposit account
      • Article Processing Charge is covered by funds from account
      • Discount depending on deposit amount
      • Author does not have to pay
      • Simplified administration/reporting
    • Supporter membership
      • Institutions pay a flat fee
      • Authors pay a discounted Article Processing Charge
  • How are BioMed Central articles paid for?
  • Can the open access model work for high-rejection rate journals?
  • Submission fees?
    • Submission fees are often proposed as a means to make high-rejection rate journals economically feasible under OA
    • However, charging a fee for the service of rejection problematic
  • Peer review cascade High rejection rate Moderate rejection rate Low rejection rate
  • Advantages of this approach
    • Avoids delays for authors
    • Avoids saddling academics with repeated peer review of less interesting papers, wasting a precious resource
    • Separates question of soundness of research from level of interest
      • Soundness determines whether to publish
      • Interest determines where to publish
    • For the publisher, high-prestige, high rejection rate titles are magnets for research articles
  • This approach is becoming increasingly prevalent
    • PLoS
    • Nature
    • Cell
    • Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium
  • How can institutions help to make the open access model work?
  • Institutional policy on the payment of OA fees
    • Publication fees are not just a matter for libraries, but are a strategic issue for the institution as a whole
    • A senior member of the institution should take ownership and coordinate activities
    • Institutions need to work hard to communicate policy to researchers
  • Centrally managed funds for Open Access publication charges
    • Aarhus
    • Berkeley
    • Calgary
    • Harvard
    • (part of plan for Office of Scholarly Communication)
    • Nottingham
  • Is the Open Access business model viable?
  • Growth of OA publishing in BioMed Central’s journals
  • Established journals are switching to the open access model in increasing numbers
  • Open Access publishing, then and now…
    • 2008
    2000 And more…
  • A new industry association
  • Goals of OASPA
    • Represent interests of Open Access publishers as a group
    • Agree common definition of Open Access
    • Establish and enforce good standards of editorial and business practices amongst members
    • Identify guidelines and best practices for publishers and institutions in managing payment of publication fees
  • Springer’s acquisition of BioMed Central
    • +
  • Springer acquisition FAQs
    • Will BioMed Central’s policy of open access to all research continue?
    • Yes – this was an obligatory condition for the deal to gain approval by BioMed Central’s Board of Trustees
    • Is BioMed Central profitable?
    • Springer bought BioMed Central because it is a healthy publishing business, in a growing sector of the market
    • Will BioMed Central APCs be increased to Springer Open Choice levels?
    • There are no plans to change BioMed Central’s APC pricing policy as a result of the deal
  • Experimental institutional Open Access deals at Springer
    • Several institutions/consortia now have licensing deals with Springer allow their authors to select the Open Choice option without additional payment
      • Max Planck
      • UKB (Dutch consortium)
      • Georg-August University of Goettingen
    • The University of California has publicly stated that it is working on a similar deal with Springer for its campuses.