Researcher observation observed on the enterprises
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4.3 Researcher Observation undertakes enterprises & the TVET. Entoto Vocational Training Education;

4.3 Researcher Observation undertakes enterprises & the TVET. Entoto Vocational Training Education;

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  • 1. 4.3 Researcher Observation undertakes enterprises & the TVET. Entoto Vocational Training Education; As the researcher went to the workshop areas, the most interesting thing observed was the art and gallery, sculpture (monument) of the trainees’ skill presented in visual form of art they can also use as a means of income generating activity for the college by opening public visitation programme. The college also placing dustbin at every indispensable place for the purpose of dispensable the waste materials. The site of the workshops have enough space and distance from the class rooms, offices and from each other not create disturbance, thereby avoiding sound pollution, and the rooms that most of the workshops visited had quite enough space, except the plumbing section and automotive which seems stuffed into narrow space. The workshops of automotive and as well as the wood work room were not built in a modern manner: the automotive department had a space capacity of occupying only for one car at a time and in addition to that it has no ventilation in the work shop while the roof was also low with no room over the head. There were lots of scrap material in the workshop with manufactured products (probably waiting for a take away) and that had made the wood work room suffocated with dust from the wood dusts, the cleanliness of the wood workshop improved every day they changed usual methods of keeping the room cleanliness such us by offering reasonable price accordingly the scrap wood material sold for any volunteers and outsider with lower price aimed at cleaning the workshop they will obliged to make shining the room which create hazardous to health. The campus roads were not comfortable for personal with special need trainees to move freely. What the researcher recognized that most of the department do not send their trainees to cooperative training due to problems associated with good schedule, however, the trained of the college were receiving trainees from other institution for cooperative training. Despite the huge equipment and machineries were observed more than half of the machineries were aged during need of maintenance the trainers made themselves than spending money for repair and maintenance. The new equipment and machinery available in the workshop, yet, also like to say that the class room which undertake theoretical lesson classes and the production workshop seems a little at a close proximity to the other workshops, like business and hotel management
  • 2. and that might make it exposed to sound pollution easily during grinding and welding among other. The researcher recognized as after trainee production of material in each department would sold and contribute for the TVET as income generating activity. As the strategy of the Federal Ethiopian TVET bureau the assessment system is both within the TVET and also finally provide recognition by the authorized with in Government office called centre of competency office provide accreditation which mean for official approval and recognition for the trainees competent and not competent in the trainees document and in a visual form of chart in the workshop or class room (progressive chart). So far the teaching learning system does not encourage such facilities in the college even though all of them use it but not updating it. The researcher has been assured during observation there is no progressive chart, which the management system of Kaizen encourage visual management. Therefore, the researcher has observed that, at the Entoto TVET polytechnic cluster college, starting from the gate poster, it tells clearly what the TVET every offices, workshops and class rooms found and then after enter in to the compound, the researcher saw huge water tanker/containers, which could be used to deliver water supply for the surrounding society and training purpose within the TVET college, then passed through a bit longer asphalt road and get in front of the rode observed behind the garden church class and in the right hand side yellow building, playing and sport exercising filed, workshop and class rooms and meeting hall observed. The educational offices are found in one area, which makes the researcher visit to few buildings to use detail observation efficiently. Entoto technical and vocational education and training center continued to provide the trainings in different fields of formal and non-formal trainings for the trainees’, in the modes of shorter term training starting from one week to five and six month to fill the actual demands of the labour market. Thereby, the formal programme focuses on middle level technical skills, while, the session should be offered by considering 70 present of practical training works in the company training for the co-operative training part. The TVET-institution and identified companies will sign an agreement to co-operate with regarded to implementation of this programme. The time spent by the trainees in the industry will give enough exposure to the
  • 3. actual world of work and enable them to get hands-on experience. The co-operative approach will be supported with lecture-discussion, simulation and actual practice. Organization of in- company training will be either/ both industry attachment or apprenticeship. The 100 hours of the programme duration will be spent in company training and it will only start after the learner successfully completed all the modules in this programme. The trainings went in line with the curricula despite demands of market assessment and tracer study not properly undertake in the TVET College. Moreover, the occupational standards, unit of competency and desired outcomes were checked through continuous assessment. Based on the results, instructors and workshop technicians were given feedbacks on how to strengthen the training. Meetings were also held within the TVET department staff in order to discuss about various issues, including Certification of Competence (COC), networking, educational trips, evaluation of trainees and cooperative trainings, Kaizen, planning and implementation, preparation and implementation of action plans. The mode of training used was cooperative training, where the training was given at the center, with additional training in different companies. During the finished off the one competency, all 1st, 2nd and 3rd year trainees of general metal fabrication (GMF) conducted cooperative training with their instructor supervision in this year at ATW engineering, DOBE, DTM, Enterprises cooperatively with Entoto TVET Polytechnic College. For the second time, all first and second year trainees of GMF with their instructors conducted the cooperative training at Lalibela and Basa constriction furniture and metal enterprises, where they were able to acquire knowledge about power hammer tools and formers, hammer forging techniques and different types of counterfeit machines. For the third time, second year trainees of GMF attended a three days cooperative training indifferent industry manufacturing firm Installation Industry on “press operation”. The short term training has also been provided for the purpose of settling migrants returning to home from Saudi Arabia, in different department of the TVET College. This was undertaken in collaboration with Gulele Sub-city TVET office. According to Addis Ababa TVET Agency (2012), the training was tailored to fill their skills gaps with regards to preparation of projects create their own business to settle them permanently in their home town. The reformed Ethiopian TVET-system is designed an outcome-based TVET system to fulfil the requirements as of the world of work are analyzed and documented-taking into account international benchmarking- as
  • 4. occupational standards (OS)-quality driven TVET-Delivery the department want to the Colleges provide. The TVET Curriculum -programme design, it hold program title, description it include necessary knowledge, skill and attitude of the learner to the standard required by the OS. The contents of this program are in line with the occupational standard (OS) Ibid. According to the TVET strategy, since the training has flexibility it has no specific target group, as its programs are able to encompass any Citizen who wants to learn, according to TVET agency most of hard skill streams suggested that “any citizen can learn” AACA TVET Agency (2012). The second one also those of who meet the entry requirements under this items and capable of participating in the learning activities is entitled to take part in the programme. The federal government of Ethiopian TVET Qualification Framework (ETQF) set enrolment standard aimed at creating capable and competent citizen to enable the trainees to join world of work the TVET enrolment requirements (Criteria’s) which receive their students. The programme requirements or directives of the ministry of Education after grade 10 they should achieve cumulative grade point average (GPA) above 2 according to the department requirement starting from level one to level five. Furthermore, after completing the level five TVET program, they can join further education at the university with engineering courses for the purposes of attending degree program and above. Other requirements, Ability to speak, read and understand English, Computer literate, Have completed 10th grade general education fulfil TVET Qualification Framework (ETQF), Physically mentally healthy, Good moral character (Ibid). The trainers are expected to prepare detailed Session/Lesson/ Plan and annual plan including teaching methods by considering 80 present of practical session TVET-programme structure it includes unit of competence, mode of delivery and the learning outcomes and hours the title takes. Measurements of the trainees’ observes the Institutional Assessments (Unit of Competency, Occupational Standards) are conducted using as project based evaluation methods; as well as by employing practical, theoretical tests, where the amount of mark clearly measured the trainees in institutional level. The specific learning outcomes are stated in the modules. In assessing them, verifiable and observable indicators and standards shall be used. Two types of evaluation will be used in determining the extent to which learning outcomes are achieved. The formative
  • 5. assessment is incorporated in the learning modules and form part of the learning process. Formative evaluation provides the trainee with feedback regarding success or failure in attaining learning outcomes. Summative Evaluation the other form of evaluation is given when all the modules in the unit of competence have been accomplished. It determines the extent to which competence have been achieved. And, the result of this assessment decision shall be expressed in the term ‘competent or not yet competent or in this form “C’/”NOT C” write after completing the project. As observed in the Entoto case not all department use up to date student profile observed in visual management system. Therefore, the techniques or tools for obtaining information about trainees’ achievement included oral or written test, demonstration and on-site observation. TVET trainers/facilitator’s profile, for this particular TVET programme and especially for the main modules, trainers and facilitators are expected to have 1st Degree (B level trainers) education states. It included the trainers conducting this particular TVET programme are at least “B” level and have satisfactory practical experiences or equivalent qualifications. Other requirements for the trainers’ qualification will check whether they have attended relevant training and seminars, and by demanding that she/he should take centre of competency COC accreditation certification, Must have completed trainers’ methodology course like Curriculum, pedagogy courses, Must have at least 1 year industry experience Ibid. The Entot TVET college is expected to fulfil Learning modules resources & materials requirement (including Library, TTLM, textbooks & references books) have been observed, and other class related activities (for example. lab, workshop, field trips/works/ were fully observed the college areas above the standards observed but all OS and learning models were not fulfilled due to the focused of the shorter training. In the Entoto TVET mentioned in the curriculum and in the premises bulletin it included all mission/Vision/Goal or part of them, since the Kaizen encourage visual management description as observed the training delivery in terms of curriculum manual were available in materials Course Objective, and Expected Outcome topics (or highlights of the whole course) they clearly mentioned. In the particular curriculum they prepared and used course code by considering (entire TVET-program learning Outcomes) Credit Hours, duration of the TVET- programme subject level example. Level one (I) or level two (II)..., version and year based on the descriptors elaborated on the Ethiopian TVET Qualification Framework (ETQF).
  • 6. Federal Negarit Gazeta -Proclamation number 391/2004- Vocational Education of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Art. 35/1/b Cooperative Training (article 10/g) programs should be pre-planned by the key partners and a mutually signed “Memorandum of Understanding” with enterprises. Similarly, like that of Apprenticeship and Cooperative training, concerning the Kaizen implementation there should be a signed agreement between the partnering parties before starting the implementation. Such a memorandum of understanding has been observed signed between the enterprises, which were pre-planned before starting Kaizen implementation with Entoto TVET polytechnic college according TVET proclamation (2004). Trainees in the different departments were also given moral lessons by the guidance and counseling staffs. Provision the training continued as in previous years, and all the first year trainees completed and have started working on business plan preparations, while second year trainees organized mini enterprises on the job training. The college provided training for graduate student about how to form their own organization, with the collaboration of Sub-City TVET and MSE office. The respective instructors also engaged in coaching while the trainees prepared and presented their mini enterprises. The College also visits the application of Kaizen in the shed around them. The accessibility of information and communication technology (ICT) Infrastructures, in Entoto TVET polytechnic cluster College which must provide the necessary human and financial resources, materials and equipment, like internet and computer were not fully provided for the trainers and trainees. For example, before last year internet service was available even in the college cafe (internet cafe), but, at this time it has totally ceased the service in the College. In this college’s library there are no electronics information sources for both the college staff as well as for students, in order to make them be able to collect new technology form this technology which used improvement adaptation and transfer among themselves and to the users by introducing new thinking and modification through observe design, new technology measurements, architecture and among others query. However, they don’t seem to want to restart this ICT technology in abundant way like both wireless and wire connection to ease the teaching learning activity.
  • 7. How they can alleviate the problems of trainers and trainees for innovation purpose without internet services? Therefore, if they have made internet accesses available they can collect new technology form this technology which used improvement adaptation and transfer among themselves and to the users by introducing new thinking and modification through observation design, new technology measurements, architecture and among others query. Policy and strategy of Ministry of Education (MoE), the TVET strategy of 2009 should guide the content of components and activities to be deployed under Ethiopian sector development plan (ESDP) IV together with new orientations; such as strengthening the role of the TVET sector in technology capability, accumulation and transfer. In particular, TVET institutions are also expected to play major role in providing support to the incubation and establishment of MSEs as well as upgrading and strengthening existing MSEs. When we count what the MoE planned during the initial time, Entoto TVET polytechnic college does not accomplish fully the expected technology capability, accumulation and transfer (3000) to themselves and users according to (MoE 2009). The during tea break the researcher met with one supervisor from Addis Ababa TVET Agency during observation in the TVET College, and got information when the college might resume ICT service for college community? He replies that “in the campuses they ceased totally including internet cafe before last year and this problem still continues even though. They have told to us we are starting to install the ICT service to all departments, yet, till now the services have not been functioning”. He added on that saying; “Nevertheless, these problems had existed even in our Agency, yet, indeed we had recommenced the internet after two years of interruption of the service in the AACA TVET Agency”. The adequacy and the availability of this facilities for the effectiveness of teaching and learning activity like computer, lap top and over head projectors it have scarcely available in the college. Hence, we cannot expect not only for the trainees but also for trainers, significant numbers of improvement. Even the available ICT equipments were not maintained after being affected by virus and replacing the changing spare part of the damaged computers even in the office some of the existed ones did not work properly. Since most of the buildings are old, hence, lack of extensive retrofitting (movable and available in the necessary place) to ensure proper electrical wiring, in proper network cable line, lack of cooling, ventilation and lack of safety and security. In addition few telephone line, no wireless
  • 8. telephone line and technology, poor telecommunication infrastructure, lack of technical support specialist who were professional in installation, operation, and maintenance of ICT, lack of technical equipment including software and network administrator are the major problems but in the college different workshop, which had few recent type desk top computer, few VCD plays, few educational video , inadequate lap top computers, few electricity uninterruptable power supply (UPS) in computer room and library and workshops. Concerning the reuse of the damaged materials, due to high turnover of the professional in installation and maintenance of technical equipment machinery, software and network administrator there was lack of technical support specialist for ICT and other departments operation. Effectiv training is largely dependent on a lot of phisical facilities, concerning on the use of emerging modern and relevant equipment to fit in the ever-changing world of work and technological inovation and invation. Most of th Entoto TVET equipment responsible the poor, obsolete equipment used, and the graduates’ non- complianc with modern technology due to this the outcom training strategy should fulfill the gap. In the Entoto TVET College has expended a large proportion of fulfilling on work-shop equipment. Thus, it is imperative that measures are taken to ensure that this equipment is maintained and custodian for by the dedicated team of work-shop workers and trainer in TVET College. Maintenance is a continuous operation to keep the college equipment in the best form for normal use, and to ensure the performance of its required function at any time of operation. The maintenance of college equipment is a daily activity of the college trainers and its personnel. It is an important factor in the delivery of education and addition to cost minimization if the college applied implementing maintenance in the college they will reduce cost of maintenance. As observed in the college, most of the maintenances are made by the trainers but severely damaged machineries were beyond their capacity. In addition to this, they are expected to maintain in the enterprises when their machineries’ are out of use but they were not in position to do that, though all types of professionals available in the TVET College. The college was working with different stakeholders are among others Korea embassy one of the Entoto cluster TVET including shuromeda TVET institution. The objective of the visit was to what to they have and not they have in the TVET College and share experience on the Kaizen concept and to look at indirectly the shortage of TVET what their outcomes on hindering provision of Kaizen training in the MSEs. Due to this fact the college were not 100% correct like that of the originators therefore, the received some standards of five
  • 9. “s” rules for them. The application and implementation of the Kaizen concept, including, application of 5s, issues of workshop layout, arrangement of tools, equipments, machines and accommodating of the implementation of outcome based training- such as use of information sheet, progressive chart, and job sheet were observed during the visit despite a little 5s problems indeed they were more than 3s implementation. In the GMF section and wood work workshop they have a ventilation problem despite the roof of the wood work were better. In addition, maintenance activities were carried out in, Trainees in the carpentry and joinery section undertook different projects such as construction of wood joints, tools, bed, doors, wall frames, boards etc among others. Sale of items and income generation was also part of this sections’ and other achievement of the TVET. Other department were engaged in income generating activity to supplement the financial demand of the TVET indeed there were not observed their sales collection methods in the finance office as the researcher experience in other TVET institution there were no clear collection of the money in terms of soled material. The rating scale: which presented during observation in the Entoto TVET Polytechnic cluster college and the enterprises about 5s were presented as follow excessively available, sufficiently available, available, unavailable. The following steps are taken by the organization’s core implementation teams:, Plan a course of action, Educate the work group, Evaluate the work area, Initiate the 5S’s, Measuring results, Maintaining 5S activities, 5S implementation the name of the original (Japans) with equivalent English words, “Seiri” – Sorting, “Seiton” – Stabilize, “Seiso” – Shine, “Seiketsu” – Standardization, “Shitsuke” – sustain. If we do not do 5S, you can’t do any other work efficiently. They are features which are common to all places and are the indicators of how well an organization is functioning. SEIRI = Sorting. Distinguish between necessary and unnecessary items and eliminate the unnecessary items. Establish criteria for eliminating unwanted items to eliminate unwanted items either by disposing them or by relocating them. Despite, the correct stapes were the above most of the enterprises were not fulfilled. The following work under take from excessively available these initial standards measures of Kaizen implementation assessment in the Entoto TVET College starting from the first level of
  • 10. Kaizen implementation of 5s. I.e. Japans term Seiri – (sorting) clutter free and tidy environment in the college premises, inside offices, work place. Evidence of removal of unwanted items were evident all around excessively available in the college were available Tops and insides of all cupboards, shelves, tables, drawers, etc. Free of unwanted items, Walls are free of old posters, calendars, pictures, Notice boards – current notices with removal instructions, Rules for disposal with red tags, available. Maintenance/prevention of sorting projects established with mechanism to reduce paperwork, stocks, was available. According to top the set standards of the Japans term “Seiton” – (setting / organisation) ability to find whatever is required with the least possible delay, evidence of eliminating the waste of time throughout the enterprise/organization. Availability of photographic evidence of pre 5-s implementation and afterwards Visual control methods adopted to prevent mix-up Availability of directional boards to all facilities from the entrance onwards workshop and stores, were observed. The TVEAT have not clearly marked grid references all machines/rooms/toilets have identification labels observed, all equipment/tools/files arranged according to “can see,” “can take out” & “can return” principle has been observed. X-axis, y-axis alignment is evident everywhere Visual control methods for defects / rework / files / equipment in order to prevent mix-up, the gangways clearly marked with passageways / entrances & exit lines / curved door openings/ direction of travel, observation rating designed for enterprises concerning what they have and have not, observed and not observed by the assessment based on international standards of “five s” (5s). Since the enterprises are stakeholders of TVET College, it almost always produced middle level skilled technician for the need of the labour market. The employers (enterprises owners) values at the actual work place during employment the trainees/graduates the skills and attribute, dependability, team work and other affective skills and traits. The new employees work discipline the trainees should fulfil like strict adherence to health and safety precautions, time management, and record keeping; factors that were expected to fulfil before join world of work. The expected requirement by the employers on the TVET graduates during employment and the ongoing activity of the employee should be more ethical, disciplined, show enthusiasm to learn new ideas and innovation, flexible (easily changed), devoted and dedicated with his/her work,
  • 11. can work under pressure, well-mannered/courteous, able to learn from his/her mistake, able to create smooth relationship with their colleagues and with their immediate supervisor, respect safety rules and regulation of the enterprises like proper wearing of clothes and work without putting head phone in their ears, should have miner accounting and bookkeeping skills. With related this issues the enterprises almost always complaint about ethical issues of the new comers employees almost 20% of the TVET graduates not conform the rules and regulations of the organisation according to guidance and counsel officers. The TVET also not provided ethic as a commune course subject only the effort of guidance and counsel personals one times during cooperative training. In every organization implementation of 5s can be assessed using by the parameters provided in the appendixes part of this thesis; figure 19 standard criteria for identification of necessary equipments and parts set for the future and in figure 19/1 the follow up of systematic arrangement should have to use the following guide, firstly, the implementation of 5s in the enterprises were observed that against standard which set by the Kaizen training according to their pace of organization implementation phase. For this reason rating takes place when we say the enterprises were lower in average it could be provided at lower level. For example, when the enterprises pace of implementation frequency like things have not used once in the last 6-12 months; their storage methods show as throw out store at distance or Keep in store rated as lower level. The second one said to be average performers of frequency 5s, when we say average performers organization uses the pace of the enterprises they should have to implement frequently use things you have used only once in the last 2-6 months Storage methods of the organization should have to Store it in central place of its zone store it in central place in your zone rated at average level. The last part of assessment of the organization by the frequency of implementation, storage methods of the organization and rated 5s accordingly, if things used more than once a month, the storage methods also should use store in central place in their zone. We can say the performance of the college/enterprises high things used to implement within once in a week and a day, an hour, a minute and seconds. Methods of storage also if the enterprises used store near the workplace which is easy for production. The rating of the implementation of the organization it said to be higher performer from other which cannot implement as them.
  • 12. Due to this fact the observation made on six small and micro enterprises which were correctly implementing the right form of Kaizen were the score provided in the form of their correct application of the enterprises. The parameter used to measure their application based on the above parameters, found on table 14 and 15 give an idea about that in the enterprises starting from moderately available to unavailable from the observed phenomenal better a completion to the rated result of the enterprise ATW engineering enterprise has got a score 120 the first one from the same areas of production. The second one is also Dobe enterprise which scores 110 second place, Basa enterprise ranked third place. The forth ranked is DTM enterprise; fifth and sixth ranked are Lalibela and Ralcon enterprise respectively. According to the levels of the enterprises without the two enterprises i.e. ATW, Dobe and Basa enterprises the others were not implemented properly, the implementation of 5s in the enterprises were observed the standard which set by the Kaizen training according to their Pace concerning human capital ATM engineering and Dobe enterprises better position. The methods of their bookkeeping and accounting system are in a better position than others enterprises; they are ethical, honest and open.