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Introduction to philosophical foundation of curriculum

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Vocational education is the most important one for current creating job opportunity for long term employment and unemployment outcomes alleviating unemployment rate by.

Vocational education is the most important one for current creating job opportunity for long term employment and unemployment outcomes alleviating unemployment rate by.

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  • 1. Addis Ababa University School of Graduate Studies = Individual assignment on Philosophical Foundation of Curriculum in Vocational Education Prepared by Berhanu Tadesse Submitted to Tsegay Berhe (PhD) A.A. August , 2013
  • 2. Table of content Content Page 1. Introduction to philosophical foundation of curriculum------------------------------------1 2. General objectives -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 2.1 Specific objectives --------------------------------------------------------------------------2 3. Definitions of education ----------------------------------------------------------------------------3 4. What do you mean curriculum --------------------------------------------------------------------3 5. Curriculum: philosophical perspectives.....................................................................4 6. Philosophy of education ----------------------------------------------------------------------------4 7. The concepts of philosophical foundation education in general and vocational education in particular................................................................................................................5 8. Philosophical and sociological foundation of education-------------------------------------6 1. Learning to know/ learning to learn skills-----------------------------------------------7 2. Learning to do --------------------------------------------------------------------------------7 3. Learning to live together--------------------------------------------------------------------8 4. Learning to be --------------------------------------------------------------------------------8 7. Philosophies and curriculum-----------------------------------------------------------------------------8 8. Philosophical foundation of curriculum overview.--------------------------------------------------9 9. Philosophy has three branches.-------------------------------------------------------------------------7 I. ontology (metaphysics)--------------------------------------------------------------------------7 II. Epistemology------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7 9.1. Epistemology has two sub-branches---------------------------------------------------------------7 a. Rationalism ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7 b. Empiricism----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7 III. Axiology ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8 a. Ethical -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8 b. Aesthetic ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8 10. Basic educational philosophies-----------------------------------------------------------------------11 11. Basic philosophies of education and their differences in objectives, education, curriculum and methodology---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11 11.1. Idealism ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12
  • 3. a. Absolute (objectives) idealism--------------------------------------------------------------------9 b. subjective idealism----------------------------------------------------------------------------------10 11.2. Ontology under Idealism-----------------------------------------------------------------------------10 11.3. Epistemology under idealism------------------------------------------------------------------------10 11.4. Axiology under idealism.----------------------------------------------------------------------------11 I. Aims of idealist education.------------------------------------------------------------------------13 II. Curriculum------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11 An idealist curriculum --------------------------------------------------------------------------11 12. Realism---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12 12.1. Ontology Under realism----------------------------------------------------------------------------12 12.2. Epistemology under realism------------------------------------------------------------------------12 12.3. Axiology under realism------------------------------------------------------------------------------13 I. Aim of education-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------13 II. Curriculum------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13 13. Naturalism------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13 13.1. Ontology under naturalism-------------------------------------------------------------------------13 13.2. Epistemology under naturalism--------------------------------------------------------------------13 13.3. Axiology under naturalism--------------------------------------------------------------------------13 I. Aim of education----------------------------------------------------------------------------------14 14. Pragmatism-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14 14.1. Ontology under pragmatism------------------------------------------------------------------------14 14.2. Epistemology under pragmatism------------------------------------------------------------------14 14.3. Axiology under pragmatism-------------------------------------------------------------------------15 I. Aim of education-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------15 II. Curriculum------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15 15. Existentialism--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15 16. The historical development of Ethiopian government philosophy of political trend Rational ..............................................................................................................................16 I.The feudal era......................................................................................................................16 II. The period of socialism.........................................................................................................17 III. The present state..................................................................................................................17
  • 4. 17. The foundation of vocational educational education and current educational systems in Ethiopia............................................................................................................19 18. Synopsis on philosophical Foundations and Theories of Education.................................21 19. Founding principles of vocational Education.....................................................................24 20. Principles of present day vocational education..................................................................25 21. Principles of program operational and design for vocational Education...........................25 22. Principles and a philosophy for vocational education........................................................26 23. Principles and processes.....................................................................................................26 Conclusion----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------27 Bibliography--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Appendix------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Tsegay Berhe (PhD)
  • 5. 1. Introduction to philosophical foundation of curriculum The foundation of vocational education is designed to call the attention of the vocational education to a few of the numerous ways in which four disciplines namely, Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology and Economics in vocational education but when we talk about curriculum courses it omit economic aspect and add historical aspect of vocational education. The above mentioned both can contribute to understanding of our tremendously complex field we can see. These paragraphs provide information on the perspective of philosophical foundation of vocational education indeed, because all disciplines are reciprocally related. Philosophy is central to curriculum because the philosophy advocated by a particular school and its officials influences the goals or aims and content, as well as organization, of its curriculum. The importance of philosophy in determining curriculum decisions is expressed well by L. Thomas Hopkins: “philosophy has entered into every important decision that has ever been made about curriculum and teaching in the past and will continue to be the basis of every important
  • 6. decision in the future. As there is no one world outlook, so there will not be one and the same perception about education and curriculum. That is why different philosophers define education in different ways, in line with their own different philosophy of life. Idealists, realists, pragmatists and other philosophers with their different philosophies cannot define education in the same way as well as curriculum. Since they have different perceptions about the universe or the world, they define education differently based on their views of the nature of reality. They define it concept in the way they understand the world or the way they perceive reality. This individual assignment Offer a detailed discussion on the definitions of philosophical foundation with related to curriculum. It also deals with the main questions in the process of education and philosophical foundations of education and concludes with linkage between philosophy and curriculum. Progress towards sustainable development makes good business sense because it can create competitive advantage and new opportunities argues Stephen Schmidheing (1992), cited by UNESCO (1999:1) the founder of the world Business council for sustainable Development. The culture of productive in TVET productivism assumes that economic growth is essential to human existence, despite any environmental impact and consequences. TVET being seen only as training for growth and skills for work. The broader general education needed for personal autonomy, citizen‟s ship and sustainability is often over looked to be a second class education compared to university studies. However today, TVET is increasingly seen as the master key to poverty alleviation and social cohesion and a chance for countries to jump on the bandwagon of development and….. globalization. The most important business asset today is knowledge, rather than capital unfortunately; however, TVET in many countries remains locked in to the role of being a supplier of skilled traditional labor to industry and is thereby, unable to respond effectively to the needs of organizations in the information Age. Effective public management has been a key issue for many years in all countries. First, most public service systems operate in the difficult conditions of ever-growing demand and diminishing financial allocations. This means that they will probably never be able to meet the demand for services due to insufficient government resources, this is always very difficult to achieve (Vladimir Gasskov200:1) It is widely recognized that skills developments for employability, and TVET, have an important contribution to make in achieving the MDGs. We have considered the emerging challenges of the twenty. First century, a century, that will be an era of knowledge, information and communication. Globalization and the revolution in information and communication technology have signaled the need for a new human center development paradigm. We have concluded that technical and vocational Education, as an integral component of lifelong learning has a crucial role to play in this new era as an effective tool to realize the objectives of a culture of peace, environmentally sound sustainable development, social cohesion, and international citizenship (UNESCO, 1999 p61).
  • 7. 2. General Objectives: oversee and discuss the philosophical foundations of educational curriculum; Explain the different philosophies of education; 2.1 Specific Objectives: create awareness about philosophy with its branches; Indicate basic principles of various educational philosophies; To provides information about the major philosophies in education; Identify different philosophical terms with curriculum With related to vocational education: To provide the learner the necessary skill to be able to interaction with his every change environment. Show the way of preparing learners for work for purpose of substance and leisure work. Show the vocational education how much important to our living life the world. and identifying occupation that uses of knowledge by categorizing The objectives of education: an educational program, like any activity, is directed by the expectation of certain outcomes. The chief activity of education is to change individuals in some way; to add to the knowledge they possess to enable them to perform, to develop certain understandings, insights, and approaches. The statement of these expected or desired outcomes are usually called either educational aims or educational objectives. Hilda Taba (1962:194) Thus, the platform of educational aims may be either narrow or comprehensive, balanced or imbalanced, depending on what is referred to as educational philosophy, which is the selection and interpretational of facts and ideas, but which may actually be only a specialized orientation. If educational philosophy is the synthesizing of all pertinent knowledge and ideas to determine the chief ends and values of education, then this specialized orientation toward the function of education is in effect a failure in philosophic synthesis Hilda Taba (1962:195) 3. Definitions of Education The word education has a very wide connotation. It has no single definition as the objective of education covers the whole of life in all its manifestations. The word education comes from the Latin word “Educare” which means „rearing, nourishing or bringing up‟ a child. As education covers the whole manifestation of life, everybody in the field defines it in different ways. Accordingly, different philosophers define the term based on their philosophy of life. Some of these definitions are education as.,-- An experience;.,--A process of growth;.,--A process of habit formation;.,--The acquisition of knowledge;.,--An agency of social progress;.,--A process of moulding characters; and ,--A process of modification of original nature. These definitions correspond with one or more of the following aim of education Cultural development;.,---Maintaining discipline, moral values and etc;.,---World building and advancing social life;.,---Happiness;.,---Self development;.,---Vocational skills and efficiency; and,.,---Utilitarian ends. Considering the considerable variations in the meaning of the term, some say education is like a diamond that appears to be of a different colour when seen from different angles. At least there are three basic reasons for the variation in the definition of education: The complex nature of the human personality (the subject), the complexity of human environment and the existence of different philosophies of life and various educational theories. Source, Basic of teacher professional development modules course curriculum department Teaching material (2010:13)
  • 8. 4. What do you mean curriculum: The definition of Curriculum: This question i.e. „What to teach?‟ deals with the subject (s) to be covered, i.e. curriculum in the process of teaching. Curriculum is a Latin root “Currere” which means race or course or a path that can be completed within limited time. Academically, “currere” means the standard subject to be covered (mastered) by the students during their study. Therefore, curriculum is a prescribed course (s) of study with beginning and end, that is, it is a content to be covered in a prescribed time frame. It is about the content or subject matter which should be taught and learned in order to achieve the objectives (purposes, aims or goals) identified under the why of education. From these points, the conception people have about curriculum influences how they plan and utilize curriculum. That means, they defining curriculum in different ways, which is reflected in the way they plan and utilize curriculum. For example, Saylor et.al. (1980) presented four categories of curriculum. 1. Curriculum as subjects and subject-matters. 2. / Curriculum as experience. 3. Curriculum as objectives.4. Curriculum as planned opportunities for learning / planned learning experiences. Educationalist definitions of the curriculum have tended to shift in this country at least, from the content of discrete courses of study to the much wider notion of the curriculum as all the learning experiences offered to pupils under the aegis of the school. The shift in definition emphasises that what the pupil undergoes and learns at school is influenced by more than the subject matter taught. It also depends on the learning tasks set, their coherence and balance in the total school programme, and on how reflectively the pupil is led to engage in them; which depends in turn on teachers values and aims: which are bound up in turn with how they evaluate pupils learning and are themselves evaluated. Thus a simple way of considering the curriculum is to see it in terms of four facets: content, methods, purposes, evaluation. Which this perspective, therefore, a whole school curriculum is not only extremely complex; it is also an idealised entity, for the definition refers to what is official and intended. Any school also has a „hidden curriculum‟, the largely unintended effect of its social milieu (come from different culture). John Eggleston (1982:51) 5. Curriculum: philosophical perspectives The contribution of philosophy to the study of the curriculum can best be approached by looking at its historical development since 1965. A central figure has been PH Hirst. The first phase in the story is his establishment of a formal conception of rational curriculum planning and a substantive conception of a liberal education, based on a number of logical distinct forms of knowledge. As a result of the collapse right- and left-wing authoritarian regions in the late 1980s and early 1990s, versions of liberal democracy may become more widespread across the world. There may therefore be closer international collaboration on the shaping of education system to fit such polities. The pioneering work undertaken by philosophers of the curriculum could make a major contribution to this process, but philosophical work on the curriculum needs further between, and priorities among, basic aims; on the nature of ethical values that lies behind these and on metaethical issues to do with the logical status and justification of these values; on the contribution of the family and other nonschool institutions to realizing educational aims; on whole school processes; on specific areas of educational content and the way in which they sub serve more general aims; and on collaboration with policymakers at various levels, so that abstract considerations can be translated in to practical realizations and so that issues arising at the practical level can bring about reassessments of more general prescriptions. Since the 1960s there have been links between philosophers of education interested in the curriculum based in the
  • 9. English-speaking democracies of the United states, Canada, the United kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. Since 1980 firm links have been established by curriculum philosophers in these countries and those in Germaic countries of northern Eroppe, new democracies such as Spain, and newly industrialized countries such as Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Israel, and South Africa. Since 1990 new form of collaboration have been explored with philosophers from Eastern Europe and China. If optimists about world affairs are right, philosophers of the curriculum have an important part to play in the ideologically more harmonious world of the 1990s and new millennium. Torsten et al (1994:1327/28) 6. Philosophy of education Philosophy of education also deals with the strategies and long term institutional character of education. Educational philosophers want to know „What men think life is all about? What “the good life” is? How education can help to achieve the „good life?‟ Philosophers are concerned with the strategy of human enterprise, while educators are concerned with the tactics of bringing that strategy to bear up on daily life. Philosophers are in the work of searching the truth with the aim of recommending a finer expression of what is human nature while educators are in the work of bringing that finer expression of human nature to relate to individual human being aiming at producing a finer and more human society. In brief “what should the aim and content of education be?” is the central question of educational philosophers. 7. The concept of philosophical foundation education system in general and vocational education in particular The philosophical foundation of vocational education Philosophical and sociological foundation of education is mostly focused on the content, method and goals of formal schooling. On the basis of these philosophers of education raised several questions, namely, what to teach; what key ideas and skills should be taught. It is important to raise such questions because knowledge and skills are vast that beyond the capability of human being. This approach or statement gave rise to the emergence of school in action. Many philosophers argued on the provision of general education at elementary and secondary school as well as the provision of special education at higher or graduate level. They believe that general education are the basis of all education and still argue higher or complex problem solving educations are given or must be given at higher education level. Others argue such classification is not necessary. Vocational educations are reinforcement or motivational forces to general education. Besides, complex problems are solved by naturally gifted elementary students. So education should be occupation centered; i.e. this pragmatic idea opposes the dualist approach. So the knowledge and skills provided at school should be praxiological knowledge based on descriptive and valuation knowledge which is believed to be effective and efficient. In my opinion misleading practices or approaches to the educational system in the most dropout students, minorities and below average students is forced to go to vocational educational which is harmful to democracy creating unfair social class. So vocational education should not be orphan to general education school dropouts, minorities and below average academic skilled students. Hence, general or common curriculum education system is the root of the problem in education system in that most of general education students, almost all over the country occupational education programs may be provide to students at many different age level, form early childhood to late adulthood, and in many different setting form trial and error learning on the job, to highly structured graduate school education. When these programs
  • 10. are provided in formal school, the educational philosophy has a great deal to say about their content, method, and goals. Most educational philosopher have chosen (rightly or wrongly) to restrict their views to the elementary and secondary schools and to higher education but they should have something to say about occupational education which philosophers played a great role in improving the quality of vocational education with regard to content, method and goal of vocational education. I.e. philosophical foundation that underline practice in the contribution to the field of vocational education human resource development, and adult education can be used by educational- for- work practitioners to guide reflection on existing practices, establish new practice, and create visions for future practice. The advantages of such a frame work of the field, the philosophy of technical and vocational education is basically enhance human dignity enthrone work labor by making individuals acquire and or develop enough saleable as well as knowledge to enable them gain and maintain basic employment or self reliance for a comfortable living. Moral and spiritual values in interpersonal and human relations. According to Broudy, Smith, and Burneet identified that uses of knowledge by categorizing in to four types of knowledge such as associative, replicative, interpretive, and applicative. Any bit of knowledge may be used in each of these ways, but some knowledge is more likely to be used in one way than another. Firstly, associative knowledge is the calling to mind of knowledge by the association of one word or taught with another. The more general or specialized education in individual has the more likely he is to use his knowledge associatively. Secondly, in replicative use of knowledge, since the school can never foresee all the replicative use of knowledge, since the school can never foresee all the requirement of life, it, must teach students more than just the replicatives uses of knowledge. Thirdly, interpretive uses of knowledge, through which we view new situations, A classification scheme which overlaps the four uses of knowledge has been proposed by Elizabeth Macia and adapted by D.G Lux and other staff members of the industrial Arts curriculum project. 1. Event or descriptive knowledge describes phenomena and the interrelationship among phenomena. 2. Valuation or prescriptive knowledge is concerned with whether or not something is worthwhile, good true, or beautiful. 3. Formal or structural knowledge is an attempt to find a structure or form for all knowledge. 4. The knowledge of practice, or praxiological knowledge, covers man‟s ways of acting efficiently to reach the goals that he values In improving the goal of vocational education philosophers played a great role in preparing learners for work for the purpose of subsistence and leisure work. The concept of vocational in philosophy is stated by different scholars in which that thought stated by different scholars in which that thought stated accordingly. According to Aristotle, he believed that there were two types of work, here was Bread-labour, work for the purpose of subsistence, and leisure work or labour which was interesting in and of itself slaves and serfs engaged in bread-work, because if they did not they would starves. Evans (1971:165)
  • 11. 8. Philosophical and sociological foundation of education Traditionally, education was viewed as the process through which knowledge is transmitted from generation to generation. The agents of education were considered to be teachers who impart knowledge, and learners who have little roles in the process. However, due to the dynamic nature of knowledge, new methods of storage and dissemination of information and knowledge started to emerge. Knowledge and/or information are not static; they change and develop from time to time as a result of the advancement of technology. Due to this dynamic nature of information and knowledge, defining the process of education and learning come into discussion. In 1993, UNESCO appointed an International Commission for Education to reflect on education and learning. Among many other things, the commission reflected on the philosophical foundations of education, which are the basic pillars of education, and which demand more clarification and explanation. The commission finally identified four basic pillars of education. 1.Learning to know/Learning to learn skills: this is the first pillar of education identified by the commission. According to this view, learning is not limited to the codifying and acquiring of information. Rather it goes to the extent of mastering the instruments of learning to learn. Therefore, learning to know serves as a means and an end of life. As a means, learning to know enables individuals to understand (enough about) their environment. It enables learners to be able to live in a dignity (nobility, majesty, high position/rank), allowing learners to communicate accordingly. Learning to learn skills is a way of allowing the learner to perceive his/her environment so that he/she adjusts to the surrounding. He/she modify, change, reform and develop the environment in the process. As an end, learning to know is based on the pleasure of understanding, knowing and discovering new ways of living accomplished. Therefore, it leads learners to widen their understanding, their knowledge, and arouses their critical faculty and helps them to achieve independence in judgement. Learning predisposes to learn, i.e. calling upon the power of concentration, memory and thought, which are attributes of human being. The aspect of learning to learn requires being selective, and then associate the knowledge with human society. Remembrance and recalling of information have no significant values unless they help change life, i.e. unless and otherwise the information obtained can be applied for the improvement of life of the learner. The process of acquiring knowledge never ends, but continues throughout our life, and the experiences lead to the improvement of our life style. 2.Learning to do: Learning that cannot be implemented has little significance. Learning must instil the habit of doing in learners through applying the knowledge acquired. Learning must help and prepare learners for tomorrow‟s work and life. Therefore, learning must enable the learner to perform activities which he/she could not perform before. 3.Learning to live together: Human being is a social animal that requires social interaction. This concept of social being leads to the view of living together. Education should stand for humanism, reason and tolerance (Nehru, an Indian first Prime Minister). Education must serve the purpose of social life that brings people together. It (education) should serve to; -resolve conflicts reasonably; -discover diversity among people; -share experiences and interdependence of human race;
  • 12. -help children to discover others as they discover themselves and their, groups devoid of all dogmatic approaches; -discover group identity with common interest rather than the differences between them through sports, group activities, cultural activities, projects, and etc. As UNESCO (1990) states that the objectives of education is to mobilize societies as a whole for the cause of education, to reaffirm flagging commitments, to join complementary forces and demonstrate international solidarity, to cooperate and learn from each other in order to live together. 4. Learning to be Education should contribute to the all-round development of each individual-mind and body, intelligence, sensitivity, aesthetic sense, personal responsibility, spiritual values…Learning to be is the aim of the development of the complete fulfilment of man/woman, in all the richness of his/her personality, the complexity of his/her forms of expression and his/her various commitments- as an individual, member of a family and of a community, citizen and producer, inventors of techniques and creative dreamer for the development of the society (UNESCO 1970s). Education is not only to prepare children to live in a given society. Rather it is to provide everyone with the intellectual power he/she needs to understand the world around him/her and behave responsibly and sensibly. Education is essential for it gives the people freedom of thought, judgment, feeling and imagination. People need knowledge in order to develop their talents and remain as much as possible in control of their lives. Education is an inner journey of the stage of which corresponds to those of the continuous maturation of one‟s personality. Education is a very individualized process and at the same time a process of constructing social interaction. 9. Philosophies and curriculum What is life for you? How do you see the relationship between human being and his/her environment? Philosophy is the everlasting quest for truth about the world/universe we live in, about birth and death, sorrow and joy…It is the backbone of education & educational theories. The word philosophy is made up of two Greek words: Philio, “love”, and Sophia, “wisdom”. The combination of the two words gives philosophia, which literally means “Love of wisdom”. That is, philosophy is a search for truth or pursuit of truth. In fact, different philosophers define philosophy in different ways. Among these definitions, 1. Mature reflection about any problem and its complete perspectives. 2. Essential for clear, consistent, and unambiguous life. 3. A sum total of ideas about things. 4. A search for deeper, finer, more defensive values. 10. Philosophical Foundations of curriculum Overview Philosophy is central to curriculum because the philosophy advocated or reflected by a particular school and its officials influences the goals or aims and content, as well as the organization, of its curriculum. Usually, schools reflect several philosophies, which add to the dynamics of the curriculum within the school. Studying philosophy not only allows us to better understand schools and their curricula, but also to deal with our own personal systems of perceptions,
  • 13. beliefs, and values-the way we perceive the world around us and how we define what is important to us. Philosophy is concerned with clarification of concepts and propositions in which our experience and activities are intelligible. For curriculum developers, then, an understanding of philosophy is essential in order to make useful and intelligible statements about experiences which are to be passed on to subsequent generations. Indeed, the principal area of philosophical influence in the curriculum is found in the way curriculum developers handled philosophical issues (Hirst, 1968). In philosophy, one finds three lines of inquiry; namely: I Ontology (metaphysics) II Epistemology Axiology. I. Ontology (sometimes referred to as metaphysics) Ontology is the study of the nature of real world, that is, it deals with reality. The basic questions it tried to answer are „What is the nature of the universe we live in? What is reality?‟ It focuses on four concepts and assumption: (1) Basic reality (2) Human nature (3) Free will, and (4) God and faith. II. Epistemology: It is the study of knowledge and knowledge like activities. The basic questions of epistemology are „What is knowledge? How do we get knowledge? How does a man know what is real?‟ 9.1 Epistemology has two sub-branches Rationalism is a belief that knowledge cannot be acquired independently of experiences. That is, reality is out of our reach; whether we experience it or not, reality is there for rationalists, reason is the fundamental means of knowing reality. Rationalists stress different approaches to knowing reality. One of the approaches through which we arrive at knowledge of things is by moving from general to specific is deduction. E.g. 1/ A=B, ------------------- B=C ------------------ Therefore, A=C 2/ All planets orbit the sun. ------ The earth is a planet.--- Therefore, the earth orbits the sun. I.e.; inferring from general principles to particular. Another approach is induction by which we arrive at facts by moving from particular to general. Quest is the third approach, a means of searching for absolute certainty in knowledge is questioning. Rejecting deceptive experiences is also the other approach by which we arrive at understanding reality that enables us to overcome our misleading nature of sensory experiences. .It depends upon facts rather than on our experiences or interpretation. Curriculum is the subject matter to be taught. Curriculum objectives must be derived from philosophy. The content of curriculum must be determined by academic experts. The task of the school is fostering intellectual development and character formation. Source, Basic of teacher professional development modules course curriculum department Teaching material (2010:19) Empiricism is the second branch of Epistemology. Empiricism believes in the view that “knowledge is derived from sense experiences”, i.e. knowledge can be acquired through our experience of the reality. This implies that knowledge is based up on experience, and one cannot go beyond what is known by experience. Therefore, experience comes first, and then follows knowledge. Curriculum must be task-oriented. Curriculum developers are also to select contents and learning experience which are considered as true and task-oriented. Teachers have to teach those procedures and methods of science which help students to acquire as well as knowledge and skills in the various fields of study. III. Axiology
  • 14. Axiology is the third branch of philosophy that studies value and how values are determined. It depends on judgment that requires criteria, which are relative. Axiology has two sub- categories Ethical-the study of human conduct that evaluates human behavior and the principles that control it. E.g. law, moral, norms… and concerned with concepts of good and bad, right and wrong as they apply to human behavior. Aesthetic- is the study of beauty, the standard of evaluation of arts-music, literature, painting, dance… The purpose of all education is to transmit culture thereby improve the life of human being and develop the society to a desired level. This purpose signifies the importance of philosophy for better development of human society on which education has values to add to. Therefore, education should be influenced by philosophy. Education and philosophy have reciprocal influences upon one another. Philosophy provides foundation of up on which develops theoretical framework of any practice. On the other hand, education builds the superstructure of a practice and puts the theoretical framework of the practice into being. From this perspective, Philosophy formulates what should be the end of life while education offers suggestions on how this end is to be achieved. Philosophy assists man/woman in understanding his/her life and his/her actions, ideas and problems and the universe as a whole. Philosophy assists the educator in formulating beliefs, arguments, assumptions and judgments concerning learning-teaching-character & intellect, subject-matter and skills, desirable ends and appropriate means of schooling. Philosophy assists education in giving unity and common outlook to the diverse interests of individuals, his/her family, community, i.e. society and the state as a whole. 11. Basic Educational Philosophies There are different definitions of educational philosophies by different scholars. Philosophy of education is the combination of philosophy & education because philosophy has the task of determining what constitutes the life worth living while education has the task of making the life worth living. Therefore, philosophy of education is the application of philosophy to the study of the problem of education. It is the science of all things that studies the problems pertaining to educational efforts. From this point of view, philosophy of education has three functions. i/ Descriptive- learning what has been said & done by various philosophers. It describes and explains the learning experiences that has been experienced and practiced in the past. ii/ Normative-is concerned with values (axiology) such as ethics and/or aesthetics. It suggests ways of achieving these values that advocate the acceptance/rejection of some values. iii/ Speculative- it forms opinion from guessing –sometimes refers to as synthetic because it puts various fields of study together. It speculates a map of a universe and man‟s place in it. If there are gaps in data, it may offer more or less tentative influences. 12. Basic philosophies of education and their differences in terms of objectives, education, curriculum and methodology. There are five basic philosophies of education. The following few paragraphs are devoted to the explanation of the perceptions, beliefs and some other related notions to each of the philosophies.
  • 15. 12.1 Idealism: It is a belief that matter is reducible to mind. That means, matter has no existence apart from mind. Reality is conceptualized /perceived as a mental sign in the form of Consciousness thought and experience. Idealism has two sub-branches. a/ Absolute( objectives ) idealism This category of idealism is based on a view that reality is a single ultimate, end, final, or last matter. It is all including (encompassing) spirit (absolute). Body and environment are there, but they are finally reduced to mind –i.e. matter cannot exist without mind. The chief proponent of this sub-category was Hegel. b/ Subjective idealism Subjective idealism is a belief that the objects of perception are not material substances but “ideas” or the collections of sensations that could not exist apart from being perceived by some mind. Barkley was the chief exponent of subjective idealism. Both the sub-branches believe that, though everything has its existence in the universe (i.e. reality), it is finally reducible to mind. The difference between the two is that absolute idealism accepts the existence of environment and body although it finally reduces to mind, while subjective idealism does not accept the existence of the body and environment at all, but the sensations or ideas reflected in the mind as they are reducible to mind. 12.2 Ontology under Idealism: For an idealist philosopher, the heart of reality is to be found in thought and reason, where reason is absolute because it has been created once and exists for ever. Everything (that happened, happens or happening) is the result of the self-willed idea of the absolute. Nature is the medium through which the absolute reveals itself in external form. According to idealist philosophy, mind in man shares the nature of this absolute mind, which is part of this absolute, i.e., the God. The difference is that man‟s mind is finite & incomplete. Because, mind is part of the absolute but incomplete, this has the objective of revealing itself i.e. to become what it was meant to be – the absolute. Therefore, the purpose of education for an idealist is the quest for understanding of the ultimate reality, which is the absolute (God). 12.3 Epistemology under idealism: The absolute (God) is the source of knowledge. Learning is not creation but a realization of the absolute idea of truth and goodness. Therefore, truth and goodness set the models to which the children‟s learning should confirm (comply by). Truth always has been true; it doesn‟t become true, because it is always true for it is the result of the absolute. 12.4 Axiology under Idealism: Values are absolute and unchanging i.e. men are not the creators of values, because it has been created by the absolute. Aims of idealist education: The aim of education for an idealist philosopher is intellectual development, i.e. the development of power of reasoning and analysis. The main purpose is spiritual development and cultivation of moral values, which are unchanging. Curriculum An idealist curriculum:
  • 16. It Stresses on higher values like truth, spirit, mind and cosmos/the universe. Humanities (subjects related to human culture) such as literature, language, history and philosophy are given a place of prominence including ethics, religion and theology which are moral education. The role of an idealist teacher is to preach (religious teaching) man‟s spiritual heritage. From the points discussed above, there are criticisms against idealism, which includes the following issues. Its theory of spiritual universe is not in accordance with scientific researches/findings, i.e. theories about spiritual universe do not go in line with scientific experiments. They do not cope up with what science identifies through experiment and research discovery. Its concepts like mind, spirit, cosmos etc are not closely related to classroom practices. These concepts are not practiced in actual teaching-learning classroom. In other words, the notions indicated above do not take place in the classroom during the actual teaching-learning process. We do not focus on these impressions in the classroom. It stresses imitation (modelling) rather than originality, creation or invention. As the belief of an idealist philosopher is rooted in the absolute power, there is no creation in learning or teaching. It is only to recognize and understand the absolute as it is and therefore it is just copying or mimicking of the existing phenomenon that lacks discovery, creation or invention. Its curriculum is over loaded with absolute knowledge. All the concepts in an idealist philosopher‟s curriculum ignore the objectivity of things and therefore do not include objective views in the curriculum. The curriculum bases itself on the provision and understanding of the absolute notion detached of objective knowledge. It gives less attention to scientific subjects. Scientific subjects such as mathematic, physics and the like have not given prominent values as subjects to be studied. It focuses on humanities and spiritual subjects. Emphasis on curriculum of major philosophies, knowledge based; classics or liberal arts; hierarchy of subjects: philosophy, theology and mathematics are most important 13. Realism: Realism is a reaction against idealism. It is the view that all knowledge is derived from experience, that means; reality is understood or perceived only if we experience it. Aristotle (383-322BC) was the exponent of realism. He is recognized as “the father of realism”. 13.1 Ontology under realism: The universe is governed by natural laws; therefore, external objects have a reality independent of our minds. Everything that exists in the universe is matter /energy or matter in motion. The secrets of nature can be unravelled (discovered) through scientific methods; nothing is hidden in the universe. Truth is the image of reality, which may be the product of mind, but reality cannot be the product of mind as it has independent existence from mind. 13.2 Epistemology under realism: Knowledge is not fixed and they are changeable in accordance with the natural phenomena. As there is nothing fixed in advance, knowledge is also not fixed. It can be modified in accordance with the present situation of the environment. It can be changed with changes in technology, economy and political situation. 13.3 Axiology under realism: There is nothing fixed in advance for a realist philosopher. Because of this, they argue that values with everything else change in accordance with the existing circumstance.
  • 17. Aim of education: A realist philosopher focuses on scientific methods that enable human beings to adjust themselves to real life. The educational aims are confined to the bounds of the here and now. The main aim of education is to adjust the learner to the objective reality in a concrete way Curriculum: The curriculum of realism focuses on science and mathematics. However, vocational and professional educations are also given important though. Emphasis on curriculum of major philosophies, knowledge based; subject based; arts and sciences; hierarchy of subjects: humanistic and scientific subjects. Educational philosophy perennialism philosophical bases... realism, curriculum focus classical subjects; literary analysis; constant curriculum, related curriculum trends; great books; paideia proposal; returning to the liberal arts. 13. Naturalism: It is the philosophy that separates nature from God (the absolute). It subordinates spirit to matter and sets up unchangeable laws as supreme. The God (absolute) is something separated from nature where nature is independently separated from the God and governed by the supreme law. 13.1 Ontology under naturalism: The natural world or universe is known by experience. Reality is what has been experienced. Naturalism accepts (recognizes) reality as experience of the universe. 13.2 Epistemology under naturalism: Nature alone is the source of all knowledge. Knowledge is derived from experience as gained from exposure to the natural world. 13.3 Axiology under naturalism: Values can be created in terms of specific needs. They are changeable. Therefore, values can be modified, changed and created based on the needs and interests of human being. Aim of education: The aim of education of naturalism is to learn the laws of the natural world and apply it accordingly. 14. Pragmatism: Pragmatism is a belief that truth or values can only be judged by its practical results. Reality can only be understood from the observation of the consequences it provides. Reality is treated in a practical way. 14.1 Ontology under pragmatism Truth can only be accepted if it can guide us to success, i.e., if it is profitable to us to accomplish some activities, it is real, otherwise it is not real. Success which indicates the true existence of reality can be interpreted in different ways. For example, William James interprets success as “Enhancing personal satisfaction.” For James, truth can only be true if it satisfies the needs of human being. Charles Pierce, on the other hand, interprets success as “predictive power and fruitfulness in further inquiry.” That is, reality is there only if it guides or helps individuals to know further. If it leads a person to know more and understand better, then it is real and true; otherwise, it is not real or true. Therefore, for a pragmatist philosopher, truth is defined in terms of the experiences developed and consequences observed, practically. Pragmatists believe in change, i.e., nothing is fixed in advance. The main exponent of pragmatism was John Dewey.
  • 18. 14.2 Epistemology under pragmatism: Knowledge is in a continuous change and modification. It can be modified, changed and created as the need arise for the change, modification or creation arises. 14.3 Axiology under pragmatism: Values are also not fixed and final. They are in a continuous change and modification. Aim of education: Aims cannot be conceived of as final, fixed and immutable; they are always in change. Aims arise out of the ongoing experience. Therefore, educational aims should meet the needs of a dynamic environment, i.e. adaptation to environment is the motive behind formulation of aims. Curriculum: For a pragmatist, utility (usefulness) is the prime mover of curriculum. Therefore, it consists of activities, which are said to be child or experience centred. Accordingly, a pragmatist philosopher distinguishes between the curriculum drawn in advance before going to the classroom and what the child actually learns in action in the classroom. As everything is in change, the curriculum planned in advance is not relevant to what the learner actually learns in the classroom. Before it is used, knowledge is simply information. Information becomes knowledge only when used to solve some practical problem and then tested in crucible (trial) experience that the curriculum the child learns. Emphasis on curriculum of major philosophies: no permanent knowledge or subjects; appropriate experiences that transmit culture and prepare individual for change; problem solving topics. 15. Existentialism: This philosophy was devised by Kierkegaard (Danish philosopher) and made popular by Sartre (French writer and philosopher). The basic tenet of their philosophy is that man is a unique and isolated individual in a meaningless or hostile world, responsible for his own actions and free to choose his destiny (fate). It is the latest philosophy, which has not yet developed common theories. However, it stresses the following themes: The importance of personal existence. The very important aspect of reality and life is the existence of the individual. The first thing is the essence of the person him/herself. The encounter with freedom and the necessity of choosing. Ones the essence of the individual is proved, and then he/she encounters with freedom of existence and has the right to choose among many options provided to him/her. The denial of any fixed human nature and of universal moral code. Existentialist philosopher believes in change. There is nothing fixed in advance. Therefore, human nature and universal moral code are in a continuous change and modification. The encounter with death and meaninglessness. An individual encounters with death, which has no meaning. As discussed earlier, Existentialism does not have developed its own educational theories. However, its educational principles are much similar with the pragmatist‟s philosophy of educational theory. Emphasis on curriculum of major philosophies, choices in subject matter, electives; emotional aesthetic, and philosophical subjects. 16. The historical development of Ethiopian government philosophy of political trend Rational
  • 19. Ethiopia has gone through years of unfavorable environment for the development of TVET and entrepreneurship. The causes for this underdevelopment of TVET and entrepreneurship were social as well as political problem of the past decades. The past years can be analyzed in terms of three categories. The feudal era (before 1974), the socialism period (between the years of 1974 and 1991) and the present state in terms of entrepreneurship because it is reciprocally related with the widespread of TVET for increasing employment and self employment. For curriculum developers, then, an understanding of philosophy is essential in order to make useful and abele to be understood statements about experiences which are to be passed on to subsequent generations. Indeed, the principal area of philosophical influence in the curriculum is found in the way curriculum developers handled philosophical issues. When we talk about curriculum development it is a long- term activity, which involves politicians, government authorities, practitioners; textbook writers, supervisions, school directors and teachers (curriculum development issues in vocational education course module 2013). Hence the political philosophy of the government strategy is decisive one when we observe the Ethiopian history indeed societal privileged also one factor affecting the prestigious of skill full working environment including student attitude towards world of work. When we observe the government ideology philosophy of politics the prominent one weather broadening the TVET and the occupation itself or Entrepreneurship even the existed regime itself hold have different political ideology agriculture lead industry performed for two decayed and currently the government of Ethiopia want to changed in to industry lead agriculture according to this philosophy the number of employment encouraged or prevent by the philosophy of the government. I. The Feudal era (before 1974); the land lord class having control of both the urban and rural land did neither develop entrepreneurship nor did it give the opportunity for others to make use of land for the growth of capitalism. Landowner ship was associated with wealth, nobility and power. Since the traditional society of Ethiopia was highly influenced by the social norms and values, aspiration success was associated with wealth, nobility and power. Since the traditional agriculture than any other sector. Enterprising was considered as undesired profession and it was a livelihood for those who could not own land and it was also considered as blue collar job meant for people with low social profile. People engaged in crafts like blacksmith, pottery, waving, welding, and similar ones were among the despised ones in the society. All workers of iron were regards as „buda„ capable of praying up on human flash. They are taught to have „evil eyes‟ which could turn out people sick. The result was that black smiths of Ethiopia offend any work in Iron (pank hurst, 1992) and in those days with related to the orthodox Christian religion, those who were striving hard to make money were considered as people worshipping wealth and were despised. (Tesfaye 2009:2) II. The period of socialism (1974 to 1991); the socialist ideology replaced the feudal ideology in 1994. The main feature of the replacing government‟s economic policy were central planning, public ownership, and the development of cooperates. Procurement No 76/1975 prohibited a person who had a permanent job from having an industrial or commercial license. There was also limitation to the type of business formation with a capital ceilings for private investment. Ceilings on industrial investment, for whole sale trade and for retail trade was Birr 0.5 million, Birr 0.3 million and Birr 0.2 million respectively. In the rural areas, there was also a limit of 10
  • 20. hectares of land holding (Taye, 1995) that arrested the development of entrepreneurship in the country at the era.(Tesfaye 2009:2) III. The present state: the policy of the federal democratic republic of Ethiopia differs markedly from the previous one. It replaced the socialist economy with market economy. The new economic policy of 1992 has the objective of transforming the economy from controlled to market based one. The government, in line with the guiding principle of free market economy identified basic strategic elements to create enabling environment and promote the development of private sector and entrepreneurship (Dawies, 1999:12). In general, the promotion of entrepreneurship of micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in a country is increasingly becoming more important due to the fact that they use what the country possesses and less of what it lacks as well as for its role of employment creation for the majority of less skilled and unskilled work forces and due to their impact on economic development through creating market for local products and utilization of local raw materials and local knowledge (Yordanos, 2006:6). The promotion of micro and small Enterprises (MSEs) is also favored from the capital scarcity point of view especially in less developed countries like Ethiopia, which are not in a position to mobilization large amount of capital to invest in large industries. This increase the opportunity of small scale industries. This increases the opportunity of small scale industry to be the means of achieving sustainable economic development (Assefa, 1997). Governments must cushion the effect of poverty on vulnerable groups by establishing vocational and technical schools which lead to the production of skilled personnel who will be self reliant and enterprising. This caliber of man power is required for the development of any nation (MRS.J.U.NWAGWU,2006). Understanding this the Ethiopian government after the proclamation of No 391/2004 is giving due attention for promotion of vocational centers that create individuals who will be self reliant entrepreneur and play essential role for the economic development of any community. As stated by (Wana 1998:56), vocational/ technical education deals with skills development needed for employment in the labor market, thus it has to be sensitive to market forces and be adaptive to changing environment. UNESCO and ILO (2002:53) have also explained the contribution of TVET in man power development significantly to promote the interests of individuals, enterprises and society at large, moreover by producing employable graduates, training that contributes not only to economic development but also to gain access of decent employment and good jobs. Recognizing those facts currently in Ethiopia TVET graduates are being are being encouraged to engage in entrepreneurial activities or to be self employed. After the proclamation of No 2/1995 the Addis Ababa city administration paid due attention for entrepreneurial activates that cooperatives, micro and small enterprises are being promoted and strengthen to enable this sector contribute to poverty alleviation, creation of job opportunities and reduction of unemployment. Despite attention is given for the sector there haven‟t been any rigorous study that examine entrepreneurs particularly of TVET graduate to assess their progress. Therefore the aim of this study is to assess the effect of the TVET graduate entrepreneurs on reducing unemployment and come up with recommendations that will promote them. (Tesfaye 2009:3&4) Progress towards sustainable development makes good business sense because it can create competitive advantage and new opportunities argues Stephen Schmidheing (1992), the founder of the world Business council for sustainable Development. The culture of productive in TVET
  • 21. productivism assumes that economic growth is essential to human existence, despite any environmental impact and consequences. TVET being seen only as training for growth and skills for work. The broader general education needed for personal autonomy, citizen‟s ship and sustainability is often over looked to be a second class education compared to university studies. However today, TVET is increasingly seen as the master key to poverty alleviation and social cohesion and a chance for countries to jump on the bandwagon of development and globalization. The most important business asset today is knowledge, rather than capital unfortunately; however, TVET in many countries remains locked in to the role of being a supplier of skilled traditional labor to industry and is thereby, unable to respond effectively to the needs of organizations in the information Age. It is widely recognized that skills developments for employability, and TVET, have an important contribution to make in achieving the MDGs. We have considered the emerging challenges of the twenty. First century, a century, that will be an era of knowledge, information and communication. Globalization and the revolution in information and communication technology have signaled the need for a new human center development paradigm. We have concluded that technical and vocational Education, as an integral component of lifelong learning has a crucial role to play in this new era as an effective tool to realize the objectives of a culture of peace, environmentally sound sustainable development, social cohesion, and international citizenship (UNESCO, 1999 p61). 17. The foundation of vocational education and Current educational systems in Ethiopia The foundation of vocational education is designed to call the attention of the vocational education to a few of the numerous ways in which four disciplines namely, Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology and Economics in vocational education but when we talk about curriculum courses it omit economic aspect and add historical aspect of vocational education. The above mentioned both can contribute to understanding of our tremendously complex field we can see. These paragraphs provide information on the perspective of philosophical foundation of vocational education indeed, because all disciplines are reciprocally related. Current educational systems in Ethiopia are showing tremendous changes at all level of education in terms of broadening education institution by building new school; vocational institution and university accommodate the facility of material fulfilling the demands of institution, both in privet and government school. But the quality, efficiency and a number of equity problems in the regional government in Ethiopia observed. vocational education is not much changed because lack of modern technological equipment, lack of teacher qualification and professional development, allocation of management in the TVET without exposition of the discipline, the curriculum which provided in TVET are not market oriented, lack of financial budget for the training observed both in TVET institution and TVET college and delay of the allocated budgets offering on the due date for the training session. In addition to the above problem mentioned, Most of the problems observed only in the basic level TVET institutions are as follows no more guidance and counselor with other staff personnel which demanded in their organizational structure even the assigned person have no exposition and trained on the discipline, also at basic level of TVET institution there is no procurement and supply
  • 22. management department. In both TVET College and basic level TVET institution commune courses are not offer (English, mathematics are phase-out), also business stream is phase-out in every governmental and nongovernmental organization. Shortage of practical teaching learning place like enough laboratory, library, shed and class room, student and parent negative attitude towards vocational education, there is no proper understanding and responsible body concerning income generating activity only observed in government TVET than in privet institute, no proper material management in government TVET, in academic stream students with high academic achiever are recruited large quantity in preparatory class and they hate the system of TVET knowing and unknowingly. Youth lower work loving condition and hate hard conditions of work and also disgust work ethic of entrepreneur, Lower academic achiever also recruited large quantity, and due to this they hate vocational streams instead of understanding to become the future entrepreneur and become enterprise and big business persona. Because of these the dropout rate is also high. Redie Agedew (1977) also taught us it is better to acquaint career development at early age starting from 14 to 18 instead of identifying their talent and telling later year. According to Redie Agedew (1977) wrote in his research work and dissertation career occupational structure more employees needed in starting from unskilled, semi skilled, skilled and middle level professional etc in the hierarchy order respectively. When we observe the opportunity of preference from all occupation should left to the individual talent need alone in our country more people are interesting to join university forced by their family, friends and by their own choice for long term education to get knowledge rather than making money it is also their moral behavior than collecting money, in other words some people are interesting to join TVET programme to get testimony of practical work accreditation relatively short period of time they will become entrepreneurs they can making money. Indeed the preference should left to the individual person, in order to fulfill their student demand it is better join vocational education after acquainting world of work getting income satisfy themselves and if they want, they can resume either academic field of study or engineering courses instead of recruiting university graduates obliges to join Cobel stone (unskilled) demanded possession it easy to become unsuccessful when we make cost benefit analysis wasted money for higher education learning. The government should provide a chance media coverage for social acquaintance for better self employment. The forwards of this study I will summarize in the recommendation at end parts of this study. Accordingly, I am working within City Government of Addis Adada TVET agency at woreda level starting from December 2011 indeed I have been work as TVET trainer from 1996 until 2003Currently my work at woreda level implement the new government policy it said to be Kaizen in the enterprise with the collaboration with Entoto TVET college which undertake in the enterprise (entrepreneur) which found at a grass root level kaizen mean Word Originated from KAIZEN改Kai): Change, amend, reform 善zen): Good, right, virtue The original meaning of KAIZEN is “change for the better.” KAIZEN is “a Japanese business philosophy of continuous improvement of working practices, personal efficiency, etc.” “KAIZEN is a collective term of productivity improvement, quality, training and development, suggestion system etc. under the thought common in philosophy, organization and problem-solving. KAIZEN is customer-oriented and stresses on continuity, process and workplace.” abstract from “KAIZEN” authored by Masaki Imai cite: Oxford Dictionary Continuous improvement is the improvement that repeatedly conducting problem-solving or issue achievement after identifying problems or issues, including tool arrangement which found in their shop and workshop, material
  • 23. management. Increase in profit Enhancement in competitiveness. Increase in customer satisfaction Increase in wage Job generation Increase in payable tax → Contribution to National finances Enhancement of resistibility to business depression Inter-industry synergy effect KAIZEN is an important pillar for the National Growth Strategy and to meet growth and transformation paired (GTP) millennium development goals (MDGs). The objective of Kaizen improving their production and productivity by changing their traditional forms of production to modern production flow identifying staff performance record identifying worker improvement / success staff problem within the enterprise it includes identifying skill gap by need assessment and fill the gap what we identified, example preparing their business plan, accounting and ledger shits, material codification which found in their stores opening file and folder cabinet i.e. filling the gap including practical skill gap example metal work, leather technology and cloth production etc… Effective public management has been a key issue for many years in all countries. First, most public service systems operate in the difficult conditions of ever-growing demand and diminishing financial allocations. This means that they will probably never be able to meet the demand for services due to insufficient government resources, this is always very difficult to achieve (Vladimir Gasskov200:1) 18. SYNOPSIS ON PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS & THEORIES OF EDUCATION Philosophy is set of ideas about, the nature of reality, the meaning of life; describe your current personal philosophy of education THE PURPOSE OF EDUCATION: What do you think the purpose of education is? To give knowledge, to transmit culture, to help people adapt to society, to give religious education, to provide practical/hands-on experience/training, to provide learner/human-centered education (self-realization) etc (your view) …Why do some parents choose or reject certain schools? Philosophy influences daily educational life in many ways (curriculum, teacher role, assessment, teaching methods.) FOUR PRIMARY EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES IDEALISM: (Plato) GENERIC NOTIONS: Reality is an unchanging world of perfect ideas and universal truths (metaphysics). Reality is made up of absolute truths. (Religious education programs). To Plato, truth is perfect and eternal and not found in the world matter. Meaning is in the ideals of life itself. We can‟t rely on our senses as they deceive us. (Criticism) a “truth” sometimes is only in the eye of the beholder. Knowledge is obtained when ideas are brought into consciousness through selfexamination and discourse (epistemology) Searching for truth through Socratic questioning/ dialectic – questioning individual‟s point of view (using inductive reasoning, authority lecturing), Wisdom of goodness; discipline, order, self-control; preservation of cultural heritage of the past (Axiology) Goal of Education: Educators are interested in the search for truth through ideas rather than through the examination of the false shadowy world of matter. They encourage students to search for truth as individuals. Education is transformation: ideas can change lives.
  • 24. Role of Teacher: Dealing with abstract notions through dialectic method & connecting analysis with action, Aactive, posing questions, selecting materials and establishing an environment to ensure the desired outcomes. A role model to be imitated by students Methods of Instruction: Teachers are active in student learning, Lecturing but particularly using dialectic approach, Through questioning, students are encouraged to discuss, analyze, synthesize, and apply what they have read, Students are encouraged to work in groups/ individually on research projects, both oral and written Curriculum: Examining the roots of the contemporary problems in the past (great literature/classics etc), Education at any level should teach students to think, Subject-matter curriculum, Back-to-basics approach in education REALISM (Chisholm, Whitehead): Generic Notions: Meaning comes through empirically proven facts. Reality is made up of natural laws, facts. The idea that reality is what it is and possesses an independent identity, regardless of the beliefs of the observer. We perceive the actually existing physical world. Goal of Education: Develop intellectual abilities, To equip students with information to understand current event (Tabula Rasa), Role of the Teacher, having a solid grounding in science, maths, and the humanities. relying on test scores to place students (competency testing of students with various methods), readily adopting new technology, teacher‟s responsibility to teach skill+disciplined knowledge, Teacher should be competent in a specific subject matter, Teacher presenting ideas in a clear & consistent manner & demonstrating that there are definite ways to judge works of art, music, poetry and literature, Enabling students to learn objective methods of evaluating the works above Methods of Instruction: lecture, question &answer (formal ways of teaching, inductive & scientific reasoning, competency-based assessments as a way ensuring that students learnt what they are being taught, emphasis on critical reason aided by observation (our experiences) & experimentation, emphasizing realistic novels such as Oliver Twist, Great Expectations, For Whom the Bell Tolls etc. to give live‟s laws and principles and such novels are the keys for students to reach the ideal world through material world, stressing precision and accuracy in math, science, social studies and writing Curriculum: curriculum consists of the basics – maths, science, reading etc. attention is given to didactic & object studies in education (use of pictures, TV, videos in educational process), use of objects in education (Montessori), emphasis is on subject matter (highly organized & systematic in approach), CRITICISM: Empirical facts always subject to change. EXISTENTIALISM: Kierkegaard, Jean-Paul Sartre, Nietzche), Generic Notions, Existentialists believe that individuals are placed on this earth alone & must make sense out of the chaos they encounter. Sartre believed that “existence precedes essence” – that is people must create themselves, and they must create their own meaning. Thus, individuals are in a state of constantly becoming, creating chaos and order, creating good and evil. The choice is up to the individual. In short, existentialism teaches that each person must simply live his/her life & by doing so creates his/her own values, almost as an afterthought. Reality for individuals is eternal. Each individual‟s point of view is significant. Aim is not to provide standard people Goal of Education: Existentialists, believe that education should focus on the needs of individuals, both cognitively and affectively. also believe that education should stress individuality. (Education should include discussion of the nonrational and rational world), Education is an activity liberating the individual from a chaotic, absurd world. Individuals are
  • 25. responsible of consequences. Individuals should be given credit for the creation of concepts like peace, truth, and justice. So, focus is on humans and their ideas. Good education would encourage individuals to ask such questions: “Who am I?”, “Where am I going?”, “Why am I here?”, So, good education is one that emphasizes individuality through intellectual journeys so that we can see and understand ourselves. helps individuals to examine the abnormal/corrupted side of life, the irrational as well as the good side. (life/death, wars, peace …) AIM: to make the world better Role of the Teacher emphasizes individual choices (there is no common way of viewing world), Teacher should understand his/her own „lived world‟ to help students achieve their best „lived worlds‟. Both Teacher and students learn from each other & their relation is more friend to friend, Teachers must take risks; expose themselves to resistant students; & work constantly to enable their students to become „wide awake‟. Introspection is useful in order to enable students to become in touch with their worlds and to empower them to choose and act on their choices. Thus the role of teacher is an intensely personal one that carries with it a tremendous responsibility. Due to the greater experience & knowledge, it is the Teacher‟s responsibility to develop an educational environment that promotes awareness of the past and present, and of the future possibilities. Teachers helps students become sensitive to human possibility and understand that they themselves are both necessarily and fully determined by the past (every present is conditioned by the past, but every present is pregnant with future possibilities for change and new direction – individuals can change future. Therefore, Teacher should understand that the chief requirement is too help students explore the world and open up new possibilities of the world for students Methods of Instruction: stressing individual freedom empowering students to make choices about what and how they will learn Buber “I-thou approach” – Student & Teacher learn cooperatively from each other in an nontraditional, nonthreatening friendship. (posing questions, generating activities, and working together) Educational methods which help Teacher in rediscovering the excitement of learning and opening up a whole new world of possibilities for students become more articulate and capable of comprehension and self-expression with the help of teacher‟s existentialist approach. Curriculum: stressing arts an literature, little emphasis is given on maths an science the humanities are considered in an existentialist curriculum because they deal with the essential aspects of human existence, such as the relations between people, the tragic side of human life as well as the happy, the absurdities as well as the meaning Through humanities, the existentialists try to awaken modern individuals to the dangers of being swallowed up by the megalopolis and runaway technology (wide awaken) Existentialists do not have definite rules about what the curriculum should comprise. They believe that the Student-in-situation making a choice should be the deciding factor. (Curriculum from the standpoint of the learner rather than as a collection of discrete subjects) PRAGMATISM (Dewey and James): Generic Notions: Pragmatism is the philosophy that encourages people to find processes that work in order to achieve their desired ends. Reality is that everything changes. (Theme: the world is constantly changing and we have to adapt), They study the past but they are generally more interested in contemporary issues and in discovering solutions to problems in present-day terms, They are action-oriented, experientially grounded, and will generally pose questions such as, “What will work to achieve my desired ends?” problem is speculative thought, action, results, then Question: “Do the results achieved solve the problem?” Then solution is valid.
  • 26. Goal of Education: Primary goal of education is growth. Education is for life. Teaching students how to live (standing on their feet), Education should not be locked upon merely as schooling and the acquisition of academic subject matter but as a part of life itself. Schools should balance the needs of the society and community on the one hand and the needs of the students on the other. To integrate children into not just any type of society, but a democratic one where cooperation and community are desired ends. Helping people direct, control and guide personal and social experience (self-actualization), Schools should foster habits of thought, invention and initiative that will assist people in growing right direction toward democratic society, Education should promote our true individualism (self-directed learning) , Education has a moral influence and should pay a vital part in helping us become the kind of moral persons who are interested not only in promoting our own growth but also in promoting the growth of others. Role of the Teacher, applies democratic methods, classroom is a community of learners, Teacher is facilitator not authoritarian, Teacher is encourages, offers suggestions, questions and helps plan and implements courses of study, Teacher is writes curriculum and must have a command of several disciplines to create and implement Curriculum, Methods of Instruction, Problem solving, experiential learning, inquiry methods, field trips, projects (not all students can learn in the same way – vary strategies), Learning in groups and individuality, Formal, instruction is abandoned (flexible methods are used) moveable chairs, freedom of class etc. Lockstep, rote memorization of traditional schools are replaced with individualized studies. Action-oriented education (activity-oriented approach to curriculum), Curriculum, Learner-centered curriculum, Pragmatist curriculum is composed of both process (experience) and content (knowledge), All academic and vocational disciplines in an integrated and connected way, Problem-centered learning/project method: such approaches to curriculum start with a central, question, core/problem. Students attack the problem in diverse ways according to interest and need. They work independently or in groups. They evaluate their growth and development. Child interest to be considered in curriculum. Varied needs, interests have different curricula Education is a broad term, it take place anywhere, anytime anyplace, it used for behavioral changes process, collective body of pupils, lack of formalization, no assessment process, non official, lack of system, no need to certified person, no specific time limit for attendance, School, is- Specific, -particular location, limited definition, place for education, -formalized, assessment, -official, -systemic, -certified person, -compulsory period. 19. FOUNDING PRINCIPLES OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION: Vocational education is a national concern. It is Labor, education, business, industry, agriculture, and the public supported the economic need for a national framework of vocational education. Vocational education provides for the common defense and promotes the general welfare. The effectiveness of vocation education in improving the economic welfare of individuals and families, and in providing the base of skills for both focused on war and peace, has been consistently demonstrated during periods of war and peace. Vocational preparation of youth and adults are a public and private school responsibility. The democratization of public school brought with is a favorable consensus on the need for vocational education in the public school system Vocational education requires a sound basic education. The technical age has consistently place a premium on a sound basic education for all students. The design of vocational education
  • 27. has always reinforced this assumption. Vocational education is planned and conducted in close cooperation with business and industry. The concept of an advisory committee as a means of keeping programs attuned to the needs of business and industry illustrates the cooperative dimension of program planning. Vocational education provides the skills and knowledge valuable in the labor market. Program content is based upon analysis of the needs for the labor market. Placement and follow up studies test the degree to which the product of the program (the student) adjusts and makes progress in the job. Vocational education provides continuing education for youth and adults. The outreach of vocational education through the trade extension and other adult vocational programs has contributed significantly to the “industrial intelligence” of the labor force. The problem of retraining and lifelong learning is a foundation element in the structure of vocational education. Source: Vocational Education: Concepts and Operation 1982, Calhoun and Finch 20. PRINCIPLES OF PRESENT DAY VOCATIONAL EDUCATTION: Vocational education is the right of everyone who desires and can profit by it, and it is the responsibility of the schools to provide for it within the curriculum. This principle precludes program limitations as they now exist in many instances, and establishes the need for a broader and more inclusive vocational program based upon the individual needs and work opportunities. Such planning establishes the base for the school to become responsible for the student in transition to the next level of education or work. Vocational education is a continuous process from early childhood throughout life. The process can be roughly divided into four phases which prescribe themselves to general levels of education. The types of programs which are appropriate and can be planned for each level are, informational and orientation, orientation and exploratory, exploratory and preparation, upgrading and retraining, Vocational education, like general education, is a responsibility of the total school and cannot be limited to a single discipline or department. Vocational education programs can be developed which serve as no blocking career ladders, and they can be planned to be consonant with the goals of both general and vocational functions of education. Source: Vocational Education: Concepts and Operations, Calhoun, C.C. and Finch, A.V. 1982 page 64-65 21. PRINCIPLES OF PROGRAM OPERATION AND DESIGN FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCAITON. Guidance, essential component of vocational education, Lifelong learning, promoted through vocational education, Needs, i.e. needs of the community are reflected by programs of vocational education. Placement, the next step as a responsibility of vocational education. Open to all, vocational education is open to all. Special Needs, individuals with special needs are served through vocational education, Student Organizations, teachers of vocational education are both professionally and occupationally competent, Work Ethic, A positive work ethic is promoted through vocational education. 22. PRINCIPLES EDUCATION: AND A PHILOSOPHY FOR VOCATIONAL Career and Prevocational Education- The career awareness and prevocational education components of career education compliment vocational education. Comprehensive Education-
  • 28. Vocational education is part of the public system of comprehensive education. CurriculumCurricula for vocational education are derived from requirements in the world of work. Families of occupation-Bases for developing curricula for vocational education at the secondary level. Innovation-Stressed as a part of vocational education. Job entry-Persons are prepared for at least job entry through vocational education. Safety-Paramount in vocational education. Supervised Occupational Experience-Provided through vocational education. 23. PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES: Advice seeking-Advice from the community is sought in providing vocational education. Articulation and Coordination-Central to the purpose of vocational education. Evaluation- A continuos process in vocational education. Follow-up-A vital extension of vocational education. Legislation-Federal legislation for vocational education is a reflection of national priorities. Planning-Comprehensive planning is stressed in vocational education. Research-Research on a continuing basis is fundamental to the dynamics of vocational education. Source: Principles and Philosophy of vocational education 1985, Melvin Miller
  • 29. Conclusion Philosophy gives meaning to our decisions and actions. In the absence of a philosophy, the educator is vulnerable to externally imposed prescriptions, to fads and frills, to authoritarian schemes, and to other “isms.” Dewey was so convinced of the importance of philosophy that he viewed it as the all-encompassing aspect of the educational process-as necessary for forming fundamental dispositions, intellectual and emotional, toward nature and fellow man. This individual assignment also attempted to present how different philosophers and educators defined curriculum, education, and defined the term philosophy and its branch. The various features and characteristics that differentiate them are also discussed. The paper further explained main questions in the process of education. The paper portrayed principles that govern the philosophical foundations of education as reflected by a commission appointed by UNESCO. In the final analysis, curriculum workers must understand that they are continuously faced with curriculum decisions and that philosophy is important in determining these decisions. Indeed, few school people scrutinize (inspect) their curriculum with regard to the school‟s philosophy or mission, statement. Often teachers and administrators plan and implement long reams of behavioural objectives with minimal regard to the overall philosophy of the school. Curriculum workers need to provide assistance in developing and designing school practices and should reflect a school philosophy. It is important, then, for school people, especially curricularists, to make decisions and take action in relation to the philosophy of their school and community. Hence, the political philosophy of the government strategy is decisive one when we observe the Ethiopian history indeed societal privileged also one factor affecting the prestigious of skill full working environment including student attitude towards world of work. When we observe the government ideology philosophy of politics the prominent one weather broadening the TVET and the occupation itself or Entrepreneurship even the existed regime itself hold have different political ideology agriculture lead industry performed for two decayed and currently the government of Ethiopia want to changed in to industry lead agriculture according to this philosophy the number of employment encouraged or prevent by the philosophy of the government. Effective public management has been a key issue for many years in all countries. First, most public service systems operate in the difficult conditions of ever-growing demand and diminishing financial allocations. This means that they will probably never be able to meet the demand for services due to insufficient government resources, this is always very difficult to achieve (Vladimir Gasskov200:1) Recommendation to solve the problems of vocational education The intention of philosophical foundation of vocational education is to improve the teaching learning process of TVET in the college and in the institution level. Hence my assessment in terms of TVET problems which affect directly the TVET system and also creating factors for the people and student negative attitude towards vocational education observed in Current educational systems in Ethiopia i.e. the current educational features in Ethiopia to enhance all citizens‟ benefit. Hence, my recommendation will be a remedial suggestion increase quality,
  • 30. efficiency, effectiveness and equity by assessing TVET. Hence the colleges and the institutions use as government philosophy as guidelines this information as a whole to enhance entrepreneurship training, for effective teaching learning process i.e. To ensure equity of education (equal distribution of education) the government must open TVET at grass root level. (Woreda level) The government must encourage the private investment in vocational education by stimulating the individual investors with various incentives like free land act, tax exemption, recognition by the government and the society as well as assistance by the industry with regard to the required set of occupational competencies towards collaboration works. Expand the existing vocational schools quickly and inexpensively without compromising the quality on the knowledge, skill and attitude to equip students with saleable skill in the world of work. Our tax collection mechanism from tax payer example cost sharing from students and from MSIP (micro small enterprises) particularly from large entrepreneurs big business man is not well-organized due to these reason additional subsidies from donor need to TVET. Allocate enough amount of budget for TVET College and institute to meet TVET objective the stakeholders should fulfill their share like government, NGOs, societies as a whole even individual volunteers. Ensuring quality of TVET education both in privet and government TVET by providing for the trainee practical project works to increase financial capacity expand by using income generating activity in TVET in addition to financial support for TVET it helps trainers can assess as center of competency for their trainees. When student are placed, it should be done by consideration of their interest when they select their department. With the help of guidance and counselors. Before courses are delivered to the trainee, market should be assessed to meet market demand, Revision of the courses of the diplomas/ degree levels that the courses in accordance with their qualification of the one of occupations to increase the consistency and the ability of the skill provided to employers as well as for self employment. Improve relevant and cost effective marketable vocational curriculum in the demand of current market, industry, student, and parent and trainer interest. Awareness should be created to the trainee and the society as a whole the values of vocational education disseminate information by using media about the use of vocational education Vocational education institution should be a center for both manual work and transfer of new technology. A mechanism to transform new innovation. Capacity building in vocational institutions all members staffs to enhance center of competency by using on job training and long term education. Create a climate of trustful cooperation of all involved stakeholders and also work with them. Example starting from micro and small scale enterprise to the large industry. Build the infrastructure for a successful education and training system i.e. building, laboratories, workshops, sheds etc. that can capacitate and enhance the learning process of vocational education. Provide adequate row materials for each department for teaching learning purpose i.e. machineries, tools, instrument and other materials that can capacitate and enhance the learning process of vocational education.
  • 31. Vocational institution should build relation with other vocational institution, manufacturing industries, building and construction/real estate enterprise, production enterprise, any business Entrepreneurs including factories etc. to share experiences, which consume TVET student. Develops mutual interest, increase the efficiency and capacity of the TVET. English and mathematics are phase out from TVET curriculum but I suggest it is better to use English because it is medium of instruction and it will help trainees for farther training and effective use of manual manipulating material or equipment in the work place. Mathematics also helpful for making ratio for constriction department and for other department. Every governmental and nongovernmental organization cannot run their performance without business graduates, business stream is phase out from TVET institutions, and I suggest the MoE better revise it. Research and development department should be facilitated the effective teaching learning takes place in each Working hand in hand or intimately with professional association both international and national it helps us knowledge sharing and improving vocational education in Ethiopia. To reduce red tape or excessive bureaucracy and formality give total autonomy responsibility and accountability for TVET institute by delegation, establish internal auditor including annual external auditor. To reduce conflict the organizational structure of TVET system should be clearly demarcated who is responsible for whom. Starting from the federal bureau to college and institute level. At TVET college level must be used matrix organization in terms of organizational structure because the management structure of the TVET college are complex and fulfill, top, middle and lower level managers, trainers and staff personnel at all level. Including market assessor (researcher) to show the current and future curriculum adjustment. In basic level of TVET institutions must fulfill in there organizational structure including all level of management, trainers, staff personnel, market assessor (research) including supervisors to reduce and ensure quality of education. The top management level must specialized in management of professional vocational business education (MPVBE) by creating effective and efficient as those who had the exposition of the discipline including all other department must specialized according to their own discipline in the department head the exposition of the discipline. Placement of top and middle level officer TVET manager must be merit base according to government proclamation 391/2004 all administration level in the TVET college and institution position is merit base. International accepted practices and experiences should be incorporated as a benchmark and standard to train with the skill at competitive level globally in the job market. Theory and practice of Japan philosophy of kaizen (continuous improvement) should provide as a subject both in TVET College, university and micro small enterprises. in conclusion awareness on the objectives of vocational education should be created in a wide range using different is a problem solving mechanism, to the industry a means of attaining skilled labour forces towards competitiveness and quality, to the students of vocational education is increasing an individual option as on action setting and to provide more flexible paths towards future life of trainees as well adults a means of transition to lifelong skills. In addition to the current activities taking place for the improvement of vocational education in our country, I Personally recommend that the government and privet media may take the initiative to create awareness among the society and revealing value that it can add to the well being of the nation and the country‟s growth in all aspect by acquainting world of work and work ethic. Our country
  • 32. vocational education is one of the decisive factors determining the competitive strength and level of development of in our economic. Hence, the vocational education in our country can be determined by the country socio-cultural, economic, demographic and technological development as a result we need to education in Ethiopia. Bibliography A.A.U. (2013) Curriculum Development Issues in Vocational Education MA Course module BVED 641 curriculum department teaching material A.A.U. (2010) Basic of teacher professional development (modules course title course No TECS 210 curriculum department teaching material
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  • 34. university unpublished Torsten et al (1994) The international Encyclopaedia of education. Second Edition University of Hamburg, Germany UNESCO. 1999. The Reduction of Educational Wastage. Paper Presented at International Conference on Public Education, 32nd session. Paris Vakey, B. (1991). Developing Teachers Theory of Teaching. London: The Falmer Press. Vladimir Gasskov (2000) managing vocational training systems A hand book for seignior administrators international labour organization Great Britain: by Biddles Ltd; UK William Van et.al. (1965)Supervision and Curriculum Direction in a climate of change Washington. D.C World Bank (1974/1975). World Bank Annual Report. Published by Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
  • 35. Appendix Table 1Overview of Educational Philosophies