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Technical and vocational Education and Training TVET has important role in imparting skills training for employment, self employment and enterprises. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the Practice of Income Generating Activities (IGAs) in selected government run five Technical and Vocational Education and Training Colleges in Addis Ababa city administration exploring the existing and emerging challenges in the areas of self-generated financial sustainability and utilization of this generated income. In view of this, the basic questions of the study are formulated and descriptive survey method will be employed to assess the current condition and overall performance of IGAs. The study will be undertaken in Addis Ababa TVET Colleges involving a non-random sampling technique preferred to be appropriate and to serve the desired ends in the study. The sample population will include department heads, deans of the colleges and Addis Ababa TVET Agency officers. The data collecting instrument will include questioner which consist of little open ended questioner ended and more on close-ended question, structured interview questions document analysis and observation; the data will be analyzed and using descriptive statistical method.

The research proposal hold tentative work plan that will be changed after identifying constraint, budget requirement to run this study also well prepared, it hold time schedule to carry out the entire parts of the study. Last but not least the researcher will make use of descriptive analysis and the methodology combines qualitative methods using document review, services and production observation and structured interview.

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  • 1. ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES COLLEGE OF EDUCATION AND BEHAVIORAL STUDIES MANAGEMENT OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION TITLE: RESEARCH PROPOSAL TOPIC: PRACTICE AND MAJOR CHALLENGES OF INCOME GENERATING ACTIVITIES IN INDUSTRIAL AND CONSTRUCTION FIELDS IN SELECTED TVET COLLEGES A.A. CITY ADMINSTRATION BY BERHANU TADESSE SUBMITTED TO: ADVISOR ASSISTANT PROFESSOR WORKU MEKONNEN (PHD)
  • 2. Aug. 2012 ADDIS ABABA Abstract Technical and vocational Education and Training TVET has important role in imparting skills training for employment, self employment and enterprises. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the Practice of Income Generating Activities (IGAs) in selected government run five Technical and Vocational Education and Training Colleges in Addis Ababa city administration exploring the existing and emerging challenges in the areas of self-generated financial sustainability and utilization of this generated income. In view of this, the basic questions of the study are formulated and descriptive survey method will be employed to assess the current condition and overall performance of IGAs. The study will be undertaken in Addis Ababa TVET Colleges involving a non-random sampling technique preferred to be appropriate and to serve the desired ends in the study. The sample population will include department heads, deans of the colleges and Addis Ababa TVET Agency officers. The data collecting instrument will include questioner which consist of little open ended questioner ended and more on close-ended question, structured interview questions document analysis and observation; the data will be analyzed and using descriptive statistical method. The research proposal hold tentative work plan that will be changed after identifying constraint, budget requirement to run this study also well prepared, it hold time schedule to carry out the entire parts of the study. Last but not least the researcher will make use of descriptive analysis and the methodology combines qualitative methods using document review, services and production observation and structured interview.
  • 3. List of Acronyms ETP: Education and Training Policy GTZ: Germen Technical Co-operation IGAs: Income Generating Activities ILO: International Labor Organization KAB: Know About Business MDGS: Millennium development goals MOE: Ministry of Education MOTI: Ministry of Trade and Industry NGO: TVET: Non-Governmental Organization Technical and Vocational Education and Training
  • 4. UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Science of Cultural Organization List of Tables Tables Page Table 1 Sampling Population ---------------------------------------------------------------------14 Table 2 Work plan ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------16 Table 3 Budget Breakdown of the Study--------------------------------------------------------17
  • 5. Table of Content Contents Page Acknowledgments----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I List of Tables----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------II List of Acronyms-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------III CHAPTER ONE 1. Introduction -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 1.1 Background------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 1.2 Statement of the Problem--------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 1.3 Objectives of the Study----------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 1.4 Significance of the Study--------------------------------------------------------------------------------6 1.5 Theoretical Frame work----------------------------------------------------------------------------------6 Chatter two 2.Literature Review-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8 2.1Concept and purpose of the study-----------------------------------------------------------------------8 2.2 Historical Background of TVET in Ethiopia----------------------------------------------------------9 2.3 TVET Financing-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10 2.4 Current Situation of Financing TVET in Ethiopia--------------------------------------------------11 2.5 International Experiences of Income Generating Activates---------------------------------------11 2.6 Justification for the Establishment of Production Centers in TVET Institutions---------------12 Chapter three 3.Research Design and Methodology --------------------------------------------------------------------13 3.1 Source of Data-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13 3.2 Sampling Population and Sampling Techniques----------------------------------------------------13 3.3 Data Collecting Instruments and Procedure---------------------------------------------------------14 3.4 The method employed----------------------------------------------------------------------------------14 4
  • 6. 3.5 Data Collecting Instrument----------------------------------------------------------------------------14 3.6 Procedure of Data Collection--------------------------------------------------------------------------15 3.7 Methods of Data Analysis -----------------------------------------------------------------------------15 3.8Work plan------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16 3.9 Budget Breakdown of the Study---------------------------------------------------------------------17 References---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19 CHAPTER ONE 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study Progress towards sustainable development makes good business sense because it can create competitive advantage and new opportunities. The culture of productive in TVET, productivism assumes that economic growth is essential to human existence, despite any environmental impact and consequences. TVET being seen only as training for growth and skills for work. The broader general education needed for personal autonomy, citizenship and sustainability is often over looked to be a second class education compared to university studies. However today, TVET is increasingly seen as the master key to poverty alleviation and social cohesion and a chance for countries to jump on the bandwagon of development and globalization. The most important business asset today is knowledge, rather than capital unfortunately, however, TVET in many countries remains locked in to the role of being a supplier of skilled traditional labour to industry and is thereby, unable to respond effectively to the needs of organizations in the information Age. 5
  • 7. It is widely recognized that skillsdevelopment for employability, and TVET, have an important contribution to make in achieving the MDGs. We have considered the emerging challenges of the twenty-firsts century, a century, that will be an era of knowledge, information and communication. Globalization and the revolution in information and communication technology have signaled the need for a new human center development paradigm. We have concluded that technical and vocational Education, as an integral component of lifelong learning has a crucial role to play in this new era as an effective tool to realize the objectives of a culture of peace, environmentally sound sustainable development, social cohesion, and international citizenship (UNESCO, 2011) The major source of finance for the government technical and vocational education and training institutions is funding from the government which is collected from general tax revenues, public borrowing and other stakeholders. Even though the government is the major source of finance for TVET institutions, income generating activities should also support TVET institutions in order to share the financial burden UNESCO, 1998). To some extent, income generating activities (IGAS) were practiced in the Ethiopian TVET institutions, however, public financial management rules were not encouraging until recently. TVET institutions were not also allowed to open their own accounts, and all the generated income had to be transferred to the state finance bureaus. In this regard, nowadays the TVET proclamation (No. 391/2004) constants a substantial improvement in the regulatory environment. There were also grants and financial autonomy to the TVET institutions and stipulate that every public TVET institution shall have the right to utilize the income it generates and to utilize any residue of any such income beyond any budget year (Arts 51/2) The most source of public funding for TVET are government which is collected from general tax revenues, public borrowing, external donor agencies, communities and other stakeholders But due to the expensiveness of TVET, many developing countries in general and Ethiopia in particular are exercising income generating activities to diversify mechanism of financing TVET. The main purpose of this research proposal is to explore the current status of Income Generating Activities (IGAs) to deliver quality education through quality training materials/facilities. The Ministry of Education (2006) proclaimed some of the income generating activities in the TVET 6
  • 8. colleges includes: delivery of special or tailor made training programs, evening courses offered to the general public, Sale of products produced by students during the training, such as garments, wooden and metal furniture, tools, etc. “Training With Production”, i.e. practical training as contract work (e.g. construction work, building maintenance, furniture production, sewing of school uniforms, typing services, etc.), or service center (for example a coffee shop and restaurant), Letting and lending out of buildings, equipment and machinery, Commercial use of equipment (e.g. Internet facilities in computer lab), Special events, such as open days with fundraising activities, dancing evenings, etc. Currently, some TVET colleges started to implement the income generating activities differently based on several factors, such as the economic status of surrounding community of training institutions, the degree of flexibility the institution is granted, creativity of institutional management and so on TVET programs are expensive by nature and their sustainability requires effective management and administration. Funding is also a structural problem in the TVET sector, particularly in the public system. Costs of TVET will remain high, if it is to be provided as center based training, which is still the predominant mode of TVET delivery in Ethiopia. As with most other countries, public TVET programs in Ethiopia are usually The most source of public funding for TVET are government which is collected from general tax revenues, public borrowing, external donor agencies, communities and other stakeholders But due to the expensiveness of TVET, many developing countries in general and Ethiopia in particular are exercising income generating activities to diversify mechanism of financing TVET. Actual IGAs are manifold and depend substantially on the social and economic environment of the institutions. In general they are more diversified in urban than rural areas. In Addis Ababa TVET colleges are engaged in income generating activities such as evening courses, skills testing for employers, furniture production, income of college‟s music band, sale of firewood, renting of TVET institutions facilities (rooms, machinery, meeting halls.etc (Franz, 2006). However, the actual practice in making use of the income generated is not as it is develop. Thus, it seems important to conduct a research on how TVETs generate their income and utilize it. 1.2. Statement of the Problem There are financial related problems in government TVET institutions because TVET institutions demand expensive equipment, human recourses, and raw materials in order to run the program properly and to deliver quality education able to meet markets and industrial needs.Promoting income generating activities in government TVET has a great role to empower the TVET 7
  • 9. institutions in terms of financial capacity and the development of competent skilled manpower. Financing the technical and vocational education and training is very expensive when compared with the general education. Because TVET institution require high cost in order to run the program when compared to the general academic education.In Addis Ababa TVET colleges, there seems lack of marketing and business management skills to creatively identify market opportunities and in particular to engage in profit making activates by the school management. Generally, cost sharing and profitability analysis skills are under developed in terms of income generating activates (IGAS). There is also the lack of guideline about how to use the income and how to distribute income from production between the college and the trainee (Franz, 2006). Technical and vocational education and training institutions demanded a great agreement of financial resources to implement the program properly. Now a day, there is a good potential to increase the income generating activities in Ethiopia through the previously established traditions in many of the TVET Colleges. The potential for income generating activities in public training institutions appear to be under-utilized, due to obstructive financial regulations of the past for many of the institutions as it is reported by the Ministry of Education (MoE, 2003). In general, TVET institutions required sufficient financial capacity in order to meet the objectives of TVET program. The failure to meet adequate financial resource could result in poor quality of education training in government TVET colleges. Therefore, in order to enhance the financial capacity of TVET colleges, encouraging income generating activities (IGAs) could be a remarkable solution. In Addis Ababa TVET colleges have also confronted with financial scarcity (Neway, 2008). In line with this, the effective implementation and utilization of income generating activities have a tremendous value. As it has been indicated in (GTZ), German Technical Cooperation Development (2007) Addis Ababa TVET colleges are confronted with problems such as lack of institutional autonomy in terms of the use of the generated income, inappropriate and rigid financial regulation and 8
  • 10. procedures, the low capacity of institutions to deliver special training program, poor marketing strategy of training institutions and poor quality of TVET and poor quality of education. But the seriousness of the problems are now well identified. Hence, the purpose of this study is to assess the practice and major constraints of income generating activities and the degree of utilization the generated income activity in industrial technology and construction field of some selected government TVET colleges in Addis Ababa city administration. Based on the statesmen of the problem, the study tried to answers the following basic research questions. 1. What are the main sources of income generating activates in the selected TVET colleges in Addis Ababa? 2. What are the major problems related to income generating activities in the Addis Ababa TVET colleges? 3. What is the attitude of managerial members towards the promotion of income generating activates of government colleges in Addis Ababa? 4. How do TVET colleges in Addis Ababa manage and utilize their generated income? 1.3 Objective of the Study. The major objective of this study is to investigate the practice and major constraints of income generating activities in selected public TVET Colleges in Addis Ababa City Administration The Specific objectives: To identify the main sources of income generating activities in the Addis Ababa TVET colleges. To examine incentives provided by the sub-city and woreda (local governments in Income generating activities of public TVET colleges). To assess how colleges are collecting and utilizing in generating income by department. 9
  • 11. To identify and solve the major problems encountered related to income generating activity. To alleviate the financial problem of the selected TVET In the long term by maintaining quality of education. To ensure quality of education by providing project for trainee to enhancing production on their own field. 1.4 Significance of the Study The study aims to assess the current status of income generating activities in public TVET colleges. Having this in mind, the prevailing conditions related to income generating activities in training institutions would help to improve the system in order to increase its contribution, through various methods of financing TVET program. In addition to this it will contribute its part by providing relevant information for the concerned it will contribute its part by providing relevant information for the concerned bodies (like, technical and vocational education and training TVET agency, sub city TVET bureau, woreda industry extensions cooperatives’) to understand and overcome problems which influenced against income generating activities performed in TVET colleges. And it will also enable training providers to identify potential sources of income generating activities in their context. Last but not list other researchers may use this work as a spring board to make researches in this area. 1.5 Theoretical Frame Work The manager of TVET institution need to acquiresolid business management competences to ensure the engagement in IGAs improve the quality of training provision. Instructors also involved in training providing project for trainee with production programme or other kinds of 10
  • 12. production based training should be able to apply good quality standards in their productive worker and convey these standards in their training. Technical and vocational education and training programs are delivered to the trainees through governmental colleges. In Addis Ababa there are six governmental TVET colleges and nineteen TVET institutions of which five of them (TVET Colleges) are researcher will focuses. These colleges currently offering training in different fields of studies, but this study will be carried out only in six streams of industrial technology field. Namely Automotive and Auto machine, textile, leather, construction, Electricity and Electronics, and metal fabrication technology. This study will be delimited to only five public TVET colleges in Addis Ababa, by leaving private TVET also. Income generating activities in Selected TVET colleges in Addis Ababa Selling tailor made trainings to target group Addis Ababa TVET Renting sport fields for different activities Agency Officers TVET colleges Dean/Director OJT and Evening course Industrial extension vice dean Renting building halls for meeting and wedding ceremony Etc. Sale of products of trainees Renting Equipment and machines Research and technology transfer core process Income generating activities Qualified trainers Quality training Cafeteria service for outsides Trainees Renting graduation gowns etc. Independent variables Moderator variables Moderator variables Dependent Variables 11
  • 13. Chatter two 2. Literature Review In this chapter the researcher made an attempt to establish an insight regarding to income generating activity in the area of TVET particularly in industrial technology i.e. construction & Leather technology. By assessing and looking at the research works carried out so for in relation to the research topic. Major areas which will be covered in this chapter are:-starting from concept and purpose, History, foundation and spread of TVET in Ethiopia, TVET Financing in Ethiopia, Current situation of financing TVET in Ethiopia, TVET from global perspective, TEVT in the present Ethiopian context. 2.1Concept and purpose of the study Definitions of Income generating activities (IGAs): are activities that generate finance in TVET College and those activities including the scale of products which could be produced by trainees‟ commercial unit of the institutions (MOE, 2006) The most source of public funding for TVET are government which is collected from general tax revenues, public borrowing, external donor agencies, communities and other stakeholders But due to the expensiveness of TVET, many developing countries in general and Ethiopia in particular are exercising income 12
  • 14. generating activities to diversify mechanism of financing TVET. The main purpose of this research proposal is to explore the current status of Income Generating Activities (IGAs) to deliver quality education through quality training materials/facilities 2.2 Historical Background of TVET in Ethiopia The history of vocational and technical education and training (TVET) in Ethiopia date back to the first half of 20th century even though its development has slowed and has not been up to the desired level (Tilahun, 2008). Similarly according to Neway (2008), before the coming of the western type of education to Ethiopia, the heterogeneous societies of the country had their own craftsmen and artisans who were traditionally trained through parent-to-child on the job training (OJT). The father-to-son and mother-to-daughter type of training system was the basic source for the skilled people such as potters, blacksmith, weavers, tanners and many others. However, these skilled people were delegated to a lower status by their fellow countrymen, who most of the time called themselves “Chewas” ; they were also marginalized being labeled as having evil spirits. In the early 1940s and 1960s some specialized were established and organizations like ELA, ERA, ETA, nonpublic organizations like Debena and Kuyera had their own training centers where technicians were being trained for specific purposes. After 1974, more technical and vocational institutions were established (Hopper and Kumba, 1995 and FDRE,2004 cited in Tilahun2008). As far as the historical development of the modern TVET system in Ethiopia is concerned, the country has experienced three different TVET provision schemes before the introduction of the current TVET system in 1994. It had experienced the provisions in 13
  • 15. (a) separate technical and vocational schools in years between 1940 and 1960; (b) Comprehensive schools, in the years between the 1960s and the 1970s; and (c) general polytechnic schools, in the years between the late 1970s and 1994 (TGE,1994; MOE,2002; Wanna, 1998 cited in Neway, 2008) There was also more emphasis on the creation of technical and vocational schools, most of which were operated by the government. The Ministry of Education operated or supervised nine such schools scattered around the country. These schools had an enrollment of more than 4,200 in 1985/86, and their graduates were in great demand by industries. With Soviet assistance, Ethiopia established its first polytechnic institute, in Bahir Dar, in the 1960s. It trained personnel in agro-mechanics, industrial chemistry, electricity, textile and metal working technology. In addition, a system of general polytechnic education had been introduced into the senior secondary school curriculum so that those who did not continue their education still could venture into the skilled job market (Ojo, 2008). 2.3TVET Financing The overall costs on education are the increase. The main sources of fund for the training institutions are government allocations, donation and tuition (AnbesuBeyazen 2008). Developing countries are particularly hard hit due to economic crisis, but still need to compete in an era of rapid economic and technical change (Bolina, 1996). TVET programs are expensive to run compared to general education, as it has been estimated that the cost of one technical school is equivalent to three schools offering general education (Kerre, 1997). There is currently a debate about the need for more diversified sources of finance in order to cope with high unit costs and tight public finances. In public institutions, this typically would mean moving from full (or nearly full) reliance on ministerial budgets, to: - Charging fees to the trainees 14
  • 16. - “Selling short courses” to industry, - Selling products produced in production Units at TVET institution (e.g., “training with production (In Went-2006) Governments are therefore getting more concerned about financing of TVET to meet the newly emerging labour markets requirements. Various financing strategies are practiced in different parts of the world. UNEVOC (1996) classifies some of the wellknown financing mechanisms as follows: Public financing Enterprise financing Private and public sponsored financing, andalso International donor assistance. Therefore, since education and training generate benefit for both society and individual, financing of TVET program should be shared among government, local community, beneficiaries (mainly employers and trainer), religious and private organizations and donors (UNESCO, 1998) 2.4Current Situation of Financing TVET in Ethiopia According to Franz (2006) the public TVET system suffers from substantial inefficiencies, mainly caused by: (a) A budgetary allocation system that is not linked to enrolment or outcome indicators; (b) Low capacity utilization, (c) Inflexible management structures and (d) Insufficient curricular flexibility to allow the development of cost-effective modes of delivery and etc. The funding structure in the Ethiopian TVET system mirrors the diversified delivery structures, with separate funding systems and principles in the public and not-public sub occupations of TVET. 15
  • 17. 2.5International Experiences of Income Generating Activates. Income generating activities will be regarded as a source of income, which will reduce government fund allocations to the VTET institutions (PNA, 1999). As public and NGO resources for vocational training becomes scarcer, systematic strategies to increase income generating activities of training institutions are gaining popularities worldwide. Increasingly, public TVET schools in African countries are encouraged and incentivized to earn their own income, through sale of non-formal training programmers, sale of items produced during the training and other commercial activities (MOE,2003) As a result of the implementation, World Bank Structural Adjustment Policies, a number of institutions have opted for cost effective approaches in training. One of such approaches is integrating training with production where the institution is able to recover some of the training costs through sales of students‟ projects or contracts. In addition to the financial returns, student will also be able to acquire skills (Ngerechi, 2003). According to Kawachi (2009), in recent years, policymakers in many African countries as well as the international donor community have renewed their perspective of the role of TVET as a key to create wealth and emerge out of poverty by producing skilled and entrepreneurial or employable workforce. 2.6Justification for the Establishment of Production Centers in TVET Institutions The need for the production centers in TVET institutions was based on the fact that the TVET college faces the problems of acquiring adequate materials and supplies especially hardware and raw materials for practice exercises, modern production techniques, and for the development of trainee manipulative skills. These shortages sometimes lead to the theoretical aspects gaining at the expense of the acquisition of vital practical skills (GTZ, 2006) TVET institution, having accumulated technology capabilities and using this potential to promote technology transfer contribute to the enhancement of productivity and the competitiveness of 16
  • 18. industries. TVET institutions are expected to restore and supply services to the market to transfer the newly selected technologies. Another task of the institutions is to properly utilize their respective resources and to deliver services against fees. The income generated from such activities enables to create further potential to increase the capability of the institutions (MoE, 2008). Chapter three 3. Research Design and Methodology 3.1 Source of Data The researcher will collect the data for this study from primary and secondary sources. Primary data sources will be the respondents such as trainees (both sexes) in industrial technology field the respondents also trainees, trainers, department heads and deans. Secondary data collecting sources will be books, journals, and information from websites, statistical evidences, reports on different seminaries and conferences, comparative study of other country, documents in TVET colleges/ MOE, ILO, World bank, NGO‟s like USAID, GTZ, UNESCO &UNEVOC, etc. Who support the TVET sector in Ethiopia and TVET Agency; sub city bureau and woreda industrial extension will be reviewed. 3.2Sampling Population and Sampling Technique In Addis Ababa currently there are six governmental TVET colleges from the six TVET colleges five of them will be selected by using stratified sampling. The rationale behind the selection of the five TVET colleges is that currently they are offering the respective industrial technology and construction fields in level 2 and 3, the researcher can check their quality production for sale material and trainers which produce by them, since three years (from 2001). Respondent to be included in the study are trainees and trainers selected by using Simple random Sampling. Deans, and department heads selected by using availability sapling in industrial streams. From six TVET college out of that sample take five TVET college (83.33%). The sample taken of respondent will, 75 Trainees, 36 trainers, randomly selected and, 36 department heads, and 15 deans selected using availability sampling from one third out of the total populations a sample study. 17
  • 19. Departments in the institutions sample taken will distribute and the questioner will feeling by field of study namely Automotive and Auto mechanic. Textile and leather, construction, Electricity and Electronics, and,. Metal fabrication technology for trainees and trainer. Table I. Sampling Population Deans & College Trainees Trainers Industrial Department heads Extension vice Deans Pop Sample Pop Sample Pop Sample Pop Sample 197 15 39 6 3 3 6 6 101 15 36 6 3 3 6 6 90 15 35 6 3 3 6 6 Nefassilk 115 15 34 6 3 3 6 6 General 84 15 31 6 3 3 6 6 587 75 175 36 15 15 36 36 Entoto TVET Tegbare-ed TVET Misrak TVET Wingate Total 3.3 Data Collecting Instruments and Procedure 3.4 The method employed The research method to be conducted is the descriptive survey method because of its appropriateness to acquire enormous quantitative information and to identify practice and major challenges of income generating activities in selected TVET in industrial technology trainees 3.5Data Collecting Instrument 18
  • 20. Two types of questionnaire dominantly will contain closed ended questions and a few openedended questions which help respondents to the study. The validity of instruments can be checked by pilot test to make free from bias. Questionnaires are prepared for trainees in Amharic and for instructors, deans and Department head in English. For basic types of data collection instrument will be employed in this study. These are questioner, interviews, document analysis and observation. Questionnaires are prepared in order to assess the practice and major challenge of income generating activity in industrial technology target group are trainees, trainers, deans, and department heads the adequacy of training materials and facilities and about IGAs.Questionnaire are structured in the form of licker scale type and the level of agreement will be on a five point scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree and others consist of multiple choice items and some with open-ended questionnaires. Structured interview will be employed for Deans and Department heads in English but for clarity the interview will be conducted in Amharic language. 3.6 Procedure of Data Collection Pilot study will be conducted before the actual administration of the questionnaires to check for some modifications. Subjects for the pilot study will be selected by random sampling: 10 trainees and 5 instructors in the industrial streams will be included and based on the results obtained from the study questionnaires will be prepared both in Amharic and English language. The administration of questionnaires, explanation of purpose are to be occurred by the researcher but distribution and collection of questionnaire will be done by the assigned persons. 3.7 Methods of Data Analysis For the data analysis, both qualitative and quantitative approaches will be employed to examine the phenomena into their constituent parts with a view to obtain greater insights into specific aspects. With regard to this, mixed methods are useful to capture the best of both qualitative and quantitative method approaches. Hence, data obtained through closed ended questionnaires were quantified using percentage, frequency, rank 19
  • 21. and mean value. In addition the data obtained fromclosed ended, open ended questions and interviews were narrated along with the description of quantitative data to substantiate the quantitative analysis.Hence, raw data from respondents will be tallied, organized, systematically tabulated and analyzed using appropriate statistical tools for each part of the data. Accordingly, the results of the study will be adequately interpreted. 20
  • 22. Table 2 3.8 Work plan Stage Research activates Stage I preliminary work I II III IV Months and weeks Remark August Septmber October Novembr December January February March 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1.1. Draft proposal preparation and submission 1.2. Modifying proposal based on comment from the advisor 1.3. Final submission of proposal 1.4. Gathering, organizing and submission review of related literature 1.5. Preparation of data collecting instrument and translation to local language and submission 1.6. Conducting pilot study /pretest of data collection instrument 1.7. Modifying and preparing final data collection instrument Stage II. Data collection 2.1. Recruiting and training of data collector 2.2. Actual data collection Stage III data processing 3.1. Data editing and sorting 3.2. Data analysis and interpretation 3.3. Submission of data analysis 3.4. Submission of summary, conclusion and recommendation 3.5. Incorporating all feedback and preparing final draft Stage IV- finishing 4.1.Review of results 4.2.Submission of the final draft 4.3.Binding and submission of the completed thesis 21
  • 23. Table 3 3.8 Budget Breakdown of the Study Ser. No I II Items/Description Stationary materials Computer paper Lined paper Square paper Flash disk (8 GB) Re writable CD CD-R Pen Marker Fixer Lead for fixer Highlighter Correction fluid Erasers Stapler Stapler pins Writing pad (not book) Bag (document holder) Sub total Payment for secretarial services -Printing cost per internet page -Photocopies of reference Material (sources) -Writing and printing cost of draft proposal -Writing and printing draft questionnaire in both English Amharic -Photocopy of the final questionnaire -Writing the first draft of the thesis Unit Quantity Unit price Birr Cent Total price Birr Cent Reams “ “ Piece “ “ “ Packet Piece Piece Piece Piece Piece Piece Piece Piece 8 2 1 1 5 50 25 1 1 2 3 1 3 1 5 5 75 40 40 450 125 4 1 90 25 10 10 8 1 40 2 40 00 00 00 00 00 00 75 00 00 00 00 00 50 00 50 00 600 80 40 450 125 200 43 90 25 20 30 8 4 40 12.50 200 00 00 00 00 00 75 00 00 00 00 00 50 00 50 00 Piece 1 200 00 200 Sub total Birr Cent 00 2168 Pages 1800 0 75 1350 00 Pages 1500 0 30 450 00 Pages 20 3 00 60 00 Pages 30 3 50 105 00 Pages 800 0 30 240 00 Pages 130 3 00 390 75 00 22
  • 24. Ser. Items/Description No II -Printing the final thesis -Binding Sub total III Payment for research assistance -Per diem payment for data collection for one day training in each size (3) (2×3×70) -Per diem payment for data collectors 2×6×70 Sub total IV Payment for the main researcher -per diem during the polite study -per diem during actual data collection time for researcher (field work) -For communication (Telephone expense) -Taxi transport Sub total Grand total Contingency Grand total Unit Quantity Pages 650 Unit price Birr Cent 0 75 No 5 100 00 Total price Birr Cent 487 50 500 Sub total Birr Cent 00 3582 Days 4×2 50 5 00 50 50 400 250 650 Days 4 50 00 200 00 Days 30 50 00 1500 00 Mobil card 2 100 00 200 00 30 30 00 900 00 2800 9201 920 10121 25 13 38 23
  • 25. References GebruZemenay (2008).Financing public TVET Colleges in Addis Ababa.Unpublished). FNG (2004) Federal NegaritGazeta, BerhanenaSelam Printing Federal „NegaritGazeta‟ (2004). Technical and Vocatonal Education and Training proclamation No. 391/2004. Addis Ababa: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Franz Jutta (2006) Financing Framework for TVET in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: Engineering Capacity Building Program .ILO (1996) Diversifying sources of financing vocational training a set of training ---------------- (2002) Learning and training for work in the knowledge society, ILO Generva. Modules (unpublished report of the ILO) MoE (2006) TVET Financing frame work, MoE,2006. Dire DawaEthiopia.ILO.(2001) Modernization in Vocational Education and Training in Latin and the Caribbean Region.Montevideo. MoE. (1999). Education Sector Development Program: Acton Plan, June,1999; Addis Ababa, Central Printings Press. ------------(2003). Financing TVET in Ethiopia: Addis Ababa, MoE. ------------(2006). The Ethiopian TVET System: ECBP/TVET System Reform Component.AddisAbaba. -----------(1994). Education and Training Policy. Addis Ababa: BerhanenaSelam Printing Enterprises. Neway (2008) Assessing the current status of IGAs of selected public TVET colleges UNESCO (1998).The Development of Technical and Vocational Education in Africa, Dakar, Senegal. --------------(2011) Promoting Skill Development Report of international seminar, Ziderman 4(2003) Financing vocational training in Sub-Saharan African, WashingtonD.C the world bank. -----------Paris. ILO.(2001) Modernization in Vocational Education and Training in Latin andthe Caribbean Region. Montevideo. 24