Fundamentals of programming angeli


Published on

Final Requirement in Fundamentals of Programming

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Fundamentals of programming angeli

  1. 1. •SwitchCase and•Looping Statement
  2. 2. ProgrammingWe first define the word “programming”, it is a computerlanguage programmers use to develop applications, scripts,or other set of instructions for a computer to execute.Programming is instructing a computer to do something foryou with the help of a programming language. The role ofa programming language can be described in two ways:Technical: It is a means for instructing a Computer toperform TasksConceptual: It is a framework within which we organizeour ideas about things and processes.
  3. 3. A programming language shouldboth provide means to describeprimitive data and procedures andmeans to combine and abstract thoseinto more complex ones.
  4. 4. The distinction between data and procedures isnot that clear cut. In many programming languages,procedures can be passed as data (to be applied to ``realdata) and sometimes processed like ``ordinary data.Conversely ``ordinary data can be turned intoprocedures by an evaluation mechanism.
  5. 5. If we know how to write a C expression that isequivalent of a question such as “Is resting the valueof expression to select a course of action. In C, thestatement is the primary selection control structureA programming language is an artificial languagedesigned to communicate instructions to a machine,particularly a computer. Programming languages canbe used to create programs that control the behaviorof a machine and/or to express algorithms precisely.
  6. 6. At first, programming is confusing because you have somuch to understand about codes that will enable to run aprogram. Programming has applications and programdevelopment, the best example for this is the Internetbrowser… Programming is a creative process done byprogrammers to instruct a computer on how to do a task.Programming languages let you use them in differentways, e.g adding numbers, etc… or storing data on diskfor later retrieval.
  7. 7. You have to consider languages to run or write yourown program, most demanded language in programming isthe DEV C++ (a full-featured Integrated DevelopmentEnvironment (IDE)). C++ is one of the most used programming languagesin the world. Also known as "C with Classes".New to programming or thinking about it? It might surpriseyou to know that there are many programmers who programjust for fun and it can lead to a job.
  8. 8.
  9. 9. - A switch, case, select or inspect statement is a type of selectioncontrol mechanism that exists in most imperative programminglanguages such as Pascal, Ada, C/C++, C#, Java, and so on. It isalso included in several other types of languages. Its purpose is toallow the value of a variable or expression to control the flow ofprogram execution via a multiway branch (or "goto", one ofseveral labels). The Main Reason using switch case : - To improve clarity, by reducing otherwise repetitive coding, and (if the heuristics permit) also offering the potential for faster execution through easier compiler optimization in many cases.
  10. 10. PROGRAMS THAT IS RELATED TO SWITCH CASE1. The If – else Statement -The if statement allows the programmer to make decisions within a program. - The general format of an if statement is: If (expression) statement -Where expression represents a relational, equality, or logical expression ( conditional expression) .
  11. 11. If statement (two alternatives) Form: If (condition) Note: if condition evaluates to true, then statement is statement; executed and statement is skipped; otherwise, statement is else skipped and statement is executed statement;If statement (One-Alternatives) Form: If (condition) Note: if condition evaluates to true, then statement is statement; executed and statement is skippedFormat of the if statement- All if statement examples in this text indent statements. The word elseIs typed without indention on a separate line. The format of the if statementmakes its meaning apparent and is used solely to improve program readability;The format makes no difference to the computer
  12. 12.  There may be a situation when you need to execute a block of code several number of times. In general statements are executed sequentially: The first statement in a function is executed first, followed by the second, and so on. Programming languages provide various control structures that allow for more complicated execution paths. A loop statement allows us to execute a statement or group of statements multiple times and following is the general from of a loop statement in most of the programming languages:
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
  15. 15. #include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){int number;cout<< " Choose 1 for Mac, and 2 for Pc";cin >> number;switch (number){case 1:cout << " apple";break;case 2: cout << "microsoft"; break;default:cout<< "you didnt pick one of them, sorry";}return 0;}
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
  19. 19. #include <iostream>#include <string>using namespace std;int main(){ char x; cout <<"Choose a or b : "; cin >> x; switch(x){ case a : cout << "You entered " << x << endl; break; case b: cout <<"You entered" << x << endl; break; default: cout <<"You have entered an incorrect input " << endl; break; } system("pause"); return 0;}
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
  24. 24. #include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){ char age; cout << "Please enter letter associated with your age: n" "(A) 17 years and below n" "(B) 18 years to 64 years n" "(C) 65 years and above n" << endl; cin >> age; cout << "the ticket will cost you: "; switch (age) { case A : cout << "P60"; break; case B : cout << "P80"; break; case C : cout << "P50"; break; default : cout << "Invalid entry"; } cout << endl; system("pause"); return 0;}
  25. 25.
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
  28. 28.
  29. 29. #include <iostream>using namespace std;int main (){ int selector; cout << "Please select one of the folloeing games:n" << "nl. Guildwarsn" << "2. World of the Warcraftn"<< "3. Half Life 2n" << endl; cout << "Please fill in the number of the game: "; cin >> selector; switch(selector) { case 1: system("CLS"); cout << "Name: Guildwarsn" << "Company: ArenaNetn" << endl; break; case 2: system("CLS"); cout << "Name: World of Warcraftn" << "Company: Blizzardsn" << endl; break; case 3: sytem("CLS"); cout << "Name: Half Life 2n" << "Company: Valven" << endl; } break; system("PAUSE");}
  30. 30.
  31. 31.
  32. 32.
  33. 33.
  34. 34. #include <iostream>using namespace std;int main (){ char permit; cout << "Are you sure you want to quit? (y/n) : "; cin >> permit; switch (permit) { case y : cout << "Hope to see you again!n"; break; case n : cout << "Welcome back!n" ; break; default: cout << "What? I dont get it!n"; } return 0;}
  35. 35.
  36. 36.
  37. 37.
  38. 38.
  39. 39.  Looping Statements - Loops execute a block of code a specified number of times, or while a specified condition is true.- in PHP, the following looping statements are used: *The while Loop * The Do… While Loop * The For Loop *The Foreach Loop *Break and continue statement
  40. 40. While structure is another type of loop statements,where the condition is checked at first, the iterationwill not stop even if the value changes while executingstatements. Form: While(condition) { code to be executed; }
  41. 41.  Do while statement is same as the while statement , the only difference is that it evaluates the expression at the end. Form: do { code to be executed; } while (condition):
  42. 42.  The for loop is used when you know in advance how many times the script should run. Be for statement takes three expressions inside its parentheses separated by semi-colons. When the for loop executes, the following occurs: The initializing expression is executed. This expression usually initializes one or more loop counter, but the syntax allow expression any degree of complexity. The condition expression is evaluated. Of the value of condition is true, the loop statements execute. If the value of condition is false, the for loop terminates.
  43. 43. Form: for {initialization; condition:increment ) { code to be executed }
  44. 44.  For Each structure is a loop structure used for arraysForm:foreach(array as value){ code to be executed}Foreach (array as key => value){ code to be executed}
  45. 45.  Break ends the execution of the for, for each, while, do-while or switch statement.Form:* Break ( optional numeric argument)
  46. 46.  “Continue” is used to skip the current loop iteration and continue with the next iteration of the loop. But “Break” is to exit from the whole loop. Form: * Break ( optional numeric argument)
  47. 47.
  48. 48.
  49. 49. #include <stdio.h>main ( ){int x;while(1){ printf( "nGuess the secret number>"); scanf("%d", &x); if(x == 7) break; else printf("nSorry! Try again!!!!"); } printf("nnCongratulations!!!");}
  50. 50.
  51. 51.
  52. 52.
  53. 53. #include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){ float yard, feet; cout << "Please input number of yards: "; cin >> yard; feet = yard * 3; cout << yard << " yards equal to " << feet << " feet." << endl; system("pause");}
  54. 54.
  55. 55.
  56. 56.
  57. 57. #include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){ int x; x = 1; cout<<"THIS IS 5x Printed the Hello, world!n"; do { cout<<"Hello, world!n"; x++; } while ( x <= 5 ); cin.get();}
  58. 58.
  59. 59.
  60. 60.
  61. 61. #include<iostream.h>#define c coutmain(){ c<<"THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF INCREMENT LOOPINGn"; for(int z=1;z<=5;z++){ c<<z; c<<"n"; } system("pause"); return 0;}
  62. 62.
  63. 63.
  64. 64.
  65. 65. #include <iostream>#include <windows.h>using namespace std;main(){ for(int z=1;z<=5;z++) { cout <<z<< " Message..."<<endl; Sleep(1000); } //getchar(); return 0;}
  66. 66.
  67. 67.
  68. 68.  Slideshare account : bergonio11339481
  69. 69. Switch Case andLooping Statement A Final Requirement In the course of Fundamentals of Programming To be Submitted to: Professor Erwin M. Globio  Submitted by: Ernestine Angeli A. Bergonio BM10203 October 12, 2012