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Color naming: color scientists do it between  Munsell Sheets of Color
Color naming: color scientists do it between  Munsell Sheets of Color
Color naming: color scientists do it between  Munsell Sheets of Color
Color naming: color scientists do it between  Munsell Sheets of Color
Color naming: color scientists do it between  Munsell Sheets of Color
Color naming: color scientists do it between  Munsell Sheets of Color
Color naming: color scientists do it between  Munsell Sheets of Color
Color naming: color scientists do it between  Munsell Sheets of Color
Color naming: color scientists do it between  Munsell Sheets of Color
Color naming: color scientists do it between  Munsell Sheets of Color
Color naming: color scientists do it between  Munsell Sheets of Color
Color naming: color scientists do it between  Munsell Sheets of Color
Color naming: color scientists do it between  Munsell Sheets of Color
Color naming: color scientists do it between  Munsell Sheets of Color
Color naming: color scientists do it between  Munsell Sheets of Color
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Color naming: color scientists do it between Munsell Sheets of Color

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Presentation at Color Imaging XV: Displaying, Processing, Hardcopy, and Applications. San Jose, 20 January 2010.

Presentation at Color Imaging XV: Displaying, Processing, Hardcopy, and Applications. San Jose, 20 January 2010.

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  • 1. Color naming: color scientists do it between Munsell Sheets of Color Giordano B. Beretta, Nathan M. Moroney Print Production Automation Lab Hewlett-Packard Laboratories Palo Alto, California Color Imaging XV: Displaying, Processing, Hardcopy, and Applications San Jose, 17 – 21 January 2010 Beretta & Moroney (HP Labs) The Dark Side of Color EI 2010 paper 7528-30 1 / 15
  • 2. Local vs. global color differences v’ white yellow 1. 1. 1. y .98 .92 .65 .53 .73 87 orange .55 green1. .99 .98 .97 .88 .62 .91.87 .71 .53 .75.88 520 .59.73 .74 .96.98 .98 .57.33 .45 .96 .93 .97 .91 .94 530 .84 .66 .5 .46 A .51 .58.54 .63 0.8 .71 .71 .68 .7 .44 .47 .44 .31.49 .63.78 .81 .63 .59.52 .5 .47 .33.39.61 red 540 .52.41.35 510 .57.56 .44 .56.61.61 B .33 .45.56 .56 .52 .53.53 Stiles Line Element .43.32.46.56 .47.47 550 aqua .77.63.38.39.56C E .53 D .68 .76 .74 .75.58 peach Ellipses plotted 3 x .45 .82.65.36.45 .64 .35 .53 .7 .8 .85.87.82.74 560 .45.48 .3 .52.74.81 .69.42 .36 .87 .91.89 0.6 .47.48.28 .33.57.69 .83.92.88 .87 .86 570 .53.64 .5 .38.37.48 500 gray .62 .44 .57 .7 .82.86 .88 .75 .53.35 .56.56.47 .56 pink 580 .68 .72.74 .74.82 .53 .54 .67 .77.59 .35 .48.51.63 590 .9 .84 .48 .7 .83 .8 .72.65 .5 0.4 600 .92.89.53 .82.92 .9 .75.69 610 .98 .9 .52 .83.93 .89 620 .81 purple 490 630 blue .98 .9 .53 .83.94.92 700 .97 .9 .52.91 .95 .25 A = CIE Standard Illuminant A .96 .91 .6 .84 0.2 .97.92.63 B = CIE Standard Illuminant B C = CIE Standard Illuminant C 480 .97 .94 D = CIE Standard Illuminant D65 E = equal-energy point .97 470 u’ 0 460 x .15 45 .05 .15 .25 .35 .45 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 David L. Post, 1988 Beretta & Moroney (HP Labs) The Dark Side of Color EI 2010 paper 7528-30 2 / 15
  • 3. Where global differences are used avionics and car navigation readability of colored text on colored background variable data publishing gamut mapping, especially from xvYCC and HDR sources color communication “graphic artist in a box” applications “good enough” color online print quality control ... Beretta & Moroney (HP Labs) The Dark Side of Color EI 2010 paper 7528-30 3 / 15
  • 4. Bumps in color space Definition (Categorical Perception) A categorical perception effect occurs when 1 a set of stimuli ranging along a physical continuum is given one label on one side of a category boundary and another label on the other side and 2 the subject can discriminate smaller physical differences between pairs of stimuli that straddle boundary than between pairs that are entirely within one category or the other v’ v’ 1. 1. 1. white yellow white yellow .98 .92 .65 .53 orange 1. 1. 1. .73 87 .91.87 .55 green1. .99 .98 .71.53 .75.88 orange .97 .88 .62 .96.98 .98.96 .98 .92 .65 .53 .59.73 .74.57 .93 .97 .91 .94 .33 .45 .84 .66 .5 .46.44 A .51 .58.54 .63.59 .73 87 .91 .31.49.63 .52 .5 green 1. .99 .98 .97 .88 .71 .71 .68 .78.81 .63.47 .7 .44 .47.52 .33.39.61 red .55 .87 .71.53 .41.35.56 .57.56 .44 .61.61.52 B .33 .45.56 .56 .53.53 .47.47 .75.88 .96 .43.32.46 aqua .77.63.38.39.56C E D .64.53.35 .56.68 .76 .74.75.58 peach .62 .59.73 .98 .98.96 .45 .53 .7 .8 .82.65.36.45 .85.87.82.74 .45.48 .3 .74.57.33 .52.74.81.87 .93 .69.42 .36 .91.89 .86 .47.48.28 .97 .91 .94 .45.51 .58 .33.57.69.83 A .53.64 .5 .92.88.87 .38.37.48.44 gray .62.75 .84 .66 .5 .46 .54 .63.59.52 .57 .7 .82.86 .53.35.56.56 .47 .56.68 .88 pink .44 .31.49 .72.74 .5 .74.82.53 .54.67 .77.59 .48 .35 .51.63 .63 .78 .81 .63 .9 .84 .48 .71 .71 .68 red .7 .83 .8 .72.65 .5 .92.89.53 .7 .44 .47 .47 .33.39.61 .82.92 .9 .75.69 .52.41.35 .98 .9 .52 .83.93 .89.81 purple blue .98 .9 .53 .83.94.92 .57.56 .44 .56.61.61 B .52 .53.53 .97 .9 .52.91 .95 .25 .33 .45.56 .56 .96.91 .6 .84 A = CIE Standard Illuminant A .97.92.63 .43.32.46 .47.47 B = CIE Standard Illuminant B aqua .77.63.38.39.56C E C = CIE Standard Illuminant C D .56 .68 .76 .97.94 D = CIE Standard Illuminant D65 E = equal-energy point .74.75.58 peach .97 u’ .15 .64.53.35 .53 .7 .8 .15 .35 .45 .45 .05 .25 .82 .65.36.45 .85 .87.82.74 David L. Post, 1988 .45.48 .3 .52.74.81 .69.42 .36 .87 .91.89 Beretta & Moroney (HP Labs) .47.48.28 Side of Color The Dark .86 EI 2010 paper 7528-30 4 / 15
  • 5. Previous attempts: ISCC–NBS Munsell Value black dark gray medium gray light gray white –ish black dark –ish gray –ish gray light –ish gray –ish white pale dark blackish grayish or very pale grayish light grayish very dark dark moderate light very light Munsell Chroma very deep deep strong brilliant vivid Beretta & Moroney (HP Labs) The Dark Side of Color EI 2010 paper 7528-30 5 / 15
  • 6. Previous attempts: Coloroid by Nemcsics broken warm white A = 20 cement grey Roman ochre Pompeian yellow 100 90 80 70 60 50 Indian orange V 40 orange ochre 30 Arsigont 20 brown beige 10 Anatolian brown 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 T Beretta & Moroney (HP Labs) The Dark Side of Color EI 2010 paper 7528-30 6 / 15
  • 7. Previous attempts: World Color Survey orange and/or green yellow white pink and red blue brown and/or black purple and/or yellow green gray I II III IV V VI VII Beretta & Moroney (HP Labs) The Dark Side of Color EI 2010 paper 7528-30 7 / 15
  • 8. Previous attempts: Zollinger Häufigkeit ETH-Zürich grün 60% blau violett gelb 40% rotorange rot 20% rosa braun purpur 5R 5YR 5Y 5GY 5G 5BG 5B 5PB 5P 5RP Beretta & Moroney (HP Labs) The Dark Side of Color EI 2010 paper 7528-30 8 / 15
  • 9. Previous attempts: Boynton & Olson g blue green grey white yellow purple brown pink red orange j Beretta & Moroney (HP Labs) The Dark Side of Color EI 2010 paper 7528-30 9 / 15
  • 10. New attempt: crowd-sourcing good news: viewing conditions are not critical Boynton, “Insights gained from naming the OSA colors,” 1997 Olkkonen, Hansen, Gegenfurtner, “Categorical color constancy for simulated surfaces,” Journal of Vision, 9(12):6, 1-18, 2009 bad news: the categories that arise in the left hemisphere are not constrained by the pre-linguistic categories that are in the right hemisphere (Franklin et al., 2008) 900 550 infants within-category adults initiation time [ms] initiation time [ms] between-category 800 within-category 450 between-category 700 350 600 500 250 left right left right visual field visual field Beretta & Moroney (HP Labs) The Dark Side of Color EI 2010 paper 7528-30 10 / 15
  • 11. ¯ ¯ Zollinger in Tokyo Häufigkeit ETH-Zürich grün 60% blau violett gelb 40% rotorange rot 20% rosa braun purpur 5R 5YR 5Y 5GY 5G 5BG 5B 5PB 5P 5RP 80% TKD- 60% 40% 20% 5R 5YR 5Y 5GY 5G 5BG 5B 5PB 5P 5RP Beretta & Moroney (HP Labs) The Dark Side of Color EI 2010 paper 7528-30 11 / 15
  • 12. Multilingual color naming Beretta & Moroney (HP Labs) The Dark Side of Color EI 2010 paper 7528-30 12 / 15
  • 13. Use a common standard #EF4123 #007CB0 #848688 #BF1E74 #007CB0 #008F4C #F89F6D #F499B8 Beretta & Moroney (HP Labs) The Dark Side of Color EI 2010 paper 7528-30 13 / 15
  • 14. Munsell Sheets of Color are a better standard eliciting color names from actual samples provides a common standard, which is not available when compiling abstract lists color names must be anchored everybody should use the same atlas . . . but the complete gamut should be used, not just the surface! Beretta & Moroney (HP Labs) The Dark Side of Color EI 2010 paper 7528-30 14 / 15
  • 15. Questions and Discussion http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Giordano_Beretta/ http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Nathan_Moroney/ blog: http://mostlycolor.ch Beretta & Moroney (HP Labs) The Dark Side of Color EI 2010 paper 7528-30 15 / 15

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