Cognitive Aspects of Color
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Cognitive Aspects of Color

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Color is a perceptual phenomenon that can be explored through psychometrics and modeling of attribute correlates. Color is also a cognitive phenomenon that can be researched through color naming and ...

Color is a perceptual phenomenon that can be explored through psychometrics and modeling of attribute correlates. Color is also a cognitive phenomenon that can be researched through color naming and categorization. We begin with a review of previous research, with an emphasis on the challenges and applications of this work. Building on a large unconstrained color naming corpus collected online from over 4,000 volunteers we demonstrate the long-tail of color naming and derive an online color tool based on the thesaurus model of synonyms and antonyms.
To further improve the quality and quantity of the underlying naming corpus, we introduce two novel feedback mechanisms to the Italian version of the online color thesaurus: instance based harvesting of missing names and optional user ranking of included names. This allows a more efficient creation of a higher quality color naming corpus.

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Cognitive Aspects of Color Cognitive Aspects of Color Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction Previous Work Our Results & Contribution Summary Cognitive Aspects of Color Aspetti cognitivi del colore G. Beretta N. Moroney Print Production Automation Lab Hewlett-Packard Laboratories Palo Alto, California IVa Conferenza Nazionale del Gruppo del Colore ¯ Como, 18 settembre 2008 Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Previous Work Our Results & Contribution Summary Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color View slide
  • Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Emerging Display Technologies Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color View slide
  • Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Today’s Nomadic Road Warrior Works Wherever Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Color Management Is Just Expected to Work Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Color Integrity At the 1997 panel discussion on color fidelity vs. color integrity at the Color Imaging Conference in Scottsdale we had argued: Color fidelity cannot be achieved in consumer applications like Internet shopping A color never comes alone: it is part of a palette Color fidelity is not necessary if color integrity is maintained 1 Foveal colors should not cross name boundaries 2 The error vectors should have a uniform flux Distortions are unavoidable, we need to control them Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Naming of Colors In real life, the names of colors are often less important than the names of colors of objects Example Delk & Fillenbaum experiment (1965) Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary More Applications of Color Naming Once we have facilities for processing color by name, we can find more applications: Better user experience in GUIs Automatic nudging of text and logo colors for readibility in variable data printing Gamut mapping for HDR and wide gamut displays Culture-independent preferred color rendering Thematic rendering Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Metric Color Discrimination Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Color Communication stimulus detectors early mechanisms pictorial register color edges contour motion depth … context parameters chroma etc. hue Color lexicon lightness chroma internal etc. color space amber hue lightness action color name apparent color representation Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Color Naming Constraints 1 Physiological basis of color perception 2 General color cognition basic vs. derived color categories role of prototypes formatting of internal representation 3 Color communication sharable knowledge about the world metaphorical names semantic and syntactic constraints Result: an observer can discriminate more efficiently between a pair of colors straddling a category boundary than between a pair in the same category Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Categorical Color Discrimination Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Development of Color Naming Color naming is acquired, not genetic socio-economic status (SES) Occurs late in child’s development, but age is decreasing with increase of technology 1900: basic four colors @ 8 years 1950: @ 5 years of age Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary Color Ontogeny of Languages Brent Berlin and Paul Kay, University of Berkeley, 1969 The physiology underlying even the unique hues is unknown There is no natural categorization orange and/or green yellow white pink and red blue brown and/or black purple and/or yellow green gray I II III IV V VI VII Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary The Structure of Color Naming Spaces 1 What is the set of color names? 2 Where are the boundaries for synonyms? Without a natural categorization, it is not clear where the boundary for synonyms are An important problem in avionics 3 How are the color names categorized algorithmically? v’ white yellow 1. 1. 1. .98 .92 .65 .53 .73 87 .91 orange .55 green 1. .99 .98 .97 .88 .62 .87 .71.53 .75.88.96 .59.73 .74.57 .98 .98.96 .97 .91 .94 .33 .45 .93 .84 .66 .5 .46 A .51 .58.54 .63 .59.52 .5 .44 .31.49.63 .71 .71 .68 .78.81 .63 .7 .44 .47.52 .41.35.56 .47 .33.39.61 red .57.56 .44 .61.61.52 B .33 .45.56 .56 .53.53 .47.47 .43.32.46.56 aqua .77.63.38.39.56C E D .64.53.35 .68 .76 .74.75 .58 peach .45 .53 .7 .8 .82.65.36.45 .85.87.82.74 .45.48 .3 .52.74.81 .69.42 .36 .87 .91.89.86 .47.48.28 .33.57.69 .53.64 .5 .83.92.88 .87 .38.37.48.44 gray .62.75 .57 .7 .82.86 .53.35.56.56 .47 .56.68 .88 pink .74.82 .53 .54 .72.74 .67 .77.59 .35 .48.51.63 .9 .84 .48 .7 .83 .8 .72.65 .5 .92.89.53 .82.92 .9 .75.69 .98 .9 .52 .83.93 .89.81 purple blue .98 .9 .53 .83.94.92 .97 .9 .52.91 .95 .25 A = CIE Standard Illuminant A .96.91 .6 .84 B = CIE Standard Illuminant B .97.92.63 C = CIE Standard Illuminant C .97.94 D = CIE Standard Illuminant D65 E = equal-energy point .97 u’ .15 .05 .15 .25 .35 .45 David L. Post, 1988 Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Broad Problem Description Previous Work Specific Problem Description Our Results & Contribution Categorical Perception Summary What is A Color Thesaurus? Definition A thesaurus is a compilation of synonyms (and antonyms) with etymological and semantical information as well as examples to disambiguate the synonyms There is a number of dictionaries of color names In 1955 Kelly and Judd produced an early color thesaurus In 2007 Nathan Moroney created an online thesaurus of color names based on an earlier online color naming experiment Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary The ISCC–NBS Method of Designating Colors and A Dictionary of Color Names Kenneth L. Kelly & Deane B. Judd, 1955 Names from over a dozen compilations in use in the USA; uniformity in Munsell space 1933 recommendations by I.H. Godlove + scheme of hue modifiers + heuristics Munsell Value black dark gray medium gray light gray white –ish black dark –ish gray –ish gray light –ish gray –ish white pale dark blackish grayish or very pale grayish light grayish very dark dark moderate light very light Munsell Chroma very deep deep strong brilliant vivid Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary Coloroid Color Names Antal Nemcsics, 1993 Historical pigment names; process and structure not documented; 70’000 observers Structure hierarchy: 7 domains, 76 primary colors Several errors and inconsistencies broken warm white A = 20 cement grey Roman ochre Pompeian yellow 100 90 80 70 60 50 Indian orange V 40 orange ochre 30 Arsigont 20 brown beige 10 Anatolian brown 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 T Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary Color Names for Avionics David L. Post and collaborators, 1985–1989 Start with 12-name vocabulary (basic terms + peach) Psychophysics; present 210 stimuli (uniform in UCS) on various backgrounds under various illuminants Boundaries enclose areas within which the modal color-name response corresponds with the color name Probability of obtaining the modal color-name response v’ white yellow 1. 1. 1. .98 .92 .65 .53 .73 87 .91.87 orange .55 green1. .99 .98 .97 .88 .62 .71.53 .75.88 .59.73 .74.57 .96.98 .98.96 .97 .91 .94 .33 .45.51 .93 .84 .66 .5 .46.44 A .58.54 .63.59 .52 .5 .31.49.63 .71 .71 .68 .78.81 .63 .7 .44 .47.52 .41.35.56 .47.33.39.61 red .57.56 .44 .61.61.52 B .33 .45.56 .56 .53.53 .47.47 .43.32.46.56 aqua .77.63.38.39.56C E D .64.53.35 .68 .76 .74.75 .58 peach .45 .53 .7 .8 .82.65.36.45 .85.87.82.74 .45.48 .3 .52.74.81.87 .69.42 .36 .91.89.86 .47.48.28 .33.57.69.83 .53.64 .5 .92.88 .87 .38.37.48.44 gray .62.75 .57 .7 .82.86 .53.35.56.56 .47 .56.68 .88 pink .74.82 .53 .54.67 .72.74 .77.59 .48 .35 .9 .84 .48 .51.63 .7 .83 .8 .72.65 .5 .92.89.53 .82.92 .9 .75.69 .98 .9 .52 .83.93 .89.81 purple blue .98 .9 .53 .83.94.92 .97 .9 .52.91 .95 .25 A = CIE Standard Illuminant A .96.91 .6 .84 B = CIE Standard Illuminant B .97.92.63 C = CIE Standard Illuminant C .97.94 D = CIE Standard Illuminant D65 E = equal-energy point .97 u’ .15 .05 .15 .25 .35 .45 David L. Post, 1988 Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary Influence of Culture on Color Naming Heinrich Zollinger, ca. 1975 What is the link between the neurobiology of color vision and color naming (embodyment)? Subjects native speakers in: chemistry students in German, French, English, Hebrew, Japanese art students in German, Hebrew Japanese children analphabets in Kekchi, Misquito Tasks: 1 list minimally necessary color names 2 list supplementary color names 3 total must be 12 4 name 117 Munsell chips Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary Frequency of Occurrence Chemistry students Häufigkeit ETH-Zürich grün 60% blau violett gelb 40% rotorange rot 20% rosa braun purpur 5R 5YR 5Y 5GY 5G 5BG 5B 5PB 5P 5RP 80% TKD- 60% 40% 20% 5R 5YR 5Y 5GY 5G 5BG 5B 5PB 5P 5RP Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary Robotic Agent Naming Colors Johan Lammens, 1994 Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary Number of Color Categories Berlin & Kay: 11 basic terms white, black, red green yellow, blue, brown, orange, pink, purple, grey ISCC–NBS: 267 categories Nemcsics: 76 primary colors Boynton & Olson: 15 nonbasic terms are frequently used tan, peach, olive, lavender, violet, lime, salmon, indigo, cyan, cream, magenta, turquoise, chartreuse, rust, maroon 11 + 15 = 26 2 uninformed subjects were presented twice the 424 OSA patches and asked how many colors they saw one subject estimated 30, the other 80 11 is too low a number to categorize colors Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Attempts to Compile Thesauri Previous Work Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary Limitations of These Solutions Only ISCC–NBS has a bona fide thesaurus 266 color categories with annotated synonyms Even with 7,500 color names, the dictionary is very limited a snapshot in time (1955) mostly government and industry related only in English It is not clear how many categories there are These limitations make it less useful Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Research Constraints We are interested in the names of color patches Not in free lists of color names Not in color object names Not in the evolution of color names carta zucchero 102, 140, 204; #668ccc; very rare. azzurro, indaco azzurro scuro, ciano. ant. maroone chiaro, ocra. celeste orange and/or 54, 176, 239; #36b0ef; rare. green yellow white pink and red blue brown and/or ciano, azzurro black purple and/or yellow green cyan, carta zucchero. gray ant. arancio, arancione. I II III IV V VI VII Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Goal 1 Large dictionary extensive, through crowd-sourcing evolves through time not limited to one language 2 Number of synonym categories 12 decided though crowd-sourcing not 266 like in ISCC–NBS thesaurus . . . or 26, or 30, or 80. . . 3 Algorithm for determining categories explicitly ask user for a specific and a general name construct separate categorizations for each explore boundary-finding algorithms Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Color Naming Experiment Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far The Color Thesaurus in English The ephemerality is built in! http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Nathan_Moroney/ color-thesaurus.html Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Color Zeitgeist Can easily derive secondary tools Tag cloud visualization of the color name queries Example Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Italian Color Thesaurus Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Qualifying the Corpus Problems: we observed about 5% disruptive participants in the experiment variability of rarely used names Solution is to collect explicit feedback on the global statistics from each participant More efficient than recruiting domain specialists Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Expanding the Corpus Problem: Insufficient data in non-English corpora Solutions: 1 brute force: adding a hundred names require tens of thousands of participants because of redundancy (long tail distribution) this is very inefficient when a name is missing, the cost for completing the corpus is high 2 targeted harvesting: get participants to find sparse regions. . . 3 . . . and submit relevant data Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Contributed Name Distribution 2000 green blue light blue lavender grass green tan khaki dark brown cornflower cream purple gray yellow green dark purple red orange pink navy blue navy moss green dark red red maroon peach burnt orange chocolate 1600 black lime green lime dark blue burgundy salmon spring green pea green crimson coral brown dark green light purple baby blue apple green magenta lilac rose kelly green eggplant violet olive gold dark pink goldenrod sky blue olive green plum rust medium blue 1200 orange yellow cyan periwinkle brick red beige blue green fluorescent green ocean blue leaf green teal mint green mustard sage bright purple light green bright green white hunter green grape fuchsia mauve indigo pale green light yellow 800 turquoise aqua sea green hot pink bright blue chartreuse blue gray cobalt emerald jade royal blue neon green light brown midnight blue ochre forest seafoam aquamarine light pink army green brick 400 0 gre r m y t l m l p s g p r b b k b k fl b c c e l e b en ed agen ellow urquo ight b aroo ilac eriwi ea gr rass g each ose eige right haki urnt elly g uores lue g ornflo hocol ggpla eaf gr mera rick ta ise lue n nkl een re blu ora ree ce ray we ate nt ee ld e en e nge n nt g r n ree n Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Expanding the Corpus Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Limitations of the First Experiments We have solved: how can we screen out bogus data? how do we get scalability? how can we make the experiments more collaborative? Remaining problem: the categorization lacks fixed boundaries synonyms are formed ad hoc by searching for the color names with the smallest CIECAM02 color difference ∗ greater than 5∆E02,C Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Planned Extensions Algorithm for determining categories explicitly ask user for a specific and a general name construct separate categorizations for each explore boundary-finding algorithms Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far The Density of Color Names g blue green grey white yellow purple brown pink red orange j Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Outline 1 Introduction New Challenges in Color Management Lexical Color Color Naming 2 Previous Work Attempts to Compile Thesauri Extensions of the Basic Color Terms Summary 3 Our Results & Contribution Color Naming on the Web Tools Leveraging the Corpus Work in Progress Results So Far Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Color Naming on the Web Previous Work Tools Leveraging the Corpus Our Results & Contribution Work in Progress Summary Results So Far Statistics 120’760 synonyms served from September 2007 through August 2008 Syndicated by Core Design 77 http://www.core77.com/blog/object_culture/online_color_thesaurus_7966.asp Aubrey Jaffer http://people.csail.mit.edu/jaffer/Color/Dictionaries MagCloud reference magazine, available from http://magcloud.com/browse/Issue/2344 Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Previous Work Our Results & Contribution Summary Summary There are applications requiring a color thesaurus Current solutions are not adequate We have a promising early solution that scales well Outlook Research is required to tile the color space and build a true thesaurus Eventually, the tool should be so robust we can run it for a language none of us speaks Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Previous Work Our Results & Contribution Summary Acknowledgments We are indebted to Prof. Lucia R. Ronchi of the Fondazione Giorgio Ronchi in Florence for many fruitful discussions and for compiling the book on Color and Language Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color
  • Introduction Previous Work Our Results & Contribution Summary Questions and Discussion mailto:giordano.beretta@hp.com http://www.hp.com/blogs/mostly_color http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/Giordano_Beretta/ Beretta, Moroney Cognitive Aspects of Color