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  • 1. PowerPoint Presentation to Accompany Chapter 8 of Management, 8/e John R. Schermerhorn, Jr . Prepared by: Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University Published by: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  • 2. Planning Ahead — Chapter 8 Study Questions
    • How do managers plan?
    • What types of plans do managers use?
    • What are the useful planning tools and techniques?
    • What is the control process?
    • What are the common organizational controls?
  • 3. Study Question 1: How do managers plan?
    • Planning
      • The process of setting objectives and determining how to best accomplish them.
    • Objectives
      • Identify the specific results or desired outcomes that one intends to achieve.
    • Plan
      • A statement of action steps to be taken in order to accomplish the objectives.
  • 4. Study Question 1: How do managers plan?
    • Steps in the planning process:
      • Define your objectives.
      • Determine where you stand vis- à-vis objectives.
      • Develop premises regarding future conditions.
      • Analyze and choose among action alternatives.
      • Implement the plan and evaluate results.
  • 5. Figure 8.1 The roles of planning and controlling in the management process.
  • 6. Study Question 1: How do managers plan?
    • Benefits of planning:
      • Improves focus and flexibility.
      • Improves action orientation.
      • Improves coordination.
      • Improves time management.
      • Improves control.
  • 7. Figure 8.2 A sample means-ends chain for total quality management.
  • 8. Study Question 2: What types of plans do managers use?
    • Short-range and long-range plans
      • Short-range plans = 1 year or less
      • Intermediate-range plans = 1 to 2 years
      • Long-range plans = 3 or more years
    • People vary in their capability to deal effectively with different time horizons.
    • Higher management levels focus on longer time horizons.
  • 9. Study Question 2: What types of plans do managers use?
    • Strategic and operational plans
      • Strategic plans — set broad, comprehensive, and longer-term action directions for the entire organization.
      • Operational plans — define what needs to be done in specific areas to implement strategic plans.
        • Production plans
        • Financial plans
        • Facilities plans
        • Marketing plans
        • Human resource plans
  • 10. Study Question 2: What types of plans do managers use?
    • Policies and procedures
      • Standing plans
        • Policies and procedures that are designed for repeated use.
      • Policy
        • Broad guidelines for making decisions and taking action in specific circumstances.
      • Rules or procedures
        • Plans that describe exactly what actions are to be taken in specific situations.
  • 11. Study Question 2: What types of plans do managers use?
    • Budgets and project schedules
      • Single-use plans
        • Only used once to meet the needs and objectives of a well-defined situation in a timely manner.
      • Budgets
        • Single-use plans that commit resources to activities, projects, or programs.
        • Fixed, flexible, and zero-based budgets.
      • Projects
        • One-time activities that have clear beginning and end points.
        • Project management and project schedules.
  • 12. Study Question 3: What are the useful planning tools and techniques?
    • Forecasting
      • Making assumptions about what will happen in the future.
      • Qualitative forecasting uses expert opinions.
      • Quantitative forecasting uses mathematical and statistical analysis.
      • All forecasts rely on human judgment.
      • Planning involves deciding on how to deal with the implications of a forecast.
  • 13. Study Question 3: What are the useful planning tools and techniques?
    • Contingency planning
      • Identifying alternative courses of action that can be implemented to meet the needs of changing circumstances.
      • Contingency plans anticipate changing conditions.
      • Contingency plans contain trigger points.
  • 14. Study Question 3: What are the useful planning tools and techniques?
    • Scenario planning
      • A long-term version of contingency planning.
      • Identifying alternative future scenarios.
      • Plans made for each future scenario.
      • Increases organization’s flexibility and preparation for future shocks.
  • 15. Study Question 3: What are the useful planning tools and techniques?
    • Benchmarking
      • Use of external comparisons to better evaluate current performance and identify possible actions for the future.
      • Adopting best practices of other organizations that achieve superior performance.
  • 16. Study Question 3: What are the useful planning tools and techniques?
    • Use of staff planners
      • Coordinating the planning function for the total organization or one of its major components.
      • Possible communication gaps between staff planners and line management.
  • 17. Study Question 3: What are the useful planning tools and techniques?
    • Participation and involvement
      • Participatory planning requires that the planning process include people who will be affected by the plans and/or will help implement them.
      • Benefits of participation and involvement:
        • Promotes creativity in planning.
        • Increases available information.
        • Fosters understanding, acceptance, and commitment to the final plan.
  • 18. Figure 8.3 How participation and involvement help build commitments to plans.
  • 19. Study Question 4: What is the control process?
    • Controlling
      • The process of measuring performance and taking action to ensure desired results.
      • Has a positive and necessary role in the management process.
      • Ensures that the right things happen, in the right way, at the right time.
      • Organizational learning and after-action review.
  • 20. Study Question 4: What is the control process?
    • Steps in the control process:
      • Step 1 — e stablish objectives and standards.
      • Step 2 — m easure actual performance.
      • Step 3 — c ompare results with objectives and standards.
      • Step 4 — t ake corrective action as needed.
  • 21. Figure 8.4 Four steps in the control process.
  • 22. Study Question 4: What is the control process?
    • Step 1 — e stablishing objectives and standards
      • Output standards
        • Measure performance results in terms of quantity, quality, cost, or time.
      • Input standards
        • Measure effort in terms of amount of work expended in task performance.
  • 23. Study Question 4: What is the control process?
    • Step 2 — m easuring actual performance
      • Goal is accurate measurement of actual performance results and/or performance efforts.
      • Must identify significant differences between actual results and original plan.
      • Effective control requires measurement.
  • 24. Study Question 4: What is the control process?
    • Step 3 — c omparing results with objectives and standards
      • Need for action reflects the difference between desired performance and actual performance
      • Comparison methods:
        • Historical comparison
        • Relative comparison
        • Engineering comparison
  • 25. Study Question 4: What is the control process?
    • Step 4 — t aking corrective action
      • Taking action when a discrepancy exists between desired and actual performance.
      • Management by exception
        • Giving attention to situations showing the greatest need for action.
        • Types of exceptions
          • Problem situation
          • Opportunity situation
  • 26. Study Question 4: What is the control process?
    • Feedforward controls …
      • Employed before a work activity begins.
      • Ensures that:
        • Objectives are clear.
        • Proper directions are established.
        • Right resources are available.
      • Focuses on quality of resources.
  • 27. Study Question 4: What is the control process?
    • Concurrent controls …
      • Focus on what happens during work process.
      • Monitor ongoing operations to make sure they are being done according to plan.
      • Can reduce waste in unacceptable finished products or services.
  • 28. Study Question 4: What is the control process?
    • Feedback controls …
      • Take place after work is completed.
      • Focus on quality of end results.
      • Provide useful information for improving future operations.
  • 29. Figure 8.5 The role of feedforward, concurrent, and feedback controls in organizations.
  • 30. Study Question 4: What is the control process?
    • Internal and external control
      • Internal control
        • Allows motivated individuals and groups to exercise self-discipline in fulfilling job expectations.
      • External control
        • Occurs through personal supervision and the use of formal administrative systems.
  • 31. Study Question 5: What are the common organizational controls?
    • Management by Objectives (MBO)
      • A structured process of regular communication.
      • Supervisor/team leader and workers jointly set performance objectives.
      • Supervisor/team leader and workers jointly review results.
  • 32. Figure 8.6 Management by objectives as an integrated planning and control framework.
  • 33. Study Question 5: What are the common organizational controls?
    • MBO involves a formal agreement specifying …
      • Workers’ performance objectives for a specific time period.
      • Plans through which performance objectives will be accomplished.
      • Standards for measuring accomplishment of performance objectives .
      • Procedures for reviewing performance results.
  • 34. Study Question 5: What are the common organizational controls?
    • The MBO process:
      • Supervisor and workers jointly set objectives, establish standards, and choose actions.
      • Workers act individually to perform tasks; supervisors act individually to provide necessary support.
      • Supervisor and workers jointly review results, discuss implications, and renew the MBO cycle.
  • 35. Study Question 5: What are the common organizational controls?
    • Types of MBO performance objectives
      • Improvement
      • Personal development
      • Maintenance
    • Criteria for effective performance objectives
      • Specific
      • Time defined
      • Challenging
      • Measurable
  • 36. Study Question 5: What are the common organizational controls?
    • Pitfalls to avoid in using MBO
      • Tying MBO to pay.
      • Focusing too much attention on easily quantifiable objectives.
      • Requiring excessive paperwork.
      • Having managers tell workers their objectives.
  • 37. Study Question 5: What are the common organizational controls?
    • Advantages of MBO
      • Focuses workers on most important tasks and objectives.
      • Focuses supervisor’s efforts on important areas of support.
      • Contributes to relationship building.
      • Gives workers a structured opportunity to participate in decision making.
  • 38. Study Question 5: What are the common organizational controls?
    • Employee discipline systems
      • Discipline is the act of influencing behavior through reprimand.
      • Discipline that is applied fairly, consistently, and systematically provides useful control.
  • 39. Study Question 5: What are the common organizational controls?
    • To be effective, reprimands should …
      • Be immediate.
      • Be directed toward actions, not personality.
      • Be consistently applied.
      • Be informative.
      • Occur in a supportive setting.
      • Support realistic rules.
  • 40. Study Question 5: What are the common organizational controls?
    • Employee discipline systems
      • Progressive discipline ties reprimands to the severity and frequency of the employee’s infractions.
      • Progressive discipline seeks to achieve compliance with the least extreme reprimand possible.
  • 41. Study Question 5: What are the common organizational controls?
    • Important financial aspects of organizational performance …
      • Liquidity
        • The ability to generate cash to pay bills.
      • Leverage
        • The ability to earn more in returns than the cost of debt.
      • Asset management
        • The ability to use resources efficiently and operate at minimum cost.
      • Profitability
        • The ability to earn revenues greater than costs.
  • 42. Study Question 5: What are the common organizational controls?
    • Break-even analysis …
      • Determination of the point at which sales revenues are sufficient to cover costs.
      • Break-Even Point = Fixed Costs / (Price – Variable Costs)
      • Used in evaluating:
        • New products
        • New program initiatives
  • 43. Figure 8.7 Graphical approach to break-even analysis.
  • 44. Study Question 5: What are the common organizational controls?
    • Purchasing control …
      • A productivity tool
      • Trends in purchasing control:
        • Leveraging buying power
        • Committing to a small number of suppliers
        • Working together in supplier-purchaser partnerships
  • 45. Study Question 5: What are the common organizational controls?
    • Inventory control
      • Goal is to ensure that inventory is just the right size to meet performance needs, thus minimizing the cost.
      • Methods of inventory control:
        • Economic order quantity
        • Just-in-time scheduling
  • 46. Study Question 5: What are the common organizational controls?
    • Statistical quality control
      • Quality control involves checking processes, materials, products, and services to ensure that they meet high standards.
      • Statistical quality control involves:
        • Taking samples of work.
        • Measuring quality in the samples.
        • Determining the acceptability of results.
  • 47. COPYRIGHT Copyright 2004 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that named in Section 117 of the United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Requests for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.