Dear Diary,

17th November 1898

I have witnessed how we Filipinos, heroically
stood up to the Spanish colonizers. All the...
• The
Cuban
revolution
against the Spaniards broke
out in 1895. The United
States supported the Cubans
because
the
latter‟...
• On May 17, 1898, Emilio
Aguinaldo left Hong Kong
aboard
the
US
ship
McCulloch.
•

Although he was assured by Dewey that ...
Mock Battle in Manila
• It began on August
13, 1897 at around 9:30
am by the bombing of
Olympia in Fort San
Antonio Abad.
• After an hour, Gener...
TREATY OF PARIS
The Peace Commission is
composed of:
5 Spaniards:
• Eugenio Montero Ríos
• Buenaventura de Abarzuza
• José de Garnica
• We...
• On December 10, 1898, the Treaty of Paris
was signed. It stated that Spain would turn
over the Philippines to the United...
THE PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE
• On July 12, 1898, Philippine independence was
declared in Kawit, Cavite.
• It was the first time, the Philippine flag ma...
Revolutionary Government
• On June 23, 1898, Aguinaldo issued a decree establishing
the Revolutionary Government.
• The decree created four agencie...
McKinley’s “Benevolent Assimilation
• On
December
21,
1898,
President
McKinley
made
his
benevolent assimilation
proclamation.
• He announced that the
US would...
• On January 4, 1899, General Elwell Otis
attempted to hide the real contents of the
“Benevolent Assimilation” by publishi...
• Antonio
Luna,
Independencia,
led
proclamation.

editor
of
in
assailing

La
the

• He called it “a plot to temporarily si...
• Aguinaldo protested against the “harsh US invasion
over a part of the territory of the Philippines.”
• In a revised proc...
THE MALOLOS CONSTITUTION
•

On January 21, 1899,
Aguinaldo proclaimed the
Malolos Constitution. It
was
drafted
by
the
Constitutional committee
crea...
The Constitution was also firm on the following
important provisions:
- Separation of the church and state
- Recognition o...
The Outbreak of the
Filipino-American War
• The flames of war were
ignited on the eve of
February 4, 1899.
• Private Willie Grayson‟s
group patrolled at San
Juan.
•...
The Hunt for and the Capture of
Aguinaldo
• When the anticipated reinforcement of
the US troops arrived, the aggressors
intensified the hunt for Aguinaldo.
• When G...
• In order to capture not just Aguinaldo, but the whole land,
the Americans made an extra effort to use wealthy
Filipino t...
UNITED STATES’ OBJECTIVE IN
COLONIZING THE PHILIPPINES
• The Americans needed new market for their
products.
• They were also on the lookout for new sources of
cheap raw materia...
ECONOMIC POLICIES
• The American colonial government expanded and
speeded up the production of raw materials like
sugar, coconut, wood produ...
With the Americans‟ direct control of the country, they
invested directly in:
1) Increasing raw materials production
2) Tr...
• American
government
pushed landless peasants for
the
cultivation
of
more
farmlands to further boost
productions.
• To qu...
POLITICAL
POLICIES
The Military Government
• The American troops went to a war towards
establishing the military government in August 1898
in...
The Civil Government
• Even as the American troops were still fighting the Filipino
revolutionaries, Pres. McKinley had se...
• The Philippine Assembly was
established in 1902 and served
as the Lower Chamber. It took
on the roles of facilitating ta...
Cultural Policies
• In the process of molding
the Filipino market came
American
movies, radio, automobile
s, literature, dances and
games.

...
• The first teachers were the
American soldiers followed
by trained teachers who
arrived in the country aboard
the SS Thom...
INDEPENDENCE MISSIONS
• The first official and clear response to the call for independence
was the Jones Law of 1916 which replaced the Philippi...
HARE-HAWES-CUTTING ACT AND TYDINGSMCDUFFIE ACT on PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE
• The ninth Mission known as
“OSROX” (Osmeña and...
• Pursuant to the new Act, and after American
Governor General Frank Murphy set the elections for
the delegates to the con...
Commonwealth of the Philippines
• First election - September 1935
• Quezon and Osmeῆa joined forces against
the Nationalist Socialist Party and
Republican...
Changes During the Commonwealth Period
• Filipinos
oversaw
the
affairs of the gov‟t but
still, all major decisions
had to ...
• Establishment of Phil. Congress
– Senate
– House of Representatives
• Quezon reorganized gov‟t bureaucracy – new
departm...
American colonization final
American colonization final
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American colonization final

  1. 1. Dear Diary, 17th November 1898 I have witnessed how we Filipinos, heroically stood up to the Spanish colonizers. All the while we thought that we have already gained independence from them. However, our total victory was impeded by the collaboration between Spain and the United States, where Spain handed over the Philippines to the US for 20M dollars.
  2. 2. • The Cuban revolution against the Spaniards broke out in 1895. The United States supported the Cubans because the latter‟s liberation from Spain would benefit their trading interests. • On February 15, 1898, the warship Maine of the Americans was blown up in the Port of Havana. • On May 1, 1898, the fleet of Commodore George Dewey destroyed the Spanish fleet led by Admiral Montojo.
  3. 3. • On May 17, 1898, Emilio Aguinaldo left Hong Kong aboard the US ship McCulloch. • Although he was assured by Dewey that the US had no plans to colonize the Philippines, unknown to him, US forged an agreement with General Fermin Jaudines where: – A mock battle between the Spaniards and the Americans would be conducted. – The Spaniards would surrender to the American troops. – The Filipinos would not be allowed to participate in the Spaniards‟ surrender.
  4. 4. Mock Battle in Manila
  5. 5. • It began on August 13, 1897 at around 9:30 am by the bombing of Olympia in Fort San Antonio Abad. • After an hour, General Greene‟s forces attacked from Malate. General Arthur MacArthur troops advanced from Singalong. • By 11:20AM, the Spaniards waved their
  6. 6. TREATY OF PARIS
  7. 7. The Peace Commission is composed of: 5 Spaniards: • Eugenio Montero Ríos • Buenaventura de Abarzuza • José de Garnica • Wenceslao Ramírez de Villa • Urrutia Rafael Cerero 5 Americans: • William R. Day • William P. Frye • Cushman Kellogg Davis • George Gray • Whitelaw Reid
  8. 8. • On December 10, 1898, the Treaty of Paris was signed. It stated that Spain would turn over the Philippines to the United States in exchange of $20,000,000. • US would recognize the rights of Spaniards to sell their goods in the Philippines in the next ten years. • This anti-Filipino treaty proved that US imperialists had never recognized the Republic of the Philippines.
  9. 9. THE PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE
  10. 10. • On July 12, 1898, Philippine independence was declared in Kawit, Cavite. • It was the first time, the Philippine flag made in Hongkong by Mrs. Marcela Agoncillo was unfurled, while the “Marcha Nacional Filipina”, a composition of Juan Felipe, was playing. • The Declaration of Independence was written and read by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista. • Aguinaldo established a republic that was not sovereign, but a mere “protectorate”, under the protection of United States.
  11. 11. Revolutionary Government
  12. 12. • On June 23, 1898, Aguinaldo issued a decree establishing the Revolutionary Government. • The decree created four agencies of the government: - Department of Foreign Relations, Navy and Commerce - Department of War and Public Works - Department of Police, Internal Order, Justice, Education and Cleanliness - Department of Finance, Agriculture and Industry and Manufacturing • It also created the Congress which was tasked to look after the people‟s interests, implement the revolutionary laws, uphold agreements and debts, study and affirm the reports of the Secretary of Finance and new taxes.
  13. 13. McKinley’s “Benevolent Assimilation
  14. 14. • On December 21, 1898, President McKinley made his benevolent assimilation proclamation. • He announced that the US would enforce its sovereignty over the Filipinos. • He also ordered his military chief in the Philippines to extend US rule in the country
  15. 15. • On January 4, 1899, General Elwell Otis attempted to hide the real contents of the “Benevolent Assimilation” by publishing a watered down version of the proclamation. • But General Miller, another American Official, published the proclamation‟s original version. • When the revolutionary government had taken hold of the proclamation, they immediately condemned it.
  16. 16. • Antonio Luna, Independencia, led proclamation. editor of in assailing La the • He called it “a plot to temporarily silence the people before launching and unleashing all the hateful characteristics of governance as employed by the Spaniards in the Philippines.” • On January 5, 1899, Aguinaldo replied to the proclamation.
  17. 17. • Aguinaldo protested against the “harsh US invasion over a part of the territory of the Philippines.” • In a revised proclamation on the same day, Aguinaldo opposed “the US intervention on the sovereignty of the islands.” • He warned that the Filipino Government was prepared to fight should the US troops attempt to colonize the islands in the Visayas. • General Otis considered Aguinaldo‟s proclamations as challenges to war. The Americans silently prepared for a war aggression.
  18. 18. THE MALOLOS CONSTITUTION
  19. 19. • On January 21, 1899, Aguinaldo proclaimed the Malolos Constitution. It was drafted by the Constitutional committee created by the Congress. • It created a state with the government divided into three branches: executive, legislative and judicial. The legislative, which was composed of the Assembly of Representatives, was the most powerful.
  20. 20. The Constitution was also firm on the following important provisions: - Separation of the church and state - Recognition of each other‟s situation -Free public education at the primary level - Protection of lives, homes and properties - Collection of taxes as mandated by law • On January 23, 1899, Aguinaldo founded the Republic of the Philippines. He was also the first President of the Republic of the
  21. 21. The Outbreak of the Filipino-American War
  22. 22. • The flames of war were ignited on the eve of February 4, 1899. • Private Willie Grayson‟s group patrolled at San Juan. • Grayson fired at a Filipino soldier, prompting an exchange of fires between two groups. • Gen. MacArthur ordered to or assault the Filipino troops. • Aguinaldo to Otis: “I had not ordered the Filipino soldiers to fire” and “Armed fighting must be
  23. 23. The Hunt for and the Capture of Aguinaldo
  24. 24. • When the anticipated reinforcement of the US troops arrived, the aggressors intensified the hunt for Aguinaldo. • When General Luna died, a good part of Filipino troops lost heart. • When Aguinaldo found this out, he escaped, hid and chose difficult area to assault.
  25. 25. • In order to capture not just Aguinaldo, but the whole land, the Americans made an extra effort to use wealthy Filipino traitors. • Finally, Aguinaldo fell into the hands of Americans, but the other generals continued the struggles. • US imperialism only managed to colonize the Philippines after thorough and merciless wars. • 130,000 US troops ( seven thousand were killed and wounded) vs 7 M Filipinos (more than 50,000 were killed). • They used several methods of cruelty: massacre, rape, zoning, torture and concentration camps.
  26. 26. UNITED STATES’ OBJECTIVE IN COLONIZING THE PHILIPPINES
  27. 27. • The Americans needed new market for their products. • They were also on the lookout for new sources of cheap raw materials. • The US hoped to use the Philippines as its base in its drive to control the entire Pacific Ocean and other countries. • However, President McKinley and President Wilson made the Filipino believe that the Americans intention was to teach the latter about democracy and governance.
  28. 28. ECONOMIC POLICIES
  29. 29. • The American colonial government expanded and speeded up the production of raw materials like sugar, coconut, wood products etc. • Philippine exports to the U.S. increased in 1913, after free trade was implemented. • It was a set-up that made the entry of goods into Philippines duty-free and tax-free. • Although it boosted production, free trade made our economy focused on exporting raw materials while importing expensive manufactured goods.
  30. 30. With the Americans‟ direct control of the country, they invested directly in: 1) Increasing raw materials production 2) Trading in light manufactures 3) Infrastructure development • • To facilitate transportation and communication, which were necessary in trading, the colonial government and the American firms built and profited from infrastructure projects. • They utilized loans from foreign banks which resulted to Philippines incurring huge deficits since the cost of import products was more than that of the country‟s earnings from exports.
  31. 31. • American government pushed landless peasants for the cultivation of more farmlands to further boost productions. • To quell the peasants‟ uprising in 1903, they brought lands from friars and implemented the Homestead Act so the people could avail of titles for the lands they started to farm. • Landlords continued to exact rents or levy duties from their „tenant‟ farmers. In other farmers, capitalist farming arose in which farmers became farm workers.
  32. 32. POLITICAL POLICIES
  33. 33. The Military Government • The American troops went to a war towards establishing the military government in August 1898 in the Philippines. • The power of every Governor-General who served under this government came directly from the President of the United States, as the military‟s Commander-in-Chief. • They organized the civilian courts, including the Supreme Court Justice. They also appointed the first Filipino Supreme Court Justice. • The American military government established a local government in every town and province that their troops had invaded. They called an election, but those who were educated and well-off could vote and get elected.
  34. 34. The Civil Government • Even as the American troops were still fighting the Filipino revolutionaries, Pres. McKinley had sent two Philippine Commissions tasked to establish a civil government. The first failed to achieve anything significant, but the second was more successful. • The Philippine Commission composed mostly of American civilians and military personnel, performed the executive and legislative functions. • Dr. T.H. Pardo Tavera, Felipe Buencamino and Dr. Pedro Paterno among others founded the first political party in the country, the Partido Liberal, which called for collaboration with the U.S. In 1901, the Americans installed some of the party‟s members in the Philippine Commission. • The Philippine Commission passed the Sedition Act, which imposed imprisonment and the death penalty to anyone advocating freedom or separation from the U.S. even through peaceful means.
  35. 35. • The Philippine Assembly was established in 1902 and served as the Lower Chamber. It took on the roles of facilitating tax collection and allocating government revenues. • In 1916, the U. S. Congress passed the Jones Law, also known as the Law on Philippine Autonomy. It was the first formal and official American commitment to grant independence to the Philippines, “ as soon as a stable government can be established herein.” • In 1901, the U.S. colonialists formed the Philippine Constabulary which was headed
  36. 36. Cultural Policies
  37. 37. • In the process of molding the Filipino market came American movies, radio, automobile s, literature, dances and games. • The Americans established the public educational system that used English as the medium of instruction. • As schools were established, the Americans gave away free books, supplies, candies and chocolates to encourage the children to attend.
  38. 38. • The first teachers were the American soldiers followed by trained teachers who arrived in the country aboard the SS Thomas. • U.S. trade policies encouraged the export of cash crops and the importation of manufactured goods; little industrial development occurred. • Meanwhile, landlessness became a serious problem in rural areas; peasants were often reduced to the status of serfs.
  39. 39. INDEPENDENCE MISSIONS
  40. 40. • The first official and clear response to the call for independence was the Jones Law of 1916 which replaced the Philippine Organic Act of 1902. It established for the first time an elected upper house, which would eventually become the Philippine Senate. • The Philippine Legislature constituted the commission which recommended sending Missions to the United States. Independence Independence • In 1919, Senate President Quezon led the first Independence Mission. Unfortunately, it was not entertained by US President Woodrow Wilson. • In all, eleven Independence Missions was sent annually. The government shouldered the huge costs of the missions until Insular Auditor Ben Wright disallowed the spending of public funds for such.
  41. 41. HARE-HAWES-CUTTING ACT AND TYDINGSMCDUFFIE ACT on PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE • The ninth Mission known as “OSROX” (Osmeña and Roxas) brought home the Hare-HawesCutting Act. • After that, Quezon, in his solo Independence Mission, asked for another law that will grant freedom to the Filipinos. He successfully brought home the Tydings-McDuffie Act in 1934. • The Tydings- McDuffie Act allowed for a ten-year transition under a Philippine Commonwealth in preparing for the granting of freedom on July 4, 1946.
  42. 42. • Pursuant to the new Act, and after American Governor General Frank Murphy set the elections for the delegates to the convention in 1934, the Philippine Legislature called for a convention to draft a Constitution. • After six months, the Convention finished and agreed on the Philippine Constitution in February 1935.
  43. 43. Commonwealth of the Philippines
  44. 44. • First election - September 1935 • Quezon and Osmeῆa joined forces against the Nationalist Socialist Party and Republican Party = victory • Commonwealth Government was inaugurated in Manila • Sec. George Dern (Secretary of War) read the proclamation under the Jones Law: – Ending the US government in the Phil. – Start of Phil. Commonwealth
  45. 45. Changes During the Commonwealth Period • Filipinos oversaw the affairs of the gov‟t but still, all major decisions had to be approved first by the U.S. • Economic set-up was retained. • Free trade was extended until Dec. 31, 1960 • Intensification of production and Phil. consumption from the U.S. • Philippine trade increased. • Development of mining industry • Revision of taxation
  46. 46. • Establishment of Phil. Congress – Senate – House of Representatives • Quezon reorganized gov‟t bureaucracy – new departments formed: – Finance, Interior, Justice, Defense, Comme rce, etc. • Court of Appeals & Court of Industrial Relations were added. – Increase in judges‟ salaries • National Defense Act – first law passed by Commonwealth

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