Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Fertilization and development of
conceptus. Anomalies of the feal egg
Assist. prof. Andrii Berbets
Genes and chromosomes
• The hereditary material carried in the nucleus
of each somatic (body) cell determines an
individua...
Genes and chromosomes
• All normal human somatic cells contain 46
chromosomes arranged as 23 pairs of homologous
(matched)...
Genes and chromosomes
• Because each gene occupies a specific
chromosome location, and because
chromosomes are inherited a...
Genes and chromosomes
• Some genes (alleles) are dominant, and their
characteristics are expressed even if another
allele ...
Chromosomes
PATTERNS OF GENETIC
TRANSMISSION
• Many phenotypic characteristics result from
two or more genes on different chromosomes
...
PATTERNS OF GENETIC
TRANSMISSION
• Most common congenital malformations, such as
cleft lip and palate and neural tube defe...
Unifactorial transmission
PATTERNS OF GENETIC
TRANSMISSION
Multifactorial disorders
• Spina bifida
• Anencephaly
Unifactorial disorders
• Marphan sy...
Conception
Cell division
• Cells are reproduced by two different methods:
mitosis and meiosis.
• In mitosis, the body cell...
Conception
Cell division
• Meiosis produces gametes (eggs and sperm). Each
homologous pair of chromosomes contains one
chr...
Gametogenesis
• When a male reaches puberty, his testes begin the process
of spermatogenesis. The cells that undergo meios...
Gametogenesis
• Oogenesis, the process of egg (ovum) formation,
begins during fetal life of the female.
• All the cells th...
Gametogenesis
• Then, usually monthly, one primary oocyte matures
and completes the first meiotic division, yielding two
u...
Gametogenesis
Conception
• Ovum. Meiosis, the process by which germ
cells divide and decrease their chromosomal
number by half, occurs i...
Conception
• At ovulation the ovum is released from the
ruptured ovarian follicle.
• High estrogen levels increase the mot...
Conception
Conception
• Two protective layers surround the ovum.
• The inner layer is a thick, acellular layer, the
zona pellucida.
•...
Conception
Conception
• Sperm. Ejaculation during sexual intercourse normally
propels almost a teaspoon of semen containing as many a...
Conception
• As sperm travel through the female reproductive
tract, enzymes are produced to aid in their
capacitation.
• C...
Capacitation of sperm
Fertilization
• Fertilization takes place in the ampulla (outer third) of the uterine
tube.
• When a sperm successfully pe...
Fertilization
Fertilization
• Mitotic cellular replication, called cleavage,
begins as the zygote travels the length of the
uterine tube...
Fertilization
Fertilization
• Further development occurs as the morula floats freely
within the uterus.
• Fluid passes through the zona ...
Development of blastocyst
Blastocyst
Blastocyst
Implantation
• The zona pellucida degenerates, and the
trophoblast attaches itself to the uterine
endometrium, usually in ...
Implantation
• Endometrial blood vessels erode, and some women
experience implantation bleeding (slight spotting and
bleed...
Implantation
Implantation
Implantation
• The portion directly under the blastocyst,
where the chorionic villi tap the maternal
blood vessels, is the...
Implantation
Embryo and fetus
• Pregnancy lasts approximately 10 lunar months
(9 calendar months, 40 weeks, or 280 days).
Length of pre...
Embryo and fetus
• Intrauterine development is divided into three
stages: ovum or preembryonic, embryo, and
fetus.
• The s...
Primary germ layers
• During the third week after conception the
embryonic disk differentiates into three
primary germ lay...
Primary germ layers
• The ectoderm, or upper layer of the embryonic disk, gives
rise to the epidermis, glands, nails and h...
Embryo
• The stage of the embryo lasts from day 15 until
approximately 8 weeks after conception, or until the
embryo measu...
Embryo
Embryo
Membranes
• At the time of implantation, two fetal membranes that will
surround the developing embryo begin to form.
• The...
Membranes
Membranes
• The inner cell membrane, the amnion, develops from the
interior cells of the blastocyst. The cavity that devel...
Amniotic fluid
• At first the amniotic cavity derives its fluid by
diffusion from the maternal blood. The
amount of fluid ...
Amniotic fluid
Many functions are served by amniotic fluid for the
embryo/fetus.
• Amniotic fluid helps maintain a constan...
Amniotic fluid
Many functions are served by amniotic fluid for
the embryo/fetus.
• The fluid keeps the embryo from tanglin...
Amniotic fluid
Many functions are served by amniotic fluid for the
embryo/fetus.
• The volume of amniotic fluid is an impo...
Amniotic fluid
• Amniotic fluid contains albumin, urea, uric acid,
creatinine, lecithin, sphingomyelin, bilirubin, fructos...
Yolk sac
• At the same time the amniotic cavity and amnion are
forming, another blastocyst cavity forms on the other side
...
Yolk sac
• The folding in of the embryo during the fourth
week results in incorporation of part of the
yolk sac into the e...
Yolk sac
Allantois
• The human allantois is an endodermal evagination of
the developing hindgut which becomes surrounded by
the mes...
Umbilical cord
• By day 14 after conception the embryonic disk, amniotic
sac, and yolk sac are attached to the chorionic v...
Umbilical cord
Placenta
• The placenta begins to form at implantation. During the
third week after conception, the trophoblast cells of t...
Placenta
Placenta
Fetal maturation
• The stage of the fetus lasts from approximately 9 weeks (when the
embryo becomes recognizable as a huma...
Fetal blood circulatory system
Fetal blood circulatory system
Monozygotic twins
Dizygotic twins
Teratology
• Teratology is the study of abnormal fetal
development. Major birth defects occur in
approximately 3% of all d...
ETIOLOGY OF HUMAN MALFORMATIONS
ENVIRONMENTAL
• Maternal Conditions
• Alcoholism, diabetes, endocrinopathies, phenylketonu...
Teratology
Reproductive cells toxicity – usually leads to miscarriage of to
chromosomal anomalies.
Embryotoxicity - advers...
Down’s syndrome
Patau syndrome
Teratology
Susceptibility of the conceptus to teratogenic agents depends
on the developmental stage at the time of exposur...
Teratology
The particular malformation depends on the time
of exposure. After a certain time in
organogenesis, it is thoug...
Spina bifida
Spina bifida
Anencephaly
Teratology
Lowered susceptibility (fetal period). After 57
days (8 weeks) of gestation, the organs have
formed and are inc...
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Consumption of alcohol in pregnancy is the most
common known teratogenic cause of mental
retardatio...
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Diabetic fetopathia
Hypothyroidism
Infections
Cytomegalovirus syndrome
• Microcephaly and
hydrocephaly
• Chorioretinitis
• Hepatosplenomegaly
• Cerebral calcification
•...
Toxoplasmosis
• The pregnancy may result in a spontaneous abortion, perinatal death,
severe congenital anomalies, abnormal...
Syphillis
• Hepatosplenomegaly
• Joint swelling
• Skin rash
• Anemia
• Jaundice
• Snuffles
• Metaphyseal dystrophy
• Perio...
Syphillis
Molar pregnancy
• Molar pregnancy is an abnormal form of
pregnancy in which a non-viable fertilized egg
implants in the ut...
Molar pregnancy
• A molar pregnancy can develop when an egg
that is missing its nucleus is fertilized and that
may or may ...
Molar pregnancy
• A complete mole is caused by a single (90%) or two
(10%) sperm combining with an egg which has lost its
...
Molar pregnancy
• Complete hydatidiform moles have a higher
risk of developing into choriocarcinoma — a
malignant tumor of...
Molar pregnancy
Molar pregnancy
Molar pregnancy
Thank you!
Fertilization and development of conceptus
Fertilization and development of conceptus
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Fertilization and development of conceptus

1,897

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,897
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
63
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Fertilization and development of conceptus"

  1. 1. Fertilization and development of conceptus. Anomalies of the feal egg Assist. prof. Andrii Berbets
  2. 2. Genes and chromosomes • The hereditary material carried in the nucleus of each somatic (body) cell determines an individual's physical characteristics. • This material, called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), forms threadlike strands known as chromosomes. • Each chromosome is composed of many smaller segments of DNA referred to as genes.
  3. 3. Genes and chromosomes • All normal human somatic cells contain 46 chromosomes arranged as 23 pairs of homologous (matched) chromosomes; one chromosome of each pair is inherited from each parent. • There are 22 pairs of autosomes, which control most traits in the body, and one pair of sex chromosomes, which determines sex and some other traits. • The large female chromosome is the X chromosome; the tiny male chromosome is the Y chromosome.
  4. 4. Genes and chromosomes • Because each gene occupies a specific chromosome location, and because chromosomes are inherited as homologous pairs, each person has two genes for every trait. • Different genes coding for different variations of the same trait are termed alleles.
  5. 5. Genes and chromosomes • Some genes (alleles) are dominant, and their characteristics are expressed even if another allele is present on the other chromosome. • Other genes are recessive, and their characteristics are expressed only if they are carried by both homologous chromosomes.
  6. 6. Chromosomes
  7. 7. PATTERNS OF GENETIC TRANSMISSION • Many phenotypic characteristics result from two or more genes on different chromosomes acting together (multifactorial inheritance); others are controlled by a single gene (unifactorial inheritance).
  8. 8. PATTERNS OF GENETIC TRANSMISSION • Most common congenital malformations, such as cleft lip and palate and neural tube defects, result from multifactorial inheritance, a combination of genetic and environmental factors. • Each malformation may range from mild to severe, depending on the number of genes for the defect present or the amount of environmental influence. • Multifactorial disorders tend to occur in families.
  9. 9. Unifactorial transmission
  10. 10. PATTERNS OF GENETIC TRANSMISSION Multifactorial disorders • Spina bifida • Anencephaly Unifactorial disorders • Marphan syndrome • Phenylketonuria • Sickle cell anemia
  11. 11. Conception Cell division • Cells are reproduced by two different methods: mitosis and meiosis. • In mitosis, the body cells replicate to yield two cells with the same genetic makeup as the parent cell. First the cell makes a copy of its DNA; then it divides, and each daughter cell receives one copy of the genetic material. The purpose of mitotic division is for growth and development or cell replacement.
  12. 12. Conception Cell division • Meiosis produces gametes (eggs and sperm). Each homologous pair of chromosomes contains one chromosome received from the mother and one from the father; thus meiosis results in cells that contain one of each of the 23 pairs of chromosomes. • Because these germ cells contain 23 single chromosomes, half of the genetic material of a normal somatic cell, they are termed haploid. • When the female gamete (egg or ovum) and the male gamete (spermatozoon) unite to form the zygote, the diploid number of human chromosomes (46, or 23 pairs) is restored.
  13. 13. Gametogenesis • When a male reaches puberty, his testes begin the process of spermatogenesis. The cells that undergo meiosis in the male are termed spermatocytes. • The primary spermatocyte, which undergoes the first meiotic division, contains the diploid number of chromosomes. The cell has already copied its DNA before division, so four alleles for each gene are present. Because the copies are bound together (i.e., one allele plus its copy on each chromosome), the cell is still considered diploid. • During the second meiotic division the male produces two gametes with an X chromosome and two gametes with a Y chromosome, all of which will develop into viable sperm. • The process is constant and takes app. 72 days
  14. 14. Gametogenesis • Oogenesis, the process of egg (ovum) formation, begins during fetal life of the female. • All the cells that may undergo meiosis in a woman's lifetime are contained in her ovaries at birth. • The majority of the estimated 2 million primary oocytes (the cells that undergo the first meiotic division) degenerate spontaneously. • Only 400 to 500 ova will mature during the approximately 35 years of a woman's reproductive life. The primary oocytes begin the first meiotic division (i.e., they replicate their DNA) during fetal life but remain suspended at this stage until puberty.
  15. 15. Gametogenesis • Then, usually monthly, one primary oocyte matures and completes the first meiotic division, yielding two unequal cells: the secondary oocyte and a small polar body. Both contain 22 autosomes and one X sex chromosome. • At ovulation the second meiotic division begins. However, the ovum does not complete the second meiotic division unless fertilization occurs. • At fertilization, a second polar body and the zygote (the united egg and sperm) are produced. The polar bodies degenerate. If fertilization does not occur, the ovum also degenerates.
  16. 16. Gametogenesis
  17. 17. Conception • Ovum. Meiosis, the process by which germ cells divide and decrease their chromosomal number by half, occurs in the female in the ovarian follicles and produces an egg, or ovum. • Each month, one (usually) ovum matures with a host of surrounding supportive cells.
  18. 18. Conception • At ovulation the ovum is released from the ruptured ovarian follicle. • High estrogen levels increase the motility of the uterine tubes so their cilia are able to capture the ovum and propel it through the tube toward the uterine cavity. An ovum cannot move by itself.
  19. 19. Conception
  20. 20. Conception • Two protective layers surround the ovum. • The inner layer is a thick, acellular layer, the zona pellucida. • The outer layer, the corona radiata, is composed of elongated cells.
  21. 21. Conception
  22. 22. Conception • Sperm. Ejaculation during sexual intercourse normally propels almost a teaspoon of semen containing as many as 200 million to 500 million sperm into the vagina. • The sperm swim with the flagellar movement of their tails. • Some sperm can reach the site of fertilization within 5 minutes, but average transit time is 4 to 6 hours. • Sperm remain viable within the woman's reproductive system for an average of 2 to 3 days. Most sperm are lost in the vagina, within the cervical mucus, or in the endometrium, or they enter the tube that contains no ovum.
  23. 23. Conception • As sperm travel through the female reproductive tract, enzymes are produced to aid in their capacitation. • Capacitation is a physiologic change that removes the protective coating from the heads of the sperm. • Small perforations then form in the acrosome (a cap on the sperm) and allow enzymes (e.g., hyaluronidase) to escape. These enzymes are necessary for the sperm to penetrate the protective layers of the ovum before fertilization.
  24. 24. Capacitation of sperm
  25. 25. Fertilization • Fertilization takes place in the ampulla (outer third) of the uterine tube. • When a sperm successfully penetrates the membrane surrounding the ovum, both sperm and ovum are enclosed within the membrane, and the membrane becomes impenetrable to other sperm; this is termed the zona reaction. • The second meiotic division of the oocyte is then completed, and the ovum nucleus becomes the female pronucleus. The head of the sperm enlarges to become the male pronucleus, and the tail degenerates. The nuclei fuse and the chromosomes combine, restoring the diploid number (46). • Conception, the formation of the zygote, has been achieved.
  26. 26. Fertilization
  27. 27. Fertilization • Mitotic cellular replication, called cleavage, begins as the zygote travels the length of the uterine tube into the uterus. This voyage takes 3 to 4 days. • Because the fertilized egg divides rapidly with no increase in size, successively smaller cells, blastomeres, are formed with each division. A 16- cell morula, a solid ball of cells, is produced within 3 days, and is still surrounded by the protective zona pellucida
  28. 28. Fertilization
  29. 29. Fertilization • Further development occurs as the morula floats freely within the uterus. • Fluid passes through the zona pellucida into the intercellular spaces between the blastomeres, separating them into two parts: the trophoblast (which gives rise to the placenta) and the embryoblast (which gives rise to the embryo). • A cavity forms within the cell mass as the spaces come together, forming a structure termed the blastocyst cavity. • When the cavity becomes recognizable, the whole structure of the developing embryo is known as the blastocyst. The outer layer of cells surrounding the cavity is the trophoblast.
  30. 30. Development of blastocyst
  31. 31. Blastocyst
  32. 32. Blastocyst
  33. 33. Implantation • The zona pellucida degenerates, and the trophoblast attaches itself to the uterine endometrium, usually in the anterior or posterior fundal region. • Between 6 and 10 days after conception, the trophoblast secretes enzymes that enable it to burrow into the endometrium until the entire blastocyst is covered. This is termed implantation.
  34. 34. Implantation • Endometrial blood vessels erode, and some women experience implantation bleeding (slight spotting and bleeding during the time of the first missed menstrual period). • Chorionic villi, or fingerlike projections, develop out of the trophoblast and extend into the blood-filled spaces of the endometrium. These villi are vascular processes that obtain oxygen and nutrients from the maternal bloodstream and dispose of carbon dioxide and waste products into the maternal blood. • After implantation, the endometrium is termed the decidua.
  35. 35. Implantation
  36. 36. Implantation
  37. 37. Implantation • The portion directly under the blastocyst, where the chorionic villi tap the maternal blood vessels, is the deciduas basalis. • The portion covering the blastocyst is the decidua capsularis, and the portion lining the rest of the uterus is the decidua vera
  38. 38. Implantation
  39. 39. Embryo and fetus • Pregnancy lasts approximately 10 lunar months (9 calendar months, 40 weeks, or 280 days). Length of pregnancy is computed from the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) until the day of birth. • However, conception occurs approximately 2 weeks after the first day of the LMP. Thus the postconception age of the fetus is 2 weeks less, for a total of 266 days, or 38 weeks. Postconception age is used in the discussion of fetal development.
  40. 40. Embryo and fetus • Intrauterine development is divided into three stages: ovum or preembryonic, embryo, and fetus. • The stage of the ovum lasts from conception until day 14. This period covers cellular replication, blastocyst formation, initial development of the embryonic membranes, and establishment of the primary germ layers.
  41. 41. Primary germ layers • During the third week after conception the embryonic disk differentiates into three primary germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm or entoderm. • All tissues and organs of the embryo develop from these three layers.
  42. 42. Primary germ layers • The ectoderm, or upper layer of the embryonic disk, gives rise to the epidermis, glands, nails and hair, central and peripheral nervous systems, lens of the eye, tooth enamel, and floor of the amniotic cavity. • The mesoderm, or middle layer, develops into the bones and teeth, muscles (skeletal, smooth, and cardiac), dermis and connective tissue, cardiovascular system and spleen, and urogenital system. • The endoderm, or lower layer, gives rise to the epithelium lining the respiratory tract and digestive tract, including the oropharynx, liver and pancreas, urethra, bladder, and vagina. The endoderm forms the roof of the yolk sac.
  43. 43. Embryo • The stage of the embryo lasts from day 15 until approximately 8 weeks after conception, or until the embryo measures 3 cm from crown to rump. • The embryonic stage is the most critical time in the development of the organ systems and the main external features. • Developing areas with rapid cell division are the most vulnerable to malformation by environmental teratogens. • At the end of the eighth week, all organ systems and external structures are present, and the embryo is unmistakably human
  44. 44. Embryo
  45. 45. Embryo
  46. 46. Membranes • At the time of implantation, two fetal membranes that will surround the developing embryo begin to form. • The chorion develops from the trophoblast and contains the chorionic villi on its surface. The villi burrow into the deciduas basalis and increase in size and complexity as the vascular processes develop into the placenta. • The chorion becomes the covering of the fetal side of the placenta. It contains the major umbilical blood vessels that branch out over the surface of the placenta. As the embryo grows, the decidua capsularis stretches. The chorionic villi on this side atrophy and degenerate, leaving a smooth chorionic membrane.
  47. 47. Membranes
  48. 48. Membranes • The inner cell membrane, the amnion, develops from the interior cells of the blastocyst. The cavity that develops between this inner cell mass and the outer layer of cells (trophoblast) is the amniotic cavity. • As it grows larger, the amnion forms on the side opposite to the developing blastocyst . The developing embryo draws the amnion around itself to form a fluid-filled sac. • The amnion becomes the covering of the umbilical cord and covers the chorion on the fetal surface of the placenta. • As the embryo grows larger, the amnion enlarges to accommodate the embryo/fetus and the surrounding amniotic fluid. The amnion eventually comes in contact with the chorion surrounding the fetus.
  49. 49. Amniotic fluid • At first the amniotic cavity derives its fluid by diffusion from the maternal blood. The amount of fluid increases weekly, and 800 to 1200 ml of transparent liquid is normally present at birth term. • The amniotic fluid volume changes constantly. The fetus swallows fluid, and fluid flows into and out of the fetal lungs. The fetus urinates into the fluid, greatly increasing its volume.
  50. 50. Amniotic fluid Many functions are served by amniotic fluid for the embryo/fetus. • Amniotic fluid helps maintain a constant body temperature. • It serves as a source of oral fluid and as a repository for waste. • It cushions the fetus from trauma by blunting and dispersing outside forces. • It allows freedom of movement for musculoskeletal development.
  51. 51. Amniotic fluid Many functions are served by amniotic fluid for the embryo/fetus. • The fluid keeps the embryo from tangling with the membranes, facilitating symmetric growth of the fetus. • If the embryo does become tangled with the membranes, amputations of extremities or other deformities can occur from constricting amniotic bands.
  52. 52. Amniotic fluid Many functions are served by amniotic fluid for the embryo/fetus. • The volume of amniotic fluid is an important factor in assessing fetal well-being. • Having less than 300 ml of amniotic fluid (oligohydramnios) is associated with fetal renal abnormalities. • Having more than 2 L of amniotic fluid (hydramnios) is associated with gastrointestinal and other malformations.
  53. 53. Amniotic fluid • Amniotic fluid contains albumin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, lecithin, sphingomyelin, bilirubin, fructose, fat, leukocytes, proteins, epithelial cells, enzymes, and lanugo hair. • Study of fetal cells in amniotic fluid through amniocentesis yields much information about the fetus. • Genetic studies (karyotyping) provide knowledge about the sex and the number and structure of chromosomes. • Other studies, such as the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio, determine the health or maturity of the fetus.
  54. 54. Yolk sac • At the same time the amniotic cavity and amnion are forming, another blastocyst cavity forms on the other side of the developing embryonic disk. This cavity becomes surrounded by a membrane, forming the yolk sac. • The yolk sac aids in transferring maternal nutrients and oxygen, which have diffused through the chorion, to the embryo. • Blood vessels form to aid transport. Blood cells and plasma are manufactured in the yolk sac during the second and third weeks. At the end of the third week, the primitive heart begins to beat and circulate the blood through the embryo, connecting stalk, chorion, and yolk sac.
  55. 55. Yolk sac • The folding in of the embryo during the fourth week results in incorporation of part of the yolk sac into the embryo's body as the primitive digestive system. • Primordial germ cells arise in the yolk sac and move into the embryo. The shrinking remains of the yolk sac degenerate. By the fifth or sixth week, the remnant has separated from the embryo.
  56. 56. Yolk sac
  57. 57. Allantois • The human allantois is an endodermal evagination of the developing hindgut which becomes surrounded by the mesodermal connecting stalk. • The connecting stalk forms the umbilical vasculature. The fetal bladder is connected to the allantois via the urachus, which removes nitrogenous waste from the fetal bladder. • The allantois is vestigial and may regress, yet the homologous blood vessels persist as the umbilical arteries and veins connecting the embryo with the placenta.
  58. 58. Umbilical cord • By day 14 after conception the embryonic disk, amniotic sac, and yolk sac are attached to the chorionic villi by the connecting stalk. • During the third week the blood vessels develop to supply the embryo with maternal nutrients and oxygen. • During the fifth week, after the embryo has curved inward on itself from both ends (bringing the connecting stalk to the ventral side of the embryo), the connecting stalk becomes compressed from both sides by the amnion, forming the narrower umbilical cord. • Two arteries carry blood to the chorionic villi from the embryo, and one vein returns blood to the embryo.
  59. 59. Umbilical cord
  60. 60. Placenta • The placenta begins to form at implantation. During the third week after conception, the trophoblast cells of the chorionic villi continue to invade the decidua basalis. • As the uterine capillaries are tapped, the endometrial spiral arteries fill with maternal blood. The chorionic villi grow into the spaces with two layers of cells: the outer syncytium and the inner cytotrophoblast. • A third layer develops into anchoring septa, dividing the projecting decidua into separate areas called cotyledons. In each of the 15 to 20 cotyledons, the chorionic villi branch out, and a complex system of fetal blood vessels forms. • Each cotyledon is a functional unit.
  61. 61. Placenta
  62. 62. Placenta
  63. 63. Fetal maturation • The stage of the fetus lasts from approximately 9 weeks (when the embryo becomes recognizable as a human being) until the pregnancy ends. • Changes during the fetal period are not as dramatic, because refinement of structure and function are taking place. • The fetus is less vulnerable to teratogens except for those affecting central nervous system functioning. • Viability refers to the capability of the fetus to survive outside the uterus. In the past the earliest age at which fetal survival could be expected was 28 weeks after conception. With modern technology and advances in maternal and neonatal care, viability is now possible at 20 weeks after conception (22 weeks since LMP; fetal weight of 500 g or more). • The limitations on survival outside the uterus are based on central nervous system function and oxygenation capability of the lungs.
  64. 64. Fetal blood circulatory system
  65. 65. Fetal blood circulatory system
  66. 66. Monozygotic twins
  67. 67. Dizygotic twins
  68. 68. Teratology • Teratology is the study of abnormal fetal development. Major birth defects occur in approximately 3% of all deliveries. • A teratogenic agent, which can be identified in less than 50% of the cases, is any chemical (drug), infection, physical condition, or deficiency that, on fetal exposure, can alter fetal morphology or subsequent function.
  69. 69. ETIOLOGY OF HUMAN MALFORMATIONS ENVIRONMENTAL • Maternal Conditions • Alcoholism, diabetes, endocrinopathies, phenylketonuria, smoking, nutritional problems • Infectious Agents • Rubella, toxoplasmosis, syphilis, herpes simplex, cytomegalic inclusion disease, varicella, Venezuelan equine encephalitis • Mechanical Problems (Deformations) • Amniotic band constrictions, umbilical cord constraint, disparity in uterine size and uterine contents • Chemicals, Drugs, Radiation, Hyperthermia GENETIC • Single Gene Disorders • Chromosomal Abnormalities UNKNOWN • Polygenic/Multifactorial (Gene-Environment Interactions) • "Spontaneous" Errors of Development • Other Unknowns Modified from Fanaroff, A., & Martin, R. (1997). Neonatal-perinatal medicine: Diseases of the fetus and infant. St. Louis: Mosby.
  70. 70. Teratology Reproductive cells toxicity – usually leads to miscarriage of to chromosomal anomalies. Embryotoxicity - adverse effects on the embryo due to a substance that enters the maternal system and crosses the placental barrier in embryonal period (before 9 weeks of pregnancy) ; the effects of the substance may be expressed as embryonic death, pregnancy abortion or abnormal development of one or more body systems. Fetotoxicity - adverse fetal effects due to toxins entering the maternal circulation and crossing the placental barrier in fetal period (later 9 weeks of pregnancy), which may appear as fetal disorders, altered growth and (in the worst case) utero death.
  71. 71. Down’s syndrome
  72. 72. Patau syndrome
  73. 73. Teratology Susceptibility of the conceptus to teratogenic agents depends on the developmental stage at the time of exposure. • Resistant period. From day 0 to day 11 of gestation (postovulation), the conceptus is resistant with regard to major anomalies; that is, it will either be killed by the insult or survive unaffected. This is the period of predifferentiation when the aggregate of totipotential cells can recover from an injury and continue to multiply. • Maximum susceptibility (embryonic period). From days 11 to 57 of gestation, the fetus is undergoing organ differentiation and, at this time, is most susceptible to the adverse effects of teratogens.
  74. 74. Teratology The particular malformation depends on the time of exposure. After a certain time in organogenesis, it is thought that abnormal embryogenesis can no longer occur. For example, because the neural tube closes between days 22 and 28 postconception (5 weeks after the last menstrual period), a teratogen must be active before or during this period to initiate development of a neural tube defect (e.g., spina bifida or anencephaly).
  75. 75. Spina bifida
  76. 76. Spina bifida
  77. 77. Anencephaly
  78. 78. Teratology Lowered susceptibility (fetal period). After 57 days (8 weeks) of gestation, the organs have formed and are increasing in size. A teratogen at this stage may cause a reduction in cell size and number, which is manifested by: • Growth retardation • Reduction of organ size • Functional derangements of organ systems
  79. 79. Fetal alcohol syndrome Consumption of alcohol in pregnancy is the most common known teratogenic cause of mental retardation. Both abortion and stillbirth are increased in heavy drinkers. Fetal alcohol syndrome, which manifests as mental retardation, growth retardation, abnormal facies, ocular and joint anomalies, and cardiac defects, has been associated with the ingestion of 1 oz or more of absolute alcohol per day.
  80. 80. Fetal alcohol syndrome
  81. 81. Diabetic fetopathia
  82. 82. Hypothyroidism
  83. 83. Infections
  84. 84. Cytomegalovirus syndrome • Microcephaly and hydrocephaly • Chorioretinitis • Hepatosplenomegaly • Cerebral calcification • Mental retardation • Heart block • Petechiae
  85. 85. Toxoplasmosis • The pregnancy may result in a spontaneous abortion, perinatal death, severe congenital anomalies, abnormal growth, and residual handicaps. • In severe disease, the characteristic triad of anomalies includes chorioretinitis; hydrocephaly or microcephaly; and cerebral calcification, resulting in psychomotor retardation
  86. 86. Syphillis • Hepatosplenomegaly • Joint swelling • Skin rash • Anemia • Jaundice • Snuffles • Metaphyseal dystrophy • Periostitis • Cerebrospinal fluid changes
  87. 87. Syphillis
  88. 88. Molar pregnancy • Molar pregnancy is an abnormal form of pregnancy in which a non-viable fertilized egg implants in the uterus and converts a normal pregnancy into an abnormal one (which will fail to come to term). • A molar pregnancy is a gestational trophoblastic disease that grows into a mass in the uterus that has swollen chorionic villi. These villi grow in clusters that resemble grapes.
  89. 89. Molar pregnancy • A molar pregnancy can develop when an egg that is missing its nucleus is fertilized and that may or may not contain fetal tissue. It is characterized by the presence of a hydatidiform mole (or hydatid mole, mola hydatidosa) (mole=growth)
  90. 90. Molar pregnancy • A complete mole is caused by a single (90%) or two (10%) sperm combining with an egg which has lost its DNA (the sperm then reduplicates forming a "complete" 46 chromosome set) • The genotype is typically 46,XX (diploid) due to subsequent mitosis of the fertilizing sperm, but can also be 46,XY (diploid). 46,YY (diploid) is not observed. • In contrast, a partial mole occurs when an egg is fertilized by two sperm or by one sperm which reduplicates itself yielding the genotypes of 69,XXY (triploid) or 92,XXXY (tetraploid)
  91. 91. Molar pregnancy • Complete hydatidiform moles have a higher risk of developing into choriocarcinoma — a malignant tumor of trophoblast cells — than do partial moles.
  92. 92. Molar pregnancy
  93. 93. Molar pregnancy
  94. 94. Molar pregnancy
  95. 95. Thank you!
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×