The Neuropsychology of Presence Giuseppe Riva , Ph.D. Department of Psychology Università Cattolica  del Sacro Cuore, Mila...
Summary <ul><li>This presentation will focus on: </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of presence : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How it ...
The background <ul><li>What do people do at work? They go to meetings. How do we deal with meetings? What is it about sitt...
The background <ul><li>The biggest challenge to developing telepresence is achieving that sense of “being there.” Can tele...
What is presence? <ul><li>The sense of ‘being there’   (Held & Durlach, Sheridan, Zeltzer: premier issue of PRESENCE, 1992...
Why presence is important? <ul><li>In our application we have to focus more on the  quality of graphics or to the quality ...
The origin of presence <ul><li>Telepresence research (1971-1980) </li></ul>Local Physical   Space Remote Physical   Space
The origin of presence <ul><li>In this position the  key goal of VR  is to  reproduce real world : the more is accurate th...
Is this true? What is better (Slater, 2004)? =>  Static vs dynamic Stereoscopic vs 2D Immersive vs non Immersive Tracking ...
Being There:  the efforts <ul><li>Creating the sense of  presence  is a major challenge and is leading to the development ...
VR SYSTEMS Other Haptic Aural Visual VR - DISPLAYS Other Haptic Aural Visual VR - RENDER Other Haptic Aural Visual REPRESE...
VR SYSTEMS INPUT USER MONITORING (USER INPUT TO THE VIRTUAL WORLD) Tracking SENSORS Body Tracking Head Hands & Fingers Eye...
VR SYSTEMS OUTPUT VISUAL TYPES VISUAL DISPLAYS (Alcaniz, 2004) <ul><li>Stationary Displays </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor Based...
VR SYSTEMS OUTPUT VISUAL <ul><li>Monoscopic Image Depth Cues </li></ul><ul><li>Interposition </li></ul><ul><li>Shading </l...
VR SYSTEMS OUTPUT AURAL AURAL DISPLAYS (Alcaniz, 2004) AURAL LOCALIZATION CUES LOCALIZATION   SPATIALIZATION   PROPERTIES ...
VR SYSTEMS OUTPUT HAPTIC HAPTIC DISPLAYS (Alcaniz, 2004) TYPES <ul><li>Tactile Haptic Displays </li></ul><ul><li>Actuators...
Being There:  The holy grail <ul><li>A final theory of presence - emerging through this interdisciplinary research - shoul...
<ul><li>Same Problem,  Different Faces </li></ul><ul><li>(Biocca, 2003) : Failure to account  </li></ul><ul><li>for:  </li...
Presence:  The holy grail
Presence: the efforts <ul><li>Moreover, we have different “presences” (Riva et al., 2004) : </li></ul><ul><li>Physical pre...
Presence:  the efforts
Presence:  What we know <ul><li>There is consensus that the experience of presence is a complex, multidimensional percepti...
Presence:  What we know <ul><li>Characteristics of the medium  can be subdivided into media  form  and media  content  var...
Presence:  What we know <ul><li>About the  characteristics of the users  we also know that an important role is played by ...
Presence Summary  (EMMA project, 2004) Slater and Usoh (1993) “ Psychology is the physics of VR in the sense that the virt...
The holy grail <ul><li>Evolutionary feasibility :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence shifts must predate all media. </li></ul...
Our attempt <ul><li>Recent research in neuroscience has tried to understand  human action  from two different but convergi...
Presence as selection mechanism (1) <ul><li>Specifically we consider presence as a selective neuropsychological phenomenon...
Presence as selection mechanism (2) <ul><li>Presence is described here as a  defining feature of the nervous system  able ...
Presence as selection mechanism (3) <ul><li>At the neural level, recent research indicates that the  insula and the right ...
Presence as selection mechanism (4) <ul><li>Here we argue that is the  feeling of presence that provides to the self feedb...
Why is presence a distinct psychological process ? <ul><li>Recently the observation of  mirror neurons  has lead to the su...
Why is presence a distinct psychological process ? <ul><li>Mirror neurons and canonical neurons provide neural mechanisms ...
Embodiment and Cognition <ul><li>Maturana & Varela’s (1980, 1987) definition of autopoietic systems: A living system is an...
Embodiment and Cognition  <ul><li>These vision support a shift from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the traditional cognitive theor...
Presence as feeling of  being  in an  external  world Presence as selection mechanism
A layered self <ul><li>According to Damasio, self is a  layered concept :  </li></ul><ul><li> the  proto self : a cohere...
Presence as  layered process <ul><li>In particular we hypothesize that is possible to associate a specific layer of presen...
First layer:  Proto Presence <ul><li>The evolutionary goal of the  proto self  is to predict the characteristics of the ex...
Second layer:  Core Presence <ul><li>The evolutionary goal of the  core self  is the integration of specific sensory occur...
Third layer:  Extended Presence <ul><li>The evolutionary goal of  extended self  is the shift  from meaning-as-comprehensi...
The Mental States of Presence
In Summary (1) <ul><li>Proto Presence  =>  perception-action coupling  (tracking/interface system)  </li></ul><ul><li>Core...
In Summary (2) <ul><li>A media may influence only some layers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a compelling  book reading  only  ...
In summary (3) <ul><li>The importance of a  layer is related to the goal of the VR esperience : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seei...
Conclusions (1) <ul><li>This approach has three corollaries: </li></ul><ul><li>in real world the  level of presence is not...
Conclusions (2) <ul><li>To optimize experienced presence in virtual environments we must design in a way that  integrates ...
Being There:  More tips here <ul><li>This book is an attempt to help designer and researchers in approaching this field, b...
Being There:  The book structure <ul><li>For the complexity of the discussed topic, we have put a great deal of thought an...
Being There:  The approach <ul><li>As noted by Frank Biocca in the Introduction (pp. I-II):  </li></ul><ul><li>“ As Munste...
Being There:  1. Past, Present and Future <ul><li>In Chapter 1,  IJsselsteijn and Riva  present the forms of the experienc...
Being There:  1. Past, Present and Future <ul><li>Davide and   Walker , starting from the analysis of the techniques used ...
Being There:  2. Theory and Methods <ul><li>Main focus of Chapter 5 by  Marsh  is the discussion of an activity-based appr...
Being There:  2. Theory and Methods <ul><li>In Chapter 7,  Insko  makes a review of subjective, behavioral and physiologic...
Being There:  2. Theory and Methods <ul><li>The chapter by  Zhao  (Chapter 9) differentiates two basic modes of mediated p...
Being There:  3. Applications <ul><li>Chapter 10 by  Davies, Rydberg, Mitchell, Hornyansky, Dalhom and Nichols  focuses on...
Being There:  3. Applications <ul><li>Da Bormida and Lefrere  discuss in Chapter 12 three forms of mobile-supported user p...
Being There:  3. Applications <ul><li>Chapter 14 by  Farshchian  deals with the analysis of presence technologies for supp...
Being There:  3. Applications <ul><li>Chapter 16 by  Hofmann and Bubb  reports the concept and results of an empirical stu...
Being There:  4. Social Presence <ul><li>In Chapter 17,  Cottone and Mantovani G.  discuss the importance of creating a “c...
Being There:  4. Social Presence <ul><li>In chapter 19,  Heeter, Gregg, Climo, Biocca and Dekker  present findings from ca...
Being There:  4. Social Presence <ul><li>Finally,  Boucouvalas  (Chapter 21) describes a real-time text-to-emotion engine ...
Being There:  Reading the book <ul><li>The paper version (hardcover) of the book can be ordered on the IOS Press web site:...
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The NeuroPsychology of Presence

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Presence, a critical feature of interactive media is here described as a neuropsychological phenomenon, evolved from the interplay of our biological and cultural inheritance, whose goal is the enaction of the volition of the self: presence is the non mediated (prereflexive) perception of successful intentions in action.

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The NeuroPsychology of Presence

  1. 1. The Neuropsychology of Presence Giuseppe Riva , Ph.D. Department of Psychology Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan, Italy ATN-P Lab. Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy E-mail: [email_address] http://www.emergingcommunication.com http://www.e-psychology.net http://www.ambientintelligence.org Applied Technology for Neuro-Psychology Lab .
  2. 2. Summary <ul><li>This presentation will focus on: </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of presence : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How it is born and its technology background; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its different faces; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The difficulties experienced; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What we already know. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A new vision of the concept of presence based on the latest neuropsychological theories and development: </li></ul><ul><li>Its meaning for the development of VR applications for rehabilitation : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A layered sense of presence; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The focus on the final application. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To deepen this vision : two free books (PDF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.emergingcommunication.com/volume5.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.emergingcommunication.com/volume8.html </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The background <ul><li>What do people do at work? They go to meetings. How do we deal with meetings? What is it about sitting face to face that we need to capture? We need software that makes it possible to hold a meeting with distributed participants -- a meeting with interactivity and feeling, such that, in the future, people will prefer being telepresent . </li></ul><ul><li>Bill Gates, 1999 </li></ul>
  4. 4. The background <ul><li>The biggest challenge to developing telepresence is achieving that sense of “being there.” Can telepresence be a true substitute for the real thing? Will we be able to couple our artificial devices naturally and comfortably to work together with the sensory mechanisms of human organisms? </li></ul><ul><li>Marvin Minsky, 1980 </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is presence? <ul><li>The sense of ‘being there’ (Held & Durlach, Sheridan, Zeltzer: premier issue of PRESENCE, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ A perceptual illusion of nonmediation’ (Lombard and Ditton, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ A mental state in which a user feels physically present within the computer-mediated environment’ ( Draper & Kaber, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The subjective experience of being in one place or environment, even when one is physically situated in another’ (Witmer & Singer, 1998) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why presence is important? <ul><li>In our application we have to focus more on the quality of graphics or to the quality of interaction ? ; </li></ul><ul><li>What is the best effort/performance ratio for VR in different application ?: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In VR for surgical simulation is more important the quality of graphics or the realism of the interaction? => I have to invest more on a graphic card or on some haptic device? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much effort I have to spend in the development of 3D models => more polygons are better? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The origin of presence <ul><li>Telepresence research (1971-1980) </li></ul>Local Physical Space Remote Physical Space
  8. 8. The origin of presence <ul><li>In this position the key goal of VR is to reproduce real world : the more is accurate the reproduction, the more you are present => Quality of graphics is a must </li></ul>Physical Space Virtual Space
  9. 9. Is this true? What is better (Slater, 2004)? => Static vs dynamic Stereoscopic vs 2D Immersive vs non Immersive Tracking vs Mouse Meaningful vs Boring
  10. 10. Being There: the efforts <ul><li>Creating the sense of presence is a major challenge and is leading to the development of new interdisciplinary research combining </li></ul><ul><li>cognitive psychology, </li></ul><ul><li>haptic (sense of touch) studies, </li></ul><ul><li>computer graphics and multimedia design, </li></ul><ul><li>advanced communication theory and socio-cultural issues </li></ul><ul><li>communication technologies . </li></ul>
  11. 11. VR SYSTEMS Other Haptic Aural Visual VR - DISPLAYS Other Haptic Aural Visual VR - RENDER Other Haptic Aural Visual REPRESENTATION SENSORY ORGANS INPUT DEVICES Augmented Reality REAL WORLD VIRTUAL WORLD THE USER
  12. 12. VR SYSTEMS INPUT USER MONITORING (USER INPUT TO THE VIRTUAL WORLD) Tracking SENSORS Body Tracking Head Hands & Fingers Eyes Torso Feet Other: Temperature Perspiration Heart Rate Respiration Rate Emotional State Brain Waves Props Platforms Buttons Switches Valuators Ring Platform Kiosk Platform Ambulatory Platform Vehicle Platform (Cockpit) Stationary VR Display Platform Physical Input Devices Position Orientation Electromagnetic Mechanical Optical Videometric Ultrasonic Inertial Neural Direct Indirect Physical Controls Prop Platforms Sliders Dial
  13. 13. VR SYSTEMS OUTPUT VISUAL TYPES VISUAL DISPLAYS (Alcaniz, 2004) <ul><li>Stationary Displays </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor Based (Fishtank) VR </li></ul><ul><li>Projection VR </li></ul><ul><li>Head Based Displays </li></ul><ul><li>Occlusive HMD </li></ul><ul><li>Nonoclusive HMD ( See- Through ) </li></ul><ul><li>Hand Based Displays </li></ul><ul><li>Palm VR </li></ul>
  14. 14. VR SYSTEMS OUTPUT VISUAL <ul><li>Monoscopic Image Depth Cues </li></ul><ul><li>Interposition </li></ul><ul><li>Shading </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Linear Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Surface Texture Gradient </li></ul><ul><li>Height in the Visual Field </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Brightness </li></ul><ul><li>Stereoscopic Image Depth Cues (Stereopsis) </li></ul><ul><li>Motion Depth Cues </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological Depth Cues </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodation </li></ul><ul><li>Converge </li></ul>VISUAL DEPTH CUES PROPERTIES VISUAL DISPLAYS <ul><li>Visual Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Brightness </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Display Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Focal Distance </li></ul><ul><li>Opacity </li></ul><ul><li>Masking </li></ul><ul><li>Field of View </li></ul><ul><li>Field of Regard </li></ul><ul><li>Head Position Information </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics Latency Tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal Resolution (Frame Rate) </li></ul><ul><li>Logistic </li></ul><ul><li>User Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Interface with Tracking Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Environment Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Associability with Other Sense Displays </li></ul><ul><li>Portability </li></ul><ul><li>Throughput </li></ul><ul><li>Encumbrance </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul>
  15. 15. VR SYSTEMS OUTPUT AURAL AURAL DISPLAYS (Alcaniz, 2004) AURAL LOCALIZATION CUES LOCALIZATION SPATIALIZATION PROPERTIES <ul><li>Visual Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Display Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Sound Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Localization </li></ul><ul><li>Masking </li></ul><ul><li>Amplification </li></ul><ul><li>Logistic </li></ul><ul><li>Noise Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>User Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Interface with Tracking Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Environment Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Associability with Other Sense Displays </li></ul><ul><li>Portability </li></ul><ul><li>Throughput </li></ul><ul><li>Encumbrance </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul>
  16. 16. VR SYSTEMS OUTPUT HAPTIC HAPTIC DISPLAYS (Alcaniz, 2004) TYPES <ul><li>Tactile Haptic Displays </li></ul><ul><li>Actuators </li></ul><ul><li>End-Effector Displays </li></ul><ul><li>Robotically Operated Displays </li></ul>
  17. 17. Being There: The holy grail <ul><li>A final theory of presence - emerging through this interdisciplinary research - should explore the cognitive and affective roots of sensory perception, consciousness and self . </li></ul><ul><li>This theory could allow the design of innovative systems that offer &quot;richer&quot; experiences than any current media and communication technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>However, this is not an easy task. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Same Problem, Different Faces </li></ul><ul><li>(Biocca, 2003) : Failure to account </li></ul><ul><li>for: </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Imagery, </li></ul><ul><li>Attention and </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul>Book Problem : Low immersion > High presence Physical-Reality Problem : High immersion > Moderate Presence Dream State Problem : High immersion > Moderate Presence
  19. 19. Presence: The holy grail
  20. 20. Presence: the efforts <ul><li>Moreover, we have different “presences” (Riva et al., 2004) : </li></ul><ul><li>Physical presence refers to the sense of being physically located in mediated space; </li></ul><ul><li>Social presence refers to the feeling of being together, of social interaction with a virtual or remotely located communication partner. </li></ul><ul><li>At the intersection of these two categories, we can then identify Co-presence or a sense of being together in a shared space, combining significant characteristics of both physical and social presence. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Presence: the efforts
  22. 22. Presence: What we know <ul><li>There is consensus that the experience of presence is a complex, multidimensional perception, formed through an interplay of raw (multi-)sensory data and various cognitive processes – an experience in which attentional factors play a crucial role as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Two categories of variables can determine a user's presence: (i) media characteristics , and (ii) user characteristics . </li></ul>
  23. 23. Presence: What we know <ul><li>Characteristics of the medium can be subdivided into media form and media content variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Both of these are known to have a significant impact on the individual’s sense of presence such that, depending on the levels of appropriate, rich, consistent, and captivating sensory stimulation, varying levels of presence can be produced. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Presence: What we know <ul><li>About the characteristics of the users we also know that an important role is played by the context in which the user is in. </li></ul><ul><li>Presence is always mediated by both physical (our body, technological devices, etc.) and conceptual ( expectations, roles, etc.) tools (ARTIFACTS), that belong to a given culture: we have to develop synthetic environments in which actors may function in an ecologically valid way easily identifying what they have to do. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Presence Summary (EMMA project, 2004) Slater and Usoh (1993) “ Psychology is the physics of VR in the sense that the virtual environment is manufactured towards creating a cognitive state” ( R. Lauria, 1997 ) FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PRESENCE EXTERNAL FACTORS INTERNAL FACTORS COMMON PROCESSES INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES STRUCTURAL ASPECTS PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS EMOTIONS
  26. 26. The holy grail <ul><li>Evolutionary feasibility : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence shifts must predate all media. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanisms must serve other cognitive functions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psycho-neurological plausibility . </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-media generalizability : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should use same mechanisms to explain all shifts in presence both mediated and non-mediated. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Our attempt <ul><li>Recent research in neuroscience has tried to understand human action from two different but converging perspectives: the cognitive and the volitional. </li></ul><ul><li>On one side, cognitive studies analyze how action is planned and controlled in response to environmental conditions . </li></ul><ul><li>On the other side, volitional studies analyze how action is planned and controlled by subject’s needs, motives and goals . </li></ul><ul><li>In our vision (Riva et al., 2006) we suggest that presence is the missing link between these two approaches. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Presence as selection mechanism (1) <ul><li>Specifically we consider presence as a selective neuropsychological phenomenon, evolved from the interplay of our biological and cultural inheritance, whose goal is the enaction of the volition of the self : presence is the non mediated (prereflexive) perception of successful intentions in action . </li></ul><ul><li>The model makes sense in terms of evolutionary psychology and is beginning to be supported by evidence of the neural and other physical correlates of action , imitation and self-monitoring. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Presence as selection mechanism (2) <ul><li>Presence is described here as a defining feature of the nervous system able to solve a key problem for its survival: how to differentiate between internal and external intentions . </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, it is presence that transforms intentionality – the ability to recognize purposeful actions – into the ability of producing an intention – the agent’s mental state that drives such actions. </li></ul><ul><li>The presence process can be described as a sophisticated but unconscious form of monitoring of action and experience , transparent to the self but critical for its existence. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Presence as selection mechanism (3) <ul><li>At the neural level, recent research indicates that the insula and the right inferior parietal cortex may be crucial in distinguishing the self from the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Activation in the right inferior parietal lobe is found in reciprocal imitation. Similarly, activation of the right inferior parietal lobe correlates with the subjective sense of ownership in action execution. </li></ul><ul><li>Further, mentally simulating the actions of another person results in activation in the right inferior parietal cortex . </li></ul><ul><li>The main experiential outcome of this process is the sense of agency: we feel that we are both the author and the owner of our own action . </li></ul>
  31. 31. Presence as selection mechanism (4) <ul><li>Here we argue that is the feeling of presence that provides to the self feedback about the status of its activity : the self perceives the variations in the feeling of presence and tunes its activity accordingly. </li></ul><ul><li>This is achieved through a : during self-produced actions a sensory simulative forward model prediction of the outcome of the action is produced along with the actual motor command. </li></ul><ul><li>The results of the comparison (which occurs at a sub-personal level) between the sensory prediction and the sensory consequences of the act can then be used to determine both the agent of the action and to track any possible variation in its course . </li></ul><ul><li>If no variations are perceived, the self is able to concentrate on the action and not on its monitoring . </li></ul>
  32. 32. Why is presence a distinct psychological process ? <ul><li>Recently the observation of mirror neurons has lead to the suggestion that there is not only a rich representation of motor action but also that this representation is used for multiple purposes: action execution, action planning, action imaging, and action recognition. </li></ul><ul><li>Of particular importance is the observation that one agent can recognise an action plan of another one and that the same neurons are involved. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Why is presence a distinct psychological process ? <ul><li>Mirror neurons and canonical neurons provide neural mechanisms for the centrality of observation and imitation in the ontogeny and phylogeny of the learning and transmission of cultural tool systems. BUT we need Presence to differentiate between: </li></ul><ul><li>The real act of doing something; </li></ul><ul><li>Its mental representation. </li></ul><ul><li>Without this basic distinction imitation and learning is totally impossible </li></ul>
  34. 34. Embodiment and Cognition <ul><li>Maturana & Varela’s (1980, 1987) definition of autopoietic systems: A living system is an autopoietic machine whose function it is to create and maintain the unity that distinguishes it from the medium in which it exists. </li></ul><ul><li>Lakoff & Johnson (1980, 1999) argued that abstract concepts are based on metaphors grounded in bodily experience/activity . </li></ul>
  35. 35. Embodiment and Cognition <ul><li>These vision support a shift from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the traditional cognitive theories of selfhood assuming that self and personal identity are wholly mind-based , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to an embodied approach. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This new approach, headed by recent work from Damasio, finds in the evolution of the central nervous system the origin of the self. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Presence as feeling of being in an external world Presence as selection mechanism
  37. 37. A layered self <ul><li>According to Damasio, self is a layered concept : </li></ul><ul><li> the proto self : a coherent collection of neural patterns that map, moment by moment, the physical state of the organism; </li></ul><ul><li> the core self : a transient entity which is continuously generated through encounters with objects; </li></ul><ul><li>the autobiographical self : a systematic record of the more invariant properties that the organism has discovered about itself. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Presence as layered process <ul><li>In particular we hypothesize that is possible to associate a specific layer of presence with each of the three levels of self identified by Damasio. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self versus non-self ( proto presence ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self versus present external world ( core presence ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self relative to present external world ( extended presence ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Given that each layer of presence solves a peculiar facet of the internal/external world separation, it is characterized by specific properties . </li></ul>
  39. 39. First layer: Proto Presence <ul><li>The evolutionary goal of the proto self is to predict the characteristics of the external world as it is experienced through sensorial inputs. </li></ul><ul><li>Proto presence is an embodied presence related to the level of perception-action coupling (self vs. non-self) : the more the organism is able to couple correctly perceptions and movements, the more it differentiates itself from the external world, thus increasing its probability of surviving. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Second layer: Core Presence <ul><li>The evolutionary goal of the core self is the integration of specific sensory occurrences into single percepts. </li></ul><ul><li>We can define the core presence as the activity of selective attention made by the self on perceptions : the more the organism can focus on its sensorial experience by leaving in the background the remaining neural processes, the more it can identify the present moment and its current tasks, rising its probability of surviving. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Third layer: Extended Presence <ul><li>The evolutionary goal of extended self is the shift from meaning-as-comprehensibility to meaning-as-significance. </li></ul><ul><li>The role of extended presence is to verify the significance (“ Relevance ”, Sperber and Wilson, 1995) of the experience for the self: </li></ul><ul><li>The more the self is present in significant experiences, the more he will be able to reach its goals, augmenting its possibility of surviving. </li></ul>
  42. 42. The Mental States of Presence
  43. 43. In Summary (1) <ul><li>Proto Presence => perception-action coupling (tracking/interface system) </li></ul><ul><li>Core Presence => vividness and immersion (quality of virtual experience) </li></ul><ul><li>Extended Presence => meaning (attractiveness of the experience for the goals of the subject) </li></ul>
  44. 44. In Summary (2) <ul><li>A media may influence only some layers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a compelling book reading only extended consciousness is involved, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and with a movie experience we can modify both core presence and extended presence but not proto presence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only in immersive virtual reality all the three layers of presence are modified by the media experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We suggest that this gives immersive VR a privileged status as a medium for meaningful experiences. </li></ul>
  45. 45. In summary (3) <ul><li>The importance of a layer is related to the goal of the VR esperience : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing : core presence is critical (vividness and immersiveness); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation/Exploration : both proto presence (perception/action coupling) and core presence; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction : core presence and extended presence (meaning) are critical; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication : extended presence is the most relevant. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Conclusions (1) <ul><li>This approach has three corollaries: </li></ul><ul><li>in real world the level of presence is not the same in all the situations . </li></ul><ul><li>there are exceptional situations in real life that have the highest possible level of presence . In these situations all the three layers are activated. </li></ul><ul><li>it should be possible to design mediated situations that elicit exceptionally high presence. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Conclusions (2) <ul><li>To optimize experienced presence in virtual environments we must design in a way that integrates the three layers of presence . </li></ul><ul><li>We need to provide as much immersion as possible, integrating proto (spatial) and core (sensory) presence. But if what is happening is not of interest or importance to the individual, the layers of presence will not be integrated and presence will be relatively weak: the situations experienced in the virtual environment must have immediate significance for the participant. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Being There: More tips here <ul><li>This book is an attempt to help designer and researchers in approaching this field, by developing a better understanding of how a real sense of presence can be achieved . </li></ul><ul><li>It involves learning and discovering what is going on when people use their senses to understand and interpret their surrounding environment and when they interact with objects in that environment. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Being There: The book structure <ul><li>For the complexity of the discussed topic, we have put a great deal of thought and effort in the definition of the structure of the book and the sequence of the contributions. </li></ul><ul><li>To this end we have divided the book in four main Sections comprising 21 chapters overall: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence: Past, Present and Future ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence: Theory and Methods; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence in Practice: Applications; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Presence: Creating a Common Ground. </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Being There: The approach <ul><li>As noted by Frank Biocca in the Introduction (pp. I-II): </li></ul><ul><li>“ As Munsterberg, McLuhan, Bricken and others have envisioned, presence is about how the mind “perceives” reality, not the reality itself ; not physics, but psychology; the extended mind, the place where experience, technology, and psychology meet… </li></ul><ul><li>As interface design makes clear, a cyclotron of the mind can only be created by perfectly simulating the medium of the mind, the body, or what McLuhan called the extended senses . ” </li></ul>
  51. 51. Being There: 1. Past, Present and Future <ul><li>In Chapter 1, IJsselsteijn and Riva present the forms of the experience of “being there” in a mediated environment by discussing different types of presence: physical presence, social presence and co-presence. </li></ul><ul><li>IJsselsteijn in Chapter 2 provides an historical review of the development of cinema, television, telerobotics and virtual environments in search for the roots of the concept of presence in today’s media technology. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Being There: 1. Past, Present and Future <ul><li>Davide and Walker , starting from the analysis of the techniques used by artists, try to outline in Chapter 3 a four-stage strategy for engineering presence using virtual environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 4 by Riva, Loreti, Lunghi, Vatalaro and Davide , shows how the significant advances in virtual environments, mobile communication and sensors/biosensors, allow the emergence of a new vision: the Ambient Intelligence . </li></ul>
  53. 53. Being There: 2. Theory and Methods <ul><li>Main focus of Chapter 5 by Marsh is the discussion of an activity-based approach to the analysis and design of interactive mediated environments. </li></ul><ul><li>In the chapter 6 by Gamberini and Spagnolli , the authors analyze the relationship between presence In the proposed perspective, user’s presence is taken to emerge from the actions performed, and usability is referred to the complex object created by the situated interaction with the simulation. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Being There: 2. Theory and Methods <ul><li>In Chapter 7, Insko makes a review of subjective, behavioral and physiological methods to measure presence, discussing their use in the field, advantages and disadvantages. </li></ul><ul><li>Gaggioli, Bassi and Delle Fave present in Chapter 8 a theoretical and methodological approach to the study of presence focusing on the analysis of the quality of experience associated with the virtual environments. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Being There: 2. Theory and Methods <ul><li>The chapter by Zhao (Chapter 9) differentiates two basic modes of mediated presence, remote presence and virtual presence, through the use of the metaphor of “being there”. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Being There: 3. Applications <ul><li>Chapter 10 by Davies, Rydberg, Mitchell, Hornyansky, Dalhom and Nichols focuses on the role played by presence in mixed reality for participatory design. </li></ul><ul><li>In chapter 11 by Mantovani F. and Castelnuovo , the role of the sense of presence in Virtual Training Environments is explored. The relationship between sense of presence and training efficacy is also discussed. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Being There: 3. Applications <ul><li>Da Bormida and Lefrere discuss in Chapter 12 three forms of mobile-supported user presence: ‘anticipatory user presence’, ‘super-real presence’ and ‘retrospective presence’. </li></ul><ul><li>The persuasive effects of presence in immersive virtual environments are the topic covered by Grigorovici in Chapter 13. Possible applications in entertainment VR, e-marketing, advertising, public or health communication are also discussed. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Being There: 3. Applications <ul><li>Chapter 14 by Farshchian deals with the analysis of presence technologies for supporting informal collaboration, by investigating existing presence applications designed to support informal collaboration, </li></ul><ul><li>Waterworth and Waterworth in Chapter 15 present an approach to presence focused on its role in eliciting creativity. They provide an example of a novel immersive environment – the Interactive Tent – and an artistic production within it – The Illusion of Being. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Being There: 3. Applications <ul><li>Chapter 16 by Hofmann and Bubb reports the concept and results of an empirical study that explored presence in industrial virtual environment applications. The work analyzed the effects of immersion and pictorial realism on the sense of presence in the virtual environment. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Being There: 4. Social Presence <ul><li>In Chapter 17, Cottone and Mantovani G. discuss the importance of creating a “common ground” and support to co-reference in distant learning in order to enhance social presence and the situation awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 18 by Markopoulos, IJsselsteijn, Huijnen, Romijn and Philopoulos discusses research carried out to understand the requirements of elderly for informal social telecommunication media that may be addressed through awareness technologies. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Being There: 4. Social Presence <ul><li>In chapter 19, Heeter, Gregg, Climo, Biocca and Dekker present findings from case studies focusing on the use of Tele-windows, a telecommunication system aiming at extending participation in social groups for homebound and mobility-limited people. </li></ul><ul><li>In Chapter 20, Manninen presents the findings of ethnographical research, which elaborates and analyses the interaction forms of a contemporary multi-player game. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Being There: 4. Social Presence <ul><li>Finally, Boucouvalas (Chapter 21) describes a real-time text-to-emotion engine used to allow expressive Internet communications. Such an interface enhances text communication in multi-user environments by automatically extracting emotional states from the content of typed sentences, and displaying on the screen appropriate facial expression images in real time. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Being There: Reading the book <ul><li>The paper version (hardcover) of the book can be ordered on the IOS Press web site: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.iospress.nl </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The electronic version of the book can be freely downloaded by the series web site together with other VR/Communication books: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.emergingcommunication.com </li></ul>

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