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Using Educational Theory and Moral Psychology to Inform the Teaching of Ethics in Computing
 

Using Educational Theory and Moral Psychology to Inform the Teaching of Ethics in Computing

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Presented at InfoSecCD 2005

Presented at InfoSecCD 2005

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  • Briefly define these issues and give a brief history of how they were arrived at. Most people couldn’t have imagined 15 years ago, or 20 years ago where the desk top revolution was going to lead, what whole new fields and opportunities it was going to open, and what some of the abuses and problems would be
  • Intro yourself and your back ground –say you want to show a brief ethical dilemma (Hollywood style) – sorry it couldn’t be more Info Security related, but you want folks to pay close attention because at the end there’s going to be a quiz – or a least a question you want them to ponder.
  • In my review of the literature for my masters project and in my collaboration with Dr. Dark, I found that morality had at least 3 aspects to it … If any one of these factors are missing, this would be a recipe for an ethical disaster.
  • When we think about the three aspects of morality, I just mentioned – cognitive, affective, and social, we can come to a logical conclusion that morality is DEVELOPMENTAL in nature
  • In fact this is what the literature tells us. Lawrence Kohlberg (1969) proposed that morality is developmental and that it is driven to unfold in stages by cognitive dissonance. Go over the chart.
  • With these concepts in mind, we see that at least some of what we are seeking when we teach professional ethics involves developmental change – getting the students to know, to care, and to act.
  • Which leads us to our next question
  • The traditional approach by which we hope to produce ethical professionals is one or all of the following. And these are good, but being from an educational technology/instructional design background, we asked ourselves which learning theories would best lend themselves to the task at hand – and how would they shape our learning spaces?
  • Behaviorism teaches more at the conventional level.
  • Often we teach as we are taught. In the following slides we want to illustrate some aspects of these theories that we feel are useful to the task at hand and reflect on what implication these might have for how we approach and address helping someone develop ethically. These particular points have interesting implications for the classroom environment itself – as James Banks has said, “You can’t teach democratic values with a stick and coercion.”
  • By meaning I don’t mean something esoteric like “what is the meaning of life,” necessarily. The human mind is wired to try to make sense out of the world (example, wire harnesses at SIA, my experience at Federal Mogul – incomprehensible instructions, tangled, mess, couldn’t hear – talk about cognitive dissonance. But as the time went by, things gradually started to fall into place and make sense.
  • Not purely lecture and all eyes on the teacher. Students having a voice, relating with one another, and instructor facilitating.
  • The question I leave with you today is …

Using Educational Theory and Moral Psychology to Inform the Teaching of Ethics in Computing Using Educational Theory and Moral Psychology to Inform the Teaching of Ethics in Computing Presentation Transcript

  • Using Educational Theory and Moral Psychology to Inform the Teaching of Ethics in Computing Melissa Dark [email_address] Jeanne Winstead [email_address] t
  • The call to teach Information Security Ethics
    • Challenges Confronting Information Security Professionals now
      • Privacy
      • Ownership
      • Access
      • Liability
      • Reliability
      • Safety
    • Challenges Confronting Information Security Professionals in the future
      • ???
        • “ New occasions teach new duties, time makes ancient good uncouth, They must upward still and onward, who would keep abreast of truth” James Lowell, 1845
  • Points to Ponder
    • What is the relationship between codes of ethics, the law, religion, social mores, and morality?
    Movies scenes from Legally Blond 2 Copyright MGM 2003 Click here to play in Media Player. Warning! Requires high bandwidth.
  • The nature of morality
    • The matching of a moral view to one’s experiences is in part
      • Cognitive
        • Identifying and analyzing a problem
        • Apply past learning
        • Gather new information
        • Organizing and comparing data
        • Analyzing elements and relationships
        • Clarifying and judging alternatives
        • Summarizing solutions
      • Affective
        • Feelings and emotions
        • Willingness
        • Preferences/dispositions
        • Attitudes
        • Interests
        • Appreciations
        • Value systems and complex behavior patterns
      • Social
        • Socialization
        • Social processes
        • Societies
        • Social intelligence
  • Morality is Developmental in Nature
    • Origins of human morality are
      • “ emotions linked to expanding cognitive abilities
      • that make people care
        • about the welfare of others,
        • about cooperation,
        • and norm following.” Green, J., & Haidt J. (2002)
  • Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
  • So we find that …
    • Moral development
      • begins with human emotions and socialization.
      • Is an ongoing process of matching a moral view to one’s experience of life in a social world
    • Experiences of conflict in the process generate movement from structural stage to structural stage.
  • In Teaching Ethics We seek Developmental Change
    • Do not accept authority blindly
    • Conduct critical self -examination
    • Take on the perspective of others
    • Empathize
    • Participate in civil discourse
    • Focus on a shared future
    • Feel yourself a member of a super ordinate group
  • But what exactly is developmental change?
    • A developmental change is
      • Not a change in frequency or intensity of a response already patterned
      • But the emergence of a novel structure
    Points to Ponder
  • How can educators best approach the daunting task of helping students develop morally?
  • Traditional Approaches to Teaching Ethics
    • Formal ethics
    • Applied ethics
      • Case study
      • Professional codes of ethics
  • Learning Theories
    • Behaviorism
      • Learning as behavior determined by the environment
      • Instruction as forms of positive and negative reinforcement
      • Student viewed as a “black box”
      • Theorists: Watson, Skinner, Thorndyke
    • Cognitivism
      • Learning as a mental activity
        • Involves internal coding and structuring by the learner.
        • Sometimes involves developmental phases or jumps
      • Instruction as emphasis on structuring, organizing, and sequencing information to facilitate optimal processing.
      • Student viewed as active participant in the process
      • Theorists: Piaget, Bandura, Miller, Bruner
    • Constructivism
      • Learning as an active process of constructing rather than acquiring knowledge
      • Instruction as a process of supporting knowledge construction rather than communicating knowledge
      • Student viewed as being “more in the driver’s seat”
      • Theorists: Vygotsky, Dewey, Piaget
    • Critical Theory
      • Learning as a a way of thinking that encourages us to critically approach our assumptions about ourselves and the world
      • Instruction as a process of critical pedagogy — empowering students to know, to care, and to act (Banks)
        • Socratic questioning
        • central concern is the issue of power in the teaching and learning context.
        • focuses on how and in whose interests knowledge is produced and 'passed on'
        • views the ideal aims of education as emancipatory.
      • Student viewed as critical citizens and empowered agents
        • able effectively to question, challenge, and contribute toward the progressive transformation
        • of the prevailing status quo within the communities, societies, and cultures
        • that they work to help maintain and reproduce every day,
        • and in relation to which they are not only inescapably interested –
        • but also vitally important -- participants.
      • Theorists: Banks
  • And the best matches are …
    • Constructivism
      • Best addresses the developmental nature of the educational task of teaching ethics
    • Critical Theory
      • Empowers students to know, to care, and to act
  • Points to Ponder on Critical Theory
        • [Critical] pedagogy . . . signals how questions of audience, voice, power, and evaluation actively work to construct particular relations between teachers and students, institutions and society, and classrooms and communities. . . .
        • Pedagogy in the critical sense illuminates the relationship among knowledge, authority, and power. (Giroux, 1994: 30)
    “You can’t teach democratic values with a stick and coercion” (Banks, 1993)
  • Points to Ponder on Constructivism
    • Learning is a search for meaning, meaning is derived from experience, and experience is the result of continuous active agency.
    • Therefore, learning should start with the issues around which students are actively trying to construct meaning
      • Privacy
      • Ownership
      • Access
      • Liability
      • Reliability
      • Safety
    • And should provide enough significant opportunities for students to gain experience in a reflective and iterative manner.
  • Points to Ponder on Constructivism
    • Meaning making is dynamic and full of continuous tension,
    • in fact tension is a necessary part of the process.
    • When an individual must choose between beliefs, ideas, attitudes, and behaviors that are contradictory,
    • then the learner will embark on meaningful learning.
    • This tension/discord creates the need for action on the part of the learner.
  • Characteristics of a Constructivist Class Room
    • A constructivist class room
    • Is more student-centric than teacher-centric
    • Provides experiential learning situations
      • Meet the students where they are
        • Privacy
        • Ownership
        • Access
        • Liability
        • Reliability
        • Safety
      • Take them further down the road
  • Points to Ponder in Conclusion
    • "In developing their ethical reasoning abilities students must learn that there are some ethical questions for which a 'right' answer exists and some for which the best answer is a matter of reasoned debate and discussion." Linda Elder (1999)
  • Do you, as an educator, think that it is your responsibility to help students develop in this way?
  • Acknowledgments
    • This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0113725. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
    • Various items of Information in this presentation were adapted from the following websites
      • http://chd.gse.gmu.edu/immersion/knowledgebase/
      • http://www.usask.ca/education/coursework/802papers/mergel/brenda.htm#The%20Basics%20of%20Behaviorism
      • http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~mryder/itc_data/postmodern.html
      • http://www.csd.uwa.edu.au/altmodes/to_delivery/critical_pedagogy.html
      • http://www.uwec.edu/ranowlan/intr_whystudy_crit_thy.htm
      • http://www.ucc.ac.uk/english/html/what_is_critical_theory.html
  • Questions