Culture and business_02.ppt

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Geert Hofstede

Geert Hofstede

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  • 1. Facultat d’Empresa i Comunicació Titular Facultad de Empresa y Comunicación Faculty of Business and Communication Culture and Business 1. Introduction -Observation, assumptions and (mis)interpretation. Observation, mis)interpretation. -Culture shock 2. Culture and cultures - Meanings of culture - Analysing cultures - The age of dichotomies
  • 2. Cultural dimensions Titular Hofstede) (G. Hofstede) Collectivism Individualism Low Power Distance High Power Distance Femininity Masculinity Strong Uncertainty Weak Uncertainty Avoidance Avoidance Long-term Short-term Orientation Orientation 24/02/2010 2
  • 3. A comparison: Greece and the US Titular 24/02/2010 3
  • 4. A comparison: My Fat Big Greek Wedding Titular (5.50-7.50) (4.30-5.58) (1.10-2.25) (2.30- ) (0-1) 24/02/2010 4
  • 5. A comparison Titular Greeks: lots of gesturing, no silence, hugging, hitting each other, spitting, shouting, etc. Kinesics Americans: rigid, no gesturing. The Greeks stand closer than the Americans. Individual space doesn’t almost exist for the Greeks. Proxemics Greek--- family-centred. The family participates in all the events and work in family business. Marriage--- to perpetuate the family, the traditions, the background... The family is just made of husband and wife. Even the son (Ian) seems to be apart. They don’t have many things in common The relationship between father and the rest of the family. The father doesn’t ask for advice to the others. He feels responsible for the others. He’s the head of the house. Ian’s parents let him choose his wife. They have a relationship of respect, but not of submission. Male-centred society. The man is the head and the woman is the neck. Men just want women to get married and make babies. Costa is the one who gives permission for everything that women want to do: work, study, marry, etc. Greeks—fear of changes, of the “different”. Thus, marrying a non-Greek is perceived as a potential danger. Americans- more tolerant towards diversity; no strong links with their tradition. 24/02/2010 5
  • 6. Encounter 1 Titular SVEN SVENSSON IS A SWEDISH BUSINESSMAN, LIVING IN LISBON. A Few weeks ago he was invited by a Portuguese acquaintance, Antonio, to play tennis at 10 am. Sven turned up at the tennis court on time, already in tennis gear and ready to play. Antonio arrived half an hour late, in the company of a friend, Carlos, from whom he was buying some land. They had been discussing the purchase that morning and had prolonged the discussion, so Antonio had brought Carlos along in order to finalise the details during the journey. They continued the business while Antonio changed into his tennis clothes, with Sven listening to all they said. At 10.45 they went on court and Antonio continued the discussion with Carlos, while fitting practice balls with Sven. At this point another acquaintance of Antonio, Pedro, arrived in order to confirm a sailing date with Antonio for the weekend. Antonio asked Sven to excuse him for a moment and walked off court to talk to Pedro. After chatting to Pedro for five minutes, Antonio resumed his conversation with the waiting Carlos and eventually turned back to the waiting Sven to begin playing tennis at 11. When Sven remarked that the court had only been booked from 10 to 11 am, Antonio reassured him that he had phoned in advance to rebook it until 12 noon. No problem. Comment on the behaviour of the two businessmen. What do you think they felt about each other’s behaviour? 24/02/2010 6
  • 7. Encounter 2 Titular “Por Regla General” Kathy runs the library attached to a Finnish consulate in Spain. One day a student asks about art schools in Finland. Kathy recommends a directory listing different schools and colleges, and the student spends several hours looking through it and copying down information. When Kathy starts closing the library for the day, the student asks if she can check out the directory, since she won't be able to visit the library again until next week. Kathy says that according to library policy, reference books cannot be checked out. The student won't take no for an answer. She persists and, in the face of Kathy's repeated refusals, grows indignant and finally demands to see Kathy's supervisor. Kathy quietly and calm says, "It's the rule and that's all," and holds the door open. The student leaves, muttering angrily about Finns. How could Kathy have resolved such an encounter more gracefully? 24/02/2010 7
  • 8. Hampden- Cultural dimensions (F. Trompenaars and Hampden- Titular Turner) Relationships with people Universalism Particularism Individualism Communitarianism Specific Diffuse Achievement Ascription Attitudes to time Sequential Synchronic Attitudes to the environment Internal control External control 24/02/2010 8
  • 9. Titular derivatives: Universalism versus Business derivatives: particularism Switzerland Canada US Sweden …. China Korea Venezuela 24/02/2010 9
  • 10. derivatives: Business derivatives: Individualism versus Titular communitarianism Reward individual performance Stimulate team cooperation Israel Canada Us Denmark Netherlands … Japan India Mexico Egypt 24/02/2010 10
  • 11. derivatives: Business derivatives: Specific versus diffuse Titular Sweden Netherlands Denmark UK …. Venezuela Kuwait Nigeria China The colleague argues: You don’t have to paint the house if you don’t feel like it.He is your boss in the company. Outside the company, he has little authority. The subordinate argues: Despite the fact that I don’t feel like it, I will paint the house anyway. He is my boss and you cannot ignore it outside your work either. 24/02/2010 11
  • 12. derivatives: Business derivatives: Achievement versus ascription Titular What do you do? Australia Sweden Canada … Czech Republic Who are you? Argentina • Family Egypt • Age • Sex • Education 24/02/2010 12
  • 13. derivatives: Business derivatives: Sequential versus synchronous Titular 24/02/2010 13
  • 14. derivatives: Business derivatives: Internal control versus external Titular control a. What happens to me is my own doing. b. Sometimes I feel that I do not have enough control over the direction my life is taking. 24/02/2010 14
  • 15. Titular The age of dichotomies: solving dilemmas 24/02/2010 15