Unit 6 Health Book


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Unit 6 Health Book

  1. 1. Unit 6
  2. 2. <ul><li>Chapter 20 – Beginning of The Life Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson 1 - Prenatal Development and Care </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson 2 - From Generation to Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson 3 - Birth Through Late Childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 21 – Adolescence – A Time of Change </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson 1 - Changes During Adolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson 2 - Practicing Abstinence </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 22 - The Life Cycle Continues </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson 1 - Growth for a Lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson 2 – Marriage and Parenthood </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson 3 – The Aging Expectance </li></ul>Table of Contents
  3. 3. Chapter 20 The Beginning of The Life Cycle
  4. 4. <ul><li>Every individual starts off as a single microscopic cell. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes an ovum from a female and a sperm cell from a male to fertilize </li></ul><ul><li>the cell. Once it’s fertilized it is called a zygote, and it has a protective </li></ul><ul><li>membrane to prevent more sperm from entering. </li></ul><ul><li>When the zygote enters the uterus, the cells form a hollow space </li></ul><ul><li>called a blastocyst. The cells of the blastocyst end up dividing and </li></ul><ul><li>lining the uterus. </li></ul><ul><li>Embryo – The cluster of developing cells following implantation. </li></ul><ul><li>The cells divide into three layers while dividing. The first layer </li></ul><ul><li>becomes the respiratory and digestive systems. The second layer </li></ul><ul><li>forms into muscle, bones, blood vessels, and skin. That last layer </li></ul><ul><li>becomes the nervous system, sense organs, and the mouth. </li></ul>Prenatal Develpment and Care
  5. 5. When these layers are being formed, a thin membrane called the amniotic sac, surrounds the developing embryo. In the sac, the fluid acts as a shock absorber that protects from the temperature changes and bumps. Placenta – A blood-rich tissue developed from an outer layer of cells from the embryo and tissues from the mother. Umbilical Cord – A tube through which nutrients and oxygen pass from the mother’s blood into the embryo’s blood. The umbilical cord’s blood vessels carry waste products from the embryo, where they diffuse into the mother’s blood. The embryo grows rapidly in length and weight during the first six weeks of pregnancy. At eight weeks the embryo measures at 1½ inches in length. Fetus – The name by which the embryo is known from the end of the eighth week until birth.
  6. 6. <ul><li>Do you want to know which organ is the first to develop of a fetus? Well we’ll tell you, it’s the brain. At nine weeks, the head develops and all of the body systems are now present. </li></ul><ul><li>The mother-to-be is not entirely in control of the health of her developing child. </li></ul><ul><li>When a mother confirms her pregnancy, she should beginning her prenatal care. This includes having regular visits with a certified nurse midwife. This profession will give the pregnant female a complete physical, including blood tests, and pelvic examinations. </li></ul><ul><li>Prenatal care gives the mother-to-be a chance to ask questions about pregnancy and the birth process, and it also helps educate her with respect to important health needs. </li></ul><ul><li>The mother-to-be needs to take nutrition in consideration and watch the foods she eats. The midwife makes sure to check her weight and discusses physical activity. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>A pregnant female needs to be careful about the substances and drugs that enter their body. They all should be taken with health professional’s approval. </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal and prescription drugs should not be taken because they pose a threat to the mother-to-be and the baby. Caffeine is also something that you should avoid because it causes birth defects. Females who drink alcohol during pregnancy may cause permanent damage to the fetus. Consumption of alcohol is associate with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). FAS is entirely preventable, it is the mothers decision whether or not to drink alcohol. A pregnant female also, should avoid tobacco substances such as cigarettes. </li></ul><ul><li>Babies are usually born headfirst. During the birth process, the baby is pushed out of the mother’s uterus and passes out of the mother’s body. There are three stages: dilation, passage of the baby through the birth canal, and after birth. </li></ul><ul><li>Apgar Test - A routine diagnostic test, that determines an infants physical condition at birth. </li></ul><ul><li>Miscarriage - A spontaneous abortion. </li></ul><ul><li>Still birth - The birth of a dead fetus. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Chromosomes - Tiny structures within the nuclei of cells that </li></ul><ul><li>carry information about hereditary traits. </li></ul><ul><li>Most cells in the body contain 46 chromosomes-23 pairs each. The foundation </li></ul><ul><li>of chromosomes contain a chemical compound called DNA. DNA resembles a </li></ul><ul><li>twisted ladder, which is made of chemical compounds called bases. </li></ul><ul><li>Genes - Are segments of DNA molecules and, like chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>they are paired, one from your mother and one from your father. </li></ul><ul><li>Genes make your traits, such as how thin or thick your hair is. When </li></ul><ul><li>chromosomes divide and separate , the two genes for a particular </li></ul><ul><li>trait line up next to each other. Some genes will become dominant </li></ul><ul><li>and others will become recessive. Dominant genes are usually </li></ul><ul><li>what show up in offspring, and recessive genes show up when the </li></ul><ul><li>dominant gene is not present. Traits that express quantity or extent </li></ul><ul><li>such as height, weight , or degree of color- usually depend on many </li></ul><ul><li>gene pairs, not just one. </li></ul>From Generation to Generation
  9. 9. <ul><li>Types of Genetic Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>There are 4,000 types of hereditary disorders. Most of these disorders are caused by two recessive genes from each parent. The following are some main disorders: </li></ul><ul><li>Sickle Cell Anemia- Where the red blood cells clump together, stopping the blood and oxygen flow. </li></ul><ul><li>Phenylkeonuria- Where a protein called phenylalanine accumulates interfering with brain cells which causes retardation. </li></ul><ul><li>Tay-Sachs disease- This is destruction of the nervous system, blindness, paralysis, early death. </li></ul><ul><li>Cystic Fibrosis- A disease which makes it hard to breath and digestion difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Down Syndrome- A genetic disorder, associated with the presence of an extra chromosome 21 and it affects approximately 1 of 700 births. </li></ul><ul><li>Amniocentesis - A procedure in which a syringe is inserted through the pregnant female’s abdominal wall into the amniotic fluid surrounding the developing fetus. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultrasound –A test in which sound waves are used to project light images on a screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Chrionic villi sampling – Is a test in which a small membrane is removed from the chorion, a layer of tissue that develops in to the placenta. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>There are two specialized sex chromosomes out of the 46 in the zygote. In females, these two chromosomes look exactly alike and are called X chromosomes. In males, one chromosome is shorter and doesn’t match the other. The shorter one is the Y chromosome and the longer one is the X chromosome. When the baby is a girl, the combination is XX. If the baby is a boy, the combination is going to be XY. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes genes can contain mutations or abnormalities. These resulting health problems, which can be severe, are known as genetic disorders. Some are observable at birth, while others tend show up later in their childhood or adulthood. In addition to genetic cause, birth defects can be caused by environmental factors, such as the parents lifestyle choices like smoking or drinking. There is a specially high rate of birth defects with teenage parents because of ignorance of prenatal care. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Several scientists have found basic stages of growth and development. For each stage, there are developmental tasks . </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental Task – Something that needs to occur during a particular stage for a person to continue his or her growth toward becoming a healthy, mature adult. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: becoming more socialable with peers, and achieving emotional independence from parents. </li></ul><ul><li>The physiologist Erikson believes the failure at one stage can be overcome by successes in following stages of development. From birth to one and a half years, you experience the fastest period of growth in your life. In the first year, one of the main tasks of a child is developing trust. When parents play and talk to the child, the child views the world as a safe place. </li></ul><ul><li>Early Childhood </li></ul><ul><li>In early childhood, children develop many new physical and mental skills. By this age, they are proud of the accomplishments and try to do as many things as possible on their own. </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy – The confidence that one can control one’s body, impulses, and environment. </li></ul>Birth Through Late Childhood
  12. 12. <ul><li>Childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Between the age of four to five, physical abilities start to develop. They usually initiate play and copy things that adults do. If you tell your child that they are wrong, and you don’t let them ask any questions, they will always think that they are wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>Late Childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Between the ages of 6 and 11, children get to experience a major part of their social life which is school. Children learn lots of things from baking and cooking to arts and crafts. They like to be praised for their accomplishments. When parents don’t praise them, they feel inferior to others. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Chapter 21 Adolescence- A time of change
  14. 14. <ul><li>Between the ages of 9 and 13, children go through puberty. </li></ul><ul><li>Puberty – the period of time when males and females become physically able to reproduce. </li></ul><ul><li>Puberty occurs as a result of the release of hormones. Males release hormones called testosterone, and females release hormones called estrogen and progesterone. The most important physical change that happens during puberty is the development of sex characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Sex Characteristics -- The traits related to one’s gender. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two different types of sex characteristics: secondary, </li></ul><ul><li>and primary. </li></ul><ul><li>Gametes – Reproductive cells produced by the gonads. </li></ul><ul><li>Teens during puberty feel embarrassed because of the changes they are going through. It’s important to remember that every change you go through is temporary. </li></ul>Changes during Adolescence
  15. 15. <ul><li>During adolescence, the brain reaches its adult size and weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognition – The act or process of knowing, including both awareness and judgment. </li></ul><ul><li>As teens get older, they learn there are multiple ways to solve problems. When they were little, they only new one solution to a problem, but it changes as years progress. While teenagers go through puberty they go through emotional and social changes. At times they may feel happy and the next they’ll feel down in the dumps. This is normal, its just an act of growing up. Having friends and love from a family helps them get through it better. Social changes is also another part of puberty, as you get older your friends start to challenge everything you say and what you believe in. But this only shows good friendship because they help you look at different perspectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Identity : Consists of the factors you believe make you unique, or unlike anyone else. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to find out your personal identity you must believe in yourself and ask yourself Am I carrying out MY own responsibilities without someone reminding me or doing it for me? </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>During puberty, teens get feelings of emotions while around each other. Their face gets hot, the heart beats faster, their hands get clammy, and they have a fluttery feeling inside. This is all normal and apart of growing up. </li></ul><ul><li>Now-a-days, physical attraction and sexual activity are portrayed on movies, TV shows, and in advertising. They carry warnings about “sexual content” or “partial nudity”. Whether out of curiosity or peer pressure, teens are tempted to become sexually active. Being sexually active can cause implications, and teens need to make smarter decisions about becoming active or not. </li></ul><ul><li>More teens now are examining the risks of sexual behavior and deciding the only safe way and responsible choice is abstinence. </li></ul><ul><li>Abstinence - The conscious decision to avoid harmful behaviors, including sexual activity before marriage and the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs. </li></ul>Practicing Abstinence
  17. 17. <ul><li>Practicing abstinence takes planning, preparation, and self-control. There are some steps you can take to practice abstinence. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish your priorities in life. </li></ul><ul><li>Priorities – Those things that are first in importance. </li></ul><ul><li>Set personal limits on the ways in which you are willing to express affection. </li></ul><ul><li>Share your feelings with your boyfriend or girlfriend. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss your feelings and concerns with a trusted adult. </li></ul><ul><li>Steer clear of high-pressure situations. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are currently sexually active, re-evaluate. </li></ul><ul><li>Once you have decided to practice abstinence, it is important to talk to you partner, and let them know. If you state it clearly and go over it with them, they will most likely agree. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Control – a person’s ability to use responsibility to override emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>If your partner ends up refusing, just say no and make body language. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Sexual involvement has a number of negative consequences for which teens are not prepared- physically, mentally, emotionally, socially, and financially. This also includes unplanned pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, loss of self-respect, and negative effects on social relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexually Transmitted Disease – An infectious disease that is spread from person to person through sexual contact. </li></ul><ul><li>People of the ages 15-19 have the greatest risk of getting STDs. Nearly 3 million adolescents contract an STD each year. </li></ul><ul><li>Teens go through a lot of pressure while being sexually active. They feel like they have to hide it from family and their reputations can be damaged. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Chapter 22 The Life Cycle Continues
  20. 20. <ul><li>Some researchers believed human development ended with childhood or </li></ul><ul><li>early adolescence. (Ages 6-16.) Nowadays they do not end at any specific </li></ul><ul><li>age they continue through every stage of life. When going through adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>you go through physical and emotional maturity. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Maturity – Is the state at which the physical body </li></ul><ul><li>and all its organs are fully developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Maturity – Is the state at which the mental and </li></ul><ul><li>emotional capabilities of an individual are fully developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Once your body reaches its full physical maturity you will not get any taller </li></ul><ul><li>this usually is between the ages of 20-25. Emotional maturity is the most </li></ul><ul><li>important maturity, this shows independence, but also being able to be with </li></ul><ul><li>groups,. You usually reach your emotional maturity right after your physical </li></ul><ul><li>maturity, but sometimes its long afterwards. Physical maturity occurs automatically and </li></ul><ul><li>you have no control over it, as for emotional you control it. </li></ul>Growth for a Lifetime
  21. 21. <ul><li>Developmental tasks of adulthood focus on four major things that adults must </li></ul><ul><li>learn to adjust to with the world around them, the following are the four: </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational Role- This is where people start forming ideas of what kind of life </li></ul><ul><li>they want. Usually it’s a choice of making your career. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual identity and personal independence- This is where your personal identity </li></ul><ul><li>comes in. It also is a part of self-actualization. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Actualization - Includes developing one’s capabilities to </li></ul><ul><li>their fullest. </li></ul><ul><li>Intimate relationships- This is when you can start building relationships with both </li></ul><ul><li>genders, but still remaining independent. It also involves emotional intimacy. </li></ul><ul><li>During this time you may have romantic relationships that are successes or some </li></ul><ul><li>that aren’t that great, but its all the process of growing up. Although some people </li></ul><ul><li>have romantic relationships they choose to stay single, because either their to busy </li></ul><ul><li>with their career or they haven’t found their true identity yet. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Intimacy - The ability to experience caring, loving </li></ul><ul><li>relationships with another person in which you share your </li></ul><ul><li>innermost feeling with. </li></ul><ul><li>Place in Society- This is determining how and where a person fits into society. By their </li></ul><ul><li>political ideas, religious views and how you contribute to the community. For example doing </li></ul><ul><li>volunteer work. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Ninety- five Americans get married before the age of 40, but sixty-eight percent of that get divorced. This is because most of the marriages fail to have commitment. Getting married is to spend the rest of your life with your significant other. You may choose to marry because your “in love”. But some people choose to marry to use the person. Either for money or popularity, this also leads to divorce. </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment - A promise or a pledge </li></ul><ul><li>Marital Adjustment - How well people adjust and adapt to </li></ul><ul><li>marriage and to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>A well adjusted marriage is when the husband and wife agree on critical issues in their relationships, share common interests (although sometimes opposites attract), demonstrates affection, having few complaints about each other in the marriage, do not feel lonely or irritable, and had a closed association before marriage. Lastly, researchers also found that successful marriages have similarities with their backgrounds and domestic happiness of parents. </li></ul><ul><li>One thing that’s for sure is that teens should not get married. Whether it’s for unplanned pregnancies or you are forced, it’s not something you should get into. The results can be disastrous. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes, there can be conflicts in you marriage. You must respect, trust, and care for one another. Developing skills in communication and resolving conflicts before they escalate, is a way to have a better marriage. </li></ul>Marriage and Parenthood
  23. 23. <ul><li>Having a child can be a wonderful experience. It can also be a big responsibility. It can affect your career and lifestyle. </li></ul><ul><li>Planned pregnancy – Making a decision to get pregnant before the baby is conceived. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents must provide food, clothing, shelter, education, medical care, and protection from harm for their children. The most important thing though, is unconditional love. </li></ul><ul><li>As your children grow, they need a guideline and a set of rules to abide by. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Directed – Making correct decisions about behavior when adults are not there to enforce rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents can guide their children by setting good examples. They should teach children skills for getting along with others and handling problems. This will help them in the long run. </li></ul><ul><li>Children cannot prosper without love, attention, and guidance. </li></ul><ul><li>They can show their care by giving love to them. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Middle adulthood life is filled with Transitions. One transition is graduating high school. </li></ul><ul><li>If there is refusal to accept and deal with the changes during middle adulthood it can </li></ul><ul><li>cause self-absorption. </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions - Critical changes that occur at all stages of </li></ul><ul><li>life. </li></ul><ul><li>Generativity - A shift of attention away from one-self in the present to concerns for future generations. </li></ul><ul><li>Menopause - The stopping of ovulation and menstruation. </li></ul><ul><li>As adults get older usually around the age of 40, they start getting wrinkles, </li></ul><ul><li>dry skin and their hearing and seeing might decline. In order to stay healthy </li></ul><ul><li>when your older you are encouraged to exercise, this will keep you physically </li></ul><ul><li>and mentally well. Around the ages of 45-55 only woman go through a stage </li></ul><ul><li>called menopause. As men get older they want to feel young again so they buy things </li></ul><ul><li>that young people have i.e. a sports car, and this is also another reason men divorce </li></ul><ul><li>their wives so they can go for a younger girl. </li></ul>The Aging Experience.
  25. 25. <ul><li>During middle adulthood your social transitions change, you start </li></ul><ul><li>focusing more on your family. You may have to adjust to the </li></ul><ul><li>passing of your mother or father, and leaving home to establish </li></ul><ul><li>independent lives. Some adults experience the empty-nest </li></ul><ul><li>syndrome. </li></ul><ul><li>Empty-nest Syndrome - Feelings of despair or </li></ul><ul><li>loneliness that accompany children’s leaving home </li></ul><ul><li>and entering adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>While finishing your middle adulthood you go into late adulthood, </li></ul><ul><li>usually between ages 50-80’s. When older people continue to be </li></ul><ul><li>active, maintain good nutrition, and take good care of themselves </li></ul><ul><li>then their bodies tend to take care of them and help them live a </li></ul><ul><li>longer healthier life. Many disease though do occur when you get </li></ul><ul><li>older, such as osteoporosis, arthritis, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. </li></ul><ul><li>Also when you get older you learn to have integrity this is the last </li></ul><ul><li>task of development. Integrity can be achieved by keeping intimate </li></ul><ul><li>relationships and still being committed to a cause such as religion and family. </li></ul><ul><li>Many older people have a fun time no matter what the age! </li></ul>