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Unit 2: Physical Fitness and Nutrition How do you feel about physical activity? Choosing activities that exercise the body is an important choice for good health. Chapter 3: Physical Fitness and your Health
Exercise enhances the body’s protection against disease by building up resistance through improving fitness.
Nervous System – improves your reaction time by helping you respond quicker to stimuli.
Circulatory System – permits the heart to pump blood more efficiently, so that work can be done without much effort.
Respiratory System – begins to work more slowly and efficiently so that you take fewer deeper breathes. This increases your lung capacity, which means you don’t lose your breathe quickly.
Exercise and Weight Control
Sedentary Lifestyle – a way of life that requires little movement or exercise.
Metabolism – the process by which your body gets energy from food.
Basal Metabolism – the minimum amount of energy required to maintain the life processes in a body.
Aerobic Exercise – vigorous activity in which oxygen is continuously taken in for a period of at least 20 minutes.
Anaerobic exercise – intense bursts of energy in which the muscles work so hard, they produce energy without the use of oxygen.
Resistance Training Exercises
Resistance training is a good way to tone muscles, improve muscular strength, and improve endurance.
Isometric exercise – an activity that uses muscle tension to improve muscular strength. It’s muscles pushing against muscles.
Isotonic – an activity that combines muscle contraction with repeated movement. Ex: Push-ups, pull-ups, and lifting weights.
Isokinetic exercise – an activity that involves resistance through an entire range of motion. It increases the flexibility of the joints, improves muscular strength and improves endurance.
Planning a Fitness Program
When you are planning to exercise you should mark the activities and times down on a calendar. Set short term goals first.
Rest or Inactivity (watching TVs, or playing computer for more than 30 min. Aerobic Exercise (brisk walking, cross country skiing, swimming) Leisure Activities (golf, bowling, softball, yard work) Recreational (soccer, basketball, tennis, dancing) Lifestyle Physical Activity (walk the dog, take the stairs, take longer walks) Flexibility and Strength (stretching, push-ups, weight lifting) The Activity Triangle
Selecting the Right Activity
These should be taken into consideration when making a fitness program:
- Where you live. (Temperature and terrain)
- Your range of interests. (Do something you enjoy)
- Your level of health. (Consider health problems.)
- Time and place.
- Personal Safety.
- Comprehension planning. (five areas of health-related fitness)
Cross-training – combining various exercise routines to help work different body systems.
Basics of an Exercise Program
Consider the following for an effective workout:
- Overload: working the body harder than it’s normally worked.
- Progression: gradual increase in overload necessary for achieving higher levels of fitness.
- Specificity: particular exercises and activities that improve particular areas of health-related fitness.
Warm-up: engaging in activity that prepares the muscles for the wok that is to come.
The Workout: performing the activity at it’s highest point.
- F.I.T. formula: Frequency, Intensity, Time.
Cool-down: engaging in activity to gradually decrease activity.
Heart rate: the number of times your heart beats in a minute when you are not active.
Chapter 4: Physical Activity for Life
What type of physical activity are a regular part of your life?
- Everyone should have some type of physical activity
Choices for Physical Activity
Physical Activity – any form of movement, whether purposeful, as in exercise and sports, or incidental, as when carrying out domestic chores.
-Lifestyle activities – forms of physical activity that are a normal of your daily routine or recreation and that promote good health throughout a lifetime.
-Sports activities – sports that usually involve competition and have a set of rules or guidelines.
- Individual sports – swimming, bicycling, or playing golf.
- Partner sports – tennis, racquetball
- Nature sports – surfing, rock-climbing, or sailing.
- Physical Activity is a healthy way to socialize with others.
Never limit yourself to one type of activity. Get involved in all types, because it reduces chances of injuries.
Skills-related fitness contributes to your total health. These are the six basic measures:
Agility – the ability to control the body’s movements and to change the body’s position quickly.
Balance – the ability to remain upright either while standing still or moving.
Coordination – the ability to use two or more body parts together well, or to use the senses along with the body parts.
Speed – the ability to move a distance or complete a body movement in a short period of time.
Reaction time – the rate of movement once a person realizes the need to move.
Power – the ability to use force with great speed.
Sports and Nutrition
Training program – a program of formalized physical preparation for participation in a sport.
Hydration – the addition of body fluids.
You need to keep your body hydrated for an effective workout.
Anabolic steroids are chemicals similar to the male hormone testosterone. Some of the consequences are:
- increased risk of cancer and heart disease.
- sterility, or the inability to have children
- skin problems, such as acne and hair loss.
- unusual weight gain or loss.
- sexual underdevelopment and dysfunction.
- violent, suicidal, or depressive tendencies.
Minor Exercise-Related Injuries
Muscle cramp is a spasm or sudden tightening of a muscle. It usually occurs from being tired, overworked, or from dehydration.
Strain is a condition in which muscles have been overworked. Strains occur from participating in strenuous activity you are not used to.
Sprain is an injury to tissues surrounding a joint. It is caused from a moveable joint being stretched or torn.
The injuries are minor so a proper treatment is R.I.C.E.:
- R est . Stay off of it for about 1 or 2 days.
- I ce . Apply ice to the area to reduce pain and swelling.
- C ompression . Wrap an elastic bandage to apply pressure.
- E levation . Raise the affected limb over heart level.
Major Exercise-Related Injuries
Fractures are any type of break in a bone. To properly heal you must stay off of it for a period of time.
Dislocations is when a bone slips from its normal position at a joint. The doctor must put them together and immobilize.
Tendinitis is a condition in which the tendons, are stretched or torn from overuse.
Blows to the head can cause swelling of the brain or even death.
Weather Related Risks
These are some of hot weather health risks:
Overexertion – overworking the body.
Heat cramps – muscle spasms that are the result of loss of large amounts of salt and water through perspiration.
Heat exhaustion – an overheating of the body resulting in cold, clammy skin and symptoms of shock.
These are some cold weather health risks:
Frostbite – a condition that results when body tissue becomes frozen.
Hypothermia – a condition in which body temperature becomes dangerously low.
Thinking About Safety
Be aware of the people around you.
Playing at your skill level.
Obeying rules and restrictions.
Accepting responsibility for your own safety.
Choose the right place and time to exercise.
Use proper equipment when exercising.
Chapter 5: Nutrition and Your Health
Have you ever eaten just “to be sociable”?
- Nutrients: substances in food that your body needs to function properly to grow, to repair itself, and to supply you with energy.
- Hunger: a natural drive that protects you from starvation.
Appetite: a desire, rather than a need, to eat.
Nutrition: is the process by which the body takes in and uses food.
Unit Two Test
1. What were the main types of health we mentioned?
D. All of the above.
2. How does your body benefit from exercising?
3. According to the Physical Triangle what activity should you do the least?
4. When injured the method they suggest to use is R.I.C.E, what does R.I.C.E stand for?
5. Give an example of one health risk from hot weather and cold weather?