Thomas hildebrandt digitale arbejdsgange 25.1.2012

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Thomas Hildebrandt taler om digitale arbejdsgange ved VidenDanmarks seminar om digitalisering og procesoptimering den 25.1.2012.

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Thomas hildebrandt digitale arbejdsgange 25.1.2012

  1. 1. Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt Lektor ved IT Universitetet i København www.itu.dk/people/hilde hilde@itu.dk VidenDanmark Seminar om Digitalisering og Procesoptimering Symbion - 25. Januar, 2012 IT  UNIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN    Wednesday, January 25, 2012
  2. 2. Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk Oversigt • Min baggrund • “Office Automation”,Workflow og Business Process Management • Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) / IT- støttet (sam)arbejde • Deklarativ beskrivelse af arbejdsgange VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 2 IT  UNIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN    Wednesday, January 25, 2012
  3. 3. Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk Thomas  Hildebrandt • PhD i Datalogi fra Aarhus Universitet, 2000 • Forsker og underviser på IT Universitetet siden 1999 indenfor formelle proces-sprog, mobile og distribuerede it-systemer • Forskningsprojekter sammen med virksomheder og forskere indenfor CSCW og HCI VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 3 IT  UNIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN    Wednesday, January 25, 2012
  4. 4. Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk Forskningsprojekter • Computer Supported Mobile Adaptive Business Processes med (2007-2011, Forskningsrådet for Teknologi og Produktion # 274-06-0415, www.Cosmobiz.dk) Copenhagen Business School og Microsoft Development Center Copenhagen • Trustworthy Pervasive Healthcare Services (2008-2012, Det Strategiske Forskningsråd # 2106-07-0019, www.TrustCare.eu) med Datalogisk Institut, Københavns Universitet (DIKU) og Resultmaker A/S • Case Studies of Best Practice Workflow and Case Work in Practice (Efterår 2010, Infinit mini-projekt) Resultmaker, Exformatics A/S, Dafolo, Jobcenter Kbh, KL, Kombit, CBS • Tvær-organisatoriske arbejdsgange som DCR-grafer (Forår 2011, Rådet for Teknologi og Innovation,Videnkupon) med Exformatics A/S VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 4 IT  UNIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN    Wednesday, January 25, 2012
  5. 5. Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk Office  AutomaGon Tidlig forskning i Office Automation • Zisman & Hammer 77 • IBM Business Definition Language (BDL) • Information Control Net [Ellis 79 Xerox] havde fokus på kontorarbejde som procedurer beskrevet som flow-grafer/ Computer Science and Office Information Systems By Clarence A. Ellis and Gary J. Nutt Petri Net: RECEPTIONIST AGENT Figure la z c := VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 5 IT  UNIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN    Wednesday, January 25, 2012
  6. 6. Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk InformaGon  Control  Net [C. Ellis, 1979] 12 , Cus tamer Billing File +0 Order j Fi le Form used by SCOOP are document generators; electronic mail senders and receivers; file services, and I - --- ----/--"" / media schedulers. tJ . -"" " I I A / /.J • I r r I I / I " I I I J ,---- ... _------_ .. _-..,.- ORDER PROCESSING II Although the complexity and number of the special purpose systems may grow large as the office lL F.igure 2 Customer Request Arrival automation area grows, the monitor (or office operating system supervisor) can remain relatively " constant. Zisman provides guidelines and frameworks for a high level non-procedural specifications , . language, and that contains a document definition section for declaring all documents needed, an Brocess Send Order Log Request Receive Order Type Order activity initiation section for describing when each activity can be performed and an activity detail t Form :1. lOut section. The activity detail section describes the detail tasks to be done when the activity is initiated 1:;;1 lOut by a few basic operations, wen-known to an office analyst. Procedure descriptions in this language 1 • J J I I J I I I I I I I I I I I I I could then be translated into an augmented Petri net and run using the execution monitor, SCOOP. By considering the specification language, the internal representation, and the design of a prototype system using one unified model, Zisman has been able to study the office as a system rather than simply as a collection of isolated tasks and pieces of equipment. Although Zisman suggests the language and the model need refinement, his basic notions will probably have great impact on the office of the future. VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 6 IT  UNIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN    Wednesday, January 25, 2012
  7. 7. Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk Business  Process  Model  and  Nota2on  (BPMN)  2.0 Forretningsprocesbeskrivelser anno 2011 VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 7 IT  UNIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN    Wednesday, January 25, 2012
  8. 8. Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk Workflow  Management  Coali2on  (WfMC)  1993 (IBM, HP, Fujitsu, .. Process Definition Tools Other Workflow Administration and Engines Workflow Engine(s) Analysis Tools Invoked Workflow Client Applications Applications (e.g. Webservices) WfMC Workflow Reference Model 1995 VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 8 IT  UNIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN    Wednesday, January 25, 2012
  9. 9. Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk Workflow  Management  Coali2on  (WfMC)  1993 (IBM, HP, Fujitsu, .. Process Definition Tools Sub Process Sub Other Workflow Process Administration and Engines Task Workflow Engine(s) Analysis Tools Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) service service service Invoked Workflow Client Applications Applications (e.g. Webservices) COBOL .NET Java PL1 SAP Risk Department Credit Department Customer Departmen WfMC Workflow Reference Model 1995 BPMN + SOA VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 8 IT  UNIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN    Wednesday, January 25, 2012
  10. 10. Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk Mange  standarder  og  versioner  ...... R. Shapiro, WfMC, 2010 VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 9 IT  UNIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN    Wednesday, January 25, 2012
  11. 11. Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk Mange  standarder  og  versioner  ...... IBM WSFL 1.0 OASIS BPEL4WS 1.1 WS-BPEL 2.0 MS XLANG 1.0 R. Shapiro, WfMC, 2010 BPEL4WS 1.0 VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 9 IT  UNIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN    Wednesday, January 25, 2012
  12. 12. Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk Er  arbejdsgange  procedurer? • Motivationen for at benytte flowgrafer i BPMN er iflg specifikationen at forretningsfolk igennem årtier har været vant til at læse dem.. • Men kan vi automatisere/digitalisere kontor-arbejde ved at sætte strøm til sådanne procedurer...? VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 10 IT  UNIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN    Wednesday, January 25, 2012
  13. 13. Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk IT-­‐støLet  samarbejde • Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) nyt forskningsområde startet i midt 80‘erne [Greif & Cashman - interdisciplinary workshop on “how to support people in their work arrangements with computers”] • Fokus på at forstå hvordan vi arbejder sammen om at udføre en arbejdsopgave og designe it systemer der kan støtte arbejdet på den baggrund • Afhængigheder mellem og koordinering af arbejdsopgaver centrale elementer VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 11 IT  UNIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN    Wednesday, January 25, 2012
  14. 14. Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk Procedurer  er  vejledende..! Allerede i 1983 konkluderede CSCW forskere: • Barber: These (office automation) systems do not deal well with unanticipated conditions • Sheil: Designers were “automating a fiction” [Schmidt & Bannon: Taking CSCW Seriously: Supporting Articulation Work, 1992] VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 12 IT  UNIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN    Wednesday, January 25, 2012
  15. 15. Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk Udfordringer • Hvordan sætter man strøm til en vejledning så man • ikke introducerer unødige rækkefølger • kan springe over og gentage handlinger • kan tilføje, fordele og delegere handlinger undervejs • og stadig have en ide om at man er på rette spor? • Og hvordan sammenholdes vejledning og regler? VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 13 IT  UNIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN    Wednesday, January 25, 2012
  16. 16. Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk DeklaraGv  procesbeskrivelse • Specifikation M. Pesic and W.M.P. van der Aalst: DECLARE A Declarative Approach for Flexible Business Processes. (workshop on Dynamic Process Management, 2006) ➡ 3 handlinger: bless, curse og pray. ➡ Regel: if you curse someone, then you MUST eventually pray afterwards. Linear-time Temporal Logic (LTL) Pnueli ´77 Hvordan ville en flow-graf se ud for denne proces ? VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 14 IT  UNIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN    Wednesday, January 25, 2012
  17. 17. Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk ImperaGv  procesbeskrivelse • Specifikation start ➡ 3 handlinger: bless, curse og pray. xor bless xor curse xor bless ➡ Regel: if you curse someone, then you MUST eventually pray pray xor afterwards. xor end VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 15 IT  UNIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN    Wednesday, January 25, 2012
  18. 18. Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk ImperaGv  procesbeskrivelse • Specifikation start ➡ 3 handlinger: bless, curse og pray. xor bless xor curse xor bless ➡ Regel: if you curse someone, then you MUST eventually pray pray xor afterwards. xor end Kan du se at flow-grafen netop opfylder reglen...? VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 15 IT  UNIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN    Wednesday, January 25, 2012
  19. 19. Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk ImperaGv  procesbeskrivelse • Specifikation start ➡ 3 handlinger: bless, curse og pray. xor bless xor curse xor bless ➡ Regel: if you curse someone, then you MUST eventually pray pray xor afterwards. xor end Kan du se at flow-grafen netop opfylder reglen...? Men temporal logik [](curse -> <>pray) er heller ikke for alle... VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 15 IT  UNIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN    Wednesday, January 25, 2012
  20. 20. Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk Dynamic  Condi2on  Response  (DCR)  Graphs • Ny grafisk procesnotation udviklet i forskningsprojekter sammen med Resultmaker og Exformatics • baseret på Resultmakers ProcessMatrix • betingelser (conditions), opfølgninger (responses) og dynamisk udelukkelse/inkludering • skelner mellem hvad er muligt og hvad er krævet Ph.d-afhandling af Rao R. Mukkamala (se www.itu.dk/people/rao og www.trustcare.dk) VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 16 IT  UNIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN    Wednesday, January 25, 2012
  21. 21. e the accepting runs to be those ending in e. Infinite runs are also of interest especially Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk f reactive systems and the LTL logic. The DCR  Graf  eksempler ics and acceptance condition for infinite runs mapping to a B¨ chi-automaton with τ -event u [12], [17]. se study (Sec. III), we realized the need to ting if nested sub-graphs to and conditional modeling with if they are extended with loops allow for flows they do happen not captureub structures. the constraints explicitly. need, so-called To address this The customer of the system is Landsorganisationen i Dan- phs were introduced in [14]. It can be for most of , only mark (LO), which is the overarching organization defined and to the trade unions in Denmark. Their counterpart is Dansk Ar-al a,extension to DCR Graphangiven inorganization e p bejdsgiverforening (DA), which is overarching Def. 1 .ned to forAt the of thelevel, theemployers organizations. is that a which most top danish workflow to be supportedA Nested worker at the trade union must be able to creategraph iously. case dynamic condition response a case, Figure 1. Top level requirements as a DCR Graph which e.g. triggered by a complaint by a member of the trade union, M, →•, •→, →, ±, Act, l, R, P, as), awhere ending against her employee. This must be followed up by meeting artial functionLO and subsequentlyevent to its super- to the arranged by mapping an held between case workers Four top-level events were identified, shown as boxes in tively. at the trade union, LO and DA. After being created, the ded by (E, M, any •→, managed, e.g. adding or P, as) ) and case can at→•,time be →, ±, Act, l, R,retrieving the graph labelled Create case, Manage case, Arrange , subject toshows case graphical at anythat thea marking meeting and Hold meeting. For the top-level events we ponse. documents, the condition of the organizations. se, the Fig. 1 by the workers representation of simple DCR ending Graph capturing these top level requirements of our wheren) ⊆ atoms(E)×atoms(E)×atoms(E)case study. identified the following requirements: sponds |epting ∈ E. (e ) = e} is the set of atomic ∀e 1) A case is created by a union case worker, and only once. ing in ecially 2) The case can be managed at the union, LO and DA afterGraph can be mapped to a flat DCR Graph s. The it has been created. relations to the sub events and by preserving e runs events 3) After a case is created, LO can and must arrange a vents. This flattening of a nested DCR Graph eed to meeting between the union case worker, the LO case h is defined formally in [14]. In particular, the deling worker and the DA case worker.ested DCR Graph is given as the labelled tran- -called efined 4) After a meeting is arranged it must be held (organized for 1 corresponding flattened DCR Graph. Def. its by LO). [Slaats, Mukkamala, Hildebrandt, EDOC 2011] UDY: A C ROSS -OTop level requirements as a DCR GraphASE graph Figure 1. RGANIZATIONAL C The requirements translate to the following DCR Graph role where M ANAGEMENT events were identified, shown as boxes in assignments (shown as ”ears” on the event boxes) and relations super- Four top-level S YSTEM P, as) the graph labelled Create 25. januar, 2012 case, Manage case, Arrange VidenDanmark,Hold meeting. For the applied DCR shown as 17 arking demonstrate how we we meeting and Symbion, have top-level events we different types of arrows between the eventsCin Fig. IT  UNIVERSITY  OF   OPENHAGEN     where identifiedproject that our industrial partner eWednesday,A case isfollowing requirements: worker, and only once. 1: a the created within January 25, 2012by a union case atomic 1)
  22. 22. e the accepting runs to also those ending in is be disabled. e. Infinite runs are also of interest in the figure. 7 shows the runtime state after The graph especially Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk f reactive systems and thethe LTL logic. The an agenda for the meetings. Note union has uploaded that, since the union has uploaded a file to the case, the DCR  Graf  som  vejledning   ics and acceptance condition for infinite runs Download is now enabled. But at the same time, Accept LO mapping to a B¨ chi-automaton with still remains the same as the previous graph, u and Accept DA τ -event [12], [17]. as the proposed dates have not been accepted yet by either LO se study (Sec. III), we realized the need to or DA. ting if nested sub-graphs to and conditional modeling with if they are extended with loops allow for flows they do happen not captureub structures. the constraints explicitly. need, so-called To address this The customer of the system is Landsorganisationen i Dan- phs were introduced in [14]. It can be for most of , only mark (LO), which is the overarching organization defined and to the trade unions in Denmark. Their counterpart is Dansk Ar- Bless,al a,extension to DCR Graphangiven inorganization e p bejdsgiverforening (DA), which is overarching Def. 1 .ned to forAt the of thelevel, theemployers organizations. is that a which most top danish workflow to be supportedA Nested worker at the trade union must be able to creategraph iously. case dynamic condition response a case, Figure 1. Top level requirements as a DCR Graph which e.g. triggered by a complaint by a member of the trade union, M, →•, •→, →, ±, Act, l, R, P, as), awhere ending against her employee. This must be followed up by meeting artial functionLO and subsequentlyevent to its super- to the arranged by mapping an held between case workers Four top-level events were identified, shown as boxes in tively. at the trade union, LO and DA. After being created, the ded by (E, M, any •→, managed, e.g. adding or P, as) ) and case can at→•,time be →, ±, Act, l, R,retrieving the graph labelled Create case, Manage case, Arrange ditor , subject toshows case graphical at anythat thea marking meeting and Hold meeting. For the top-level events we ponse. documents, the condition of the organizations. se, the Fig. 1 by the workers representation of simple DCR ending Graph capturing these top level requirements of our wheren) ⊆ atoms(E)×atoms(E)×atoms(E)case study. identified the following requirements: sponds |epting ∈ E. (e ) = e} is the set of atomic ∀e 1) A case is created by a union case worker, and only once. ing in ecially 2) The case can be managed at the union, LO and DA afterGraph can be mapped to a flat DCR Graph s. The it has been created. relations to the sub events and by preserving e runs events 3) After a case is created, LO can and must arrange a vents. This flattening of a nested DCR Graph eed to meeting between the union case worker, the LO case h is defined formally in [14]. In particular, the deling worker and the DA case worker.ested DCR Graph is given as the labelled tran- -called efined 4) After a meeting is arranged it must be held (organized for 1 corresponding flattened DCR Graph. Def. its by LO). [Slaats, Mukkamala, Hildebrandt, EDOC 2011] UDY: A C ROSS -OTop level requirements as a DCR GraphASE ProcessThe requirements Document to the following DCR Graph role graph Figure 1. RGANIZATIONAL C Figure 7. Case Handling Runtime After Upload translate where M ANAGEMENT events were identified, shown as boxes in assignments (shown as ”ears” on the event boxes) and relations super- Four top-level S YSTEM P, as) the graph labelled Create 25. januar, 2012 case, Manage case, Arrange VidenDanmark,Hold meeting. For the applied DCR shown as 18 arking demonstrate how we we meeting and Symbion, have top-level events we different types of arrows between the eventsCin Fig. IT  UNIVERSITY  OF   OPENHAGEN     where identifiedproject that our industrial partner eWednesday,A case isfollowing requirements: worker, and only once. 1: a the created within January 25, 2012by a union case atomic 1)
  23. 23. e the accepting runs to also thoseDownload is now enabled. But at the same time, Accept LO is be disabled. ending in e. Infinite runs are also of interestand Accept DA 7 shows the the samestate after The graph in the figure. still especially Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet remainsthe meetings.the Thomasgraph, runtime samarbejde as Note previous Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk the union has uploaded an agenda for f reactive systems and the LTL as the proposed dates have not been accepted yet by either LO logic. The that, since the DA. has uploaded a file to the case, the or union DCR  Graf  som  vejledning   ics and acceptance condition for infinite runs Download is now enabled. But at the same time, Accept LO mapping to a B¨ chi-automaton with still remains the same as the previous graph, u and Accept DA τ -event [12], [17]. as the proposed dates have not been accepted yet by either LO se study (Sec. III), we realized the need to or DA. ting if nested sub-graphs to and conditional modeling with if they are extended with loops allow for flows they do happen not captureub structures. the constraints explicitly. need, so-called To address this The customer of the system is Landsorganisationen i Dan- phs were introduced in [14]. It can be for most of , only mark (LO), which is the overarching organization defined and to the trade unions in Denmark. Their counterpart is Dansk Ar- Bless, pray,al a,extension to DCR Graphangiven inorganization e p bejdsgiverforening (DA), which is overarching Def. 1 .ned to forAt the of thelevel, theemployers organizations. is that a which most top danish workflow to be supportedThe Graphical EditorA Nested worker at the trade union must be able to creategraph iously. case dynamic condition response a case, Figure 1. Top level requirements as a DCR Graph which e.g. triggered by a complaint by a member of the trade union, M, →•, •→, →, ±, Act, l, R, P, as), awhere ending against her employee. This must be followed up by meeting artial functionLO and subsequentlyevent to its super- to the arranged by mapping an held between case workers Four top-level events were identified, shown as boxes in tively. at the trade union, LO and DA. After being created, the ded by (E, M, any •→, managed, e.g. adding or P, as) ) and case can at→•,time be →, ±, Act, l, R,retrieving the graph labelled Create case, Manage case, Arrange ditor , subject toshows case graphical at anythat thea marking meeting and Hold meeting. For the top-level events we ponse. documents, the condition of the organizations. se, the Fig. 1 by the workers representation of simple DCR ending Graph capturing these top level requirements of our wheren) ⊆ atoms(E)×atoms(E)×atoms(E)case study. identified the following requirements: sponds |epting ∈ E. (e ) = e} is the set of atomic ∀e 1) A case is created by a union case worker, and only once. ing in ecially 2) The case can be managed at the union, LO and DA afterGraph can be mapped to a flat DCR Graph s. The it has been created. relations to the sub events and by preserving e runs events 3) After a case is created, LO can and must arrange a vents. This flattening of a nested DCR Graph eed to meeting between the union case worker, the LO case h is defined formally in [14]. In particular, the deling Figure 7. Case Handling Process RuntimeDA case worker. worker and the After Upload Documentested DCR Graph is given as the labelled tran- -called efined 4) After a meeting is arranged it must be held (organized for 1 corresponding flattened DCR Graph. Def. its by LO). [Slaats, Mukkamala, Hildebrandt, EDOC 2011] UDY: A C ROSS -OTop level requirements as a DCR GraphASE ProcessThe requirements Document to the following DCR Graph role graph Figure 1. RGANIZATIONAL C Figure 7. Case Handling Runtime After Upload translate where M ANAGEMENT events were identified, shown as boxes in assignments (shown as ”ears” on the event boxes) and relations super- Four top-level S YSTEM P, as) the graph labelled Create 25. januar, 2012 case, Manage case, Arrange VidenDanmark,Hold meeting. For the applied DCR shown as 19 arking demonstrate how we we meeting and Symbion, have top-level events we different types of arrows between the eventsCin Fig. IT  UNIVERSITY  OF   OPENHAGEN     where identifiedproject that our industrial partner eWednesday,A case isfollowing requirements: worker, and only once. 1: a the created within January 25, 2012by a union case atomic 1)
  24. 24. e the accepting runs nowalso thoseBut at the in now enabled. But at the same time, Accept LO Download is to be disabled. is enabled. Downloadsame time, Accept LO ending is e. Infinite runs are alsostill interestand Accept DA 7 previous graph, samestate after and Accept DA Theremains in the figure. still remains the graph the shows the runtime Fra automatiseredeofunion hasespecially an agenda for the meetings.the Thomasgraph, arbejdsgangesame as the samarbejde as Note til it-støttet previous Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk f reactive the proposedthethe have not been accepteddatesby either LO accepted yet by either LO as systems and uploaded dates LTL as the proposed yet have not been logic. The or DA. that, since the DA. has uploaded a file to the case, the or union DCR  Graf  som  vejledning   ics and acceptance condition for infinite runs Download is now enabled. But at the same time, Accept LO mapping to a B¨ chi-automaton with still remains the same as the previous graph, u and Accept DA τ -event [12], [17]. as the proposed dates have not been accepted yet by either LO se study (Sec. III), we realized the need to or DA. ting if nested sub-graphs to and conditional modeling with if they are extended with loops allow for flows they do happen not captureub structures. the constraints explicitly. need, so-called To address this The customer of the system is Landsorganisationen i Dan- phs were introduced in [14]. It can be for most of , only mark (LO), which is the overarching organization defined Figure 7. Case Handling Process Runtime After Upload Document and to the trade unions in Denmark. Their counterpart is Dansk Ar- Bless, pray, curse,al a,extension to DCR Graphangiven inorganization e p bejdsgiverforening (DA), which is overarching Def. 1 .ned to forAt the of thelevel, theemployers organizations. is that a which most top danish workflow to be supportedThe Graphical EditorA Nested worker at the trade union must be able to creategraph iously. case dynamic condition response a case, Figure 1. Top level requirements as a DCR Graph which e.g. triggered by a complaint by a member of the trade union, M, →•, •→, →, ±, Act, l, R, P, as), awhere ending against her employee. This must be followed up by meeting artial functionLO and subsequentlyevent to its super- to the arranged by mapping an held between case workers Four top-level events were identified, shown as boxes in tively. at the trade union, LO and DA. After being created, the ded by (E, M, any •→, managed, e.g. adding or P, as) ) and case can at→•,time be →, ±, Act, l, R,retrieving the graph labelled Create case, Manage case, Arrange ditor , subject toshows case graphical at anythat thea marking meeting and Hold meeting. For the top-level events we ponse. documents, the condition of the organizations. se, the Fig. 1 by the workers representation of simple DCR ending Graph capturing these top level requirements of our wheren) ⊆ atoms(E)×atoms(E)×atoms(E)case study. identified the following requirements: sponds |epting ∈ E. (e ) = e} is the set of atomic ∀e 1) A case is created by a union case worker, and only once. ing in ecially 2) The case can be managed at the union, LO and DA afterGraph can be mapped to a flat DCR Graph s. The it has been created. relations to the sub events and by preserving e runs events 3) After a case is created, LO can and must arrange a vents. This flattening of a nested DCR Graph eed to meeting between the union case worker, the LO case h is Figure 6. formally in [14]. In particular, the defined Case Handling Process Runtime deling Figure 7. Case Handling Process Figure 7. After Upload Document RuntimeDA case worker. worker and the After Upload Document Runtime Case Handling Processested DCR Graph is given as the labelled tran- -called efined 4) After a meeting is arranged it must be held (organized for 1 corresponding flattened DCR Graph. Def. its by LO). [Slaats, Mukkamala, Hildebrandt, and submitted. When EDOC 2011] UDYdates they were level requirements as a DCR GraphASE ProcessThe requirements Document to the following DCR Graph role the : A C ROSS -OTop available graph Figure 1. RGANIZATIONAL C Runtime After Upload translate wherethe case they assigned their own Handling Figure 7. Caseved ANAGEMENT events were identified, shown as boxes ID to it. case in M super- Four top-level S YSTEM assignments (shown as ”ears” on the event boxes) and relations e as) P, later the LO proposed possible dates for a meeting graph labelled Create case, Manage case, Arrange VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 arking demonstrate how we For the applied DCR we meeting and Hold meeting. have top-level events we shown as 20 different types of arrows between the eventsCin Fig. IT  UNIVERSITY  OF   OPENHAGEN     A did identified the following requirements: not agree with these dates and responded by eWednesday,A case is25, 2012by a union case worker, and partner 1: wherewithin January createdthat our industrial only once. a project some 1) their own. In the graph both Accept LO atomic of
  25. 25. e the accepting runs nowalso thoseBut at the in now enabled. But at the same time, Accept LO Download is to be disabled. is enabled. Downloadsame time, Accept LO ending is e. Infinite runs are alsostill interestand Accept DA 7 previous graph, samestate after and Accept DA Theremains in the figure. still remains the graph the shows the runtime Fra automatiseredeofunion hasespecially an agenda for the meetings.the Thomasgraph, arbejdsgangesame as the samarbejde as Note til it-støttet previous Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk f reactive the proposedthethe have not been accepteddatesby either LO accepted yet by either LO as systems and uploaded dates LTL as the proposed yet have not been logic. The or DA. that, since the DA. has uploaded a file to the case, the or union DCR  Graf  som  vejledning   ics and acceptance condition for infinite runs Download is now enabled. But at the same time, Accept LO mapping to a B¨ chi-automaton with still remains the same as the previous graph, u and Accept DA τ -event [12], [17]. as the proposed dates have not been accepted yet by either LO se study (Sec. III), we realized the need to or DA. ting if nested sub-graphs to and conditional modeling with if they are extended with loops allow for flows they do happen not captureub structures. the constraints explicitly. need, so-called To address this The customer of the system is Landsorganisationen i Dan- phs were introduced in [14]. It can be for most of , only mark (LO), which is the overarching organization defined Figure 7. Case Handling Process Runtime After Upload Document and to the trade unions in Denmark. Their counterpart is Dansk Ar- Bless, pray, curse, curse,al a,extension to DCR Graphangiven inorganization e p bejdsgiverforening (DA), which is overarching Def. 1 .ned to forAt the of thelevel, theemployers organizations. is that a which most top danish workflow to be supportedThe Graphical EditorA Nested worker at the trade union must be able to creategraph iously. case dynamic condition response a case, Figure 1. Top level requirements as a DCR Graph which e.g. triggered by a complaint by a member of the trade union, M, →•, •→, →, ±, Act, l, R, P, as), awhere ending against her employee. This must be followed up by meeting artial functionLO and subsequentlyevent to its super- to the arranged by mapping an held between case workers Four top-level events were identified, shown as boxes in tively. at the trade union, LO and DA. After being created, the ded by (E, M, any •→, managed, e.g. adding or P, as) ) and case can at→•,time be →, ±, Act, l, R,retrieving the graph labelled Create case, Manage case, Arrange ditor , subject toshows case graphical at anythat thea marking meeting and Hold meeting. For the top-level events we ponse. documents, the condition of the organizations. se, the Fig. 1 by the workers representation of simple DCR ending Graph capturing these top level requirements of our wheren) ⊆ atoms(E)×atoms(E)×atoms(E)case study. identified the following requirements: sponds |epting ∈ E. (e ) = e} is the set of atomic ∀e 1) A case is created by a union case worker, and only once. ing in ecially 2) The case can be managed at the union, LO and DA afterGraph can be mapped to a flat DCR Graph s. The it has been created. relations to the sub events and by preserving e runs events 3) After a case is created, LO can and must arrange a vents. This flattening of a nested DCR Graph eed to meeting between the union case worker, the LO case h is Figure 6. formally in [14]. In particular, the defined Case Handling Process Runtime deling Figure 7. Case Handling Process Figure 7. After Upload Document RuntimeDA case worker. worker and the After Upload Document Runtime Case Handling Processested DCR Graph is given as the labelled tran- -called efined 4) After a meeting is arranged it must be held (organized for 1 corresponding flattened DCR Graph. Def. its by LO). [Slaats, Mukkamala, Hildebrandt, and submitted. When EDOC 2011] UDYdates they were level requirements as a DCR GraphASE ProcessThe requirements Document to the following DCR Graph role the : A C ROSS -OTop available graph Figure 1. RGANIZATIONAL C Runtime After Upload translate wherethe case they assigned their own Handling Figure 7. Caseved ANAGEMENT events were identified, shown as boxes ID to it. case in M super- Four top-level S YSTEM assignments (shown as ”ears” on the event boxes) and relations e as) P, later the LO proposed possible dates for a meeting graph labelled Create case, Manage case, Arrange VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 arking demonstrate how we For the applied DCR we meeting and Hold meeting. have top-level events we shown as 21 different types of arrows between the eventsCin Fig. IT  UNIVERSITY  OF   OPENHAGEN     A did identified the following requirements: not agree with these dates and responded by eWednesday,A case is25, 2012by a union case worker, and partner 1: wherewithin January createdthat our industrial only once. a project some 1) their own. In the graph both Accept LO atomic of
  26. 26. e the accepting runs nowalso thoseBut at the in now enabled. But at the same time, Accept LO Download is to be disabled. is enabled. Downloadsame time, Accept LO ending is e. Infinite runs are alsostill interestand Accept DA 7 previous graph, samestate after and Accept DA Theremains in the figure. still remains the graph the shows the runtime Fra automatiseredeofunion hasespecially an agenda for the meetings.the Thomasgraph, arbejdsgangesame as the samarbejde as Note til it-støttet previous Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk f reactive the proposedthethe have not been accepteddatesby either LO accepted yet by either LO as systems and uploaded dates LTL as the proposed yet have not been logic. The or DA. that, since the DA. has uploaded a file to the case, the or union DCR  Graf  som  vejledning   ics and acceptance condition for infinite runs Download is now enabled. But at the same time, Accept LO mapping to a B¨ chi-automaton with still remains the same as the previous graph, u and Accept DA τ -event [12], [17]. as the proposed dates have not been accepted yet by either LO se study (Sec. III), we realized the need to or DA. ting if nested sub-graphs to and conditional modeling with if they are extended with loops allow for flows they do happen not captureub structures. the constraints explicitly. need, so-called To address this The customer of the system is Landsorganisationen i Dan- phs were introduced in [14]. It can be for most of , only mark (LO), which is the overarching organization defined and to the trade unions in Denmark. Their counterpart is Dansk Ar- Bless, pray, curse, curse, pray,al a,extension to DCR Graphangiven inorganization e p bejdsgiverforening (DA), which is overarching Def. 1 .ned to forAt the of thelevel, theemployers organizations. is that a which most top danish workflow to be supportedThe Graphical EditorA Nested worker at the trade union must be able to creategraph iously. case dynamic condition response a case, Figure 1. Top level requirements as a DCR Graph which e.g. triggered by a complaint by a member of the trade union, M, →•, •→, →, ±, Act, l, R, P, as), awhere ending against her employee. This must be followed up by meeting artial functionLO and subsequentlyevent to its super- to the arranged by mapping an held between case workers Four top-level events were identified, shown as boxes in tively. at the trade union, LO and DA. After being created, the ded by (E, M, any •→, managed, e.g. adding or P, as) ) and case can at→•,time be →, ±, Act, l, R,retrieving the graph labelled Create case, Manage case, Arrange ditor , subject toshows case graphical at anythat thea marking meeting and Hold meeting. For the top-level events we ponse. documents, the condition of the organizations. se, the Fig. 1 by the workers representation of simple DCR ending Graph capturing these top level requirements of our wheren) ⊆ atoms(E)×atoms(E)×atoms(E)case study. identified the following requirements: sponds |epting ∈ E. (e ) = e} is the set of atomic ∀e 1) A case is created by a union case worker, and only once. ing in ecially 2) The case can be managed at the union, LO and DA afterGraph can be mapped to a flat DCR Graph s. The it has been created. relations to the sub events and by preserving e runs events 3) After a case is created, LO can and must arrange a vents. This flattening of a nested DCR Graph eed to meeting between the union case worker, the LO case h is defined formally in [14]. In particular, the deling Figure 7. Case Handling Process Figure 7. After Upload Document RuntimeDA case worker. worker and the After Upload Document Runtime Case Handling Processested DCR Graph is given as the labelled tran- -called efined 4) After a meeting is arranged it must be held (organized for 1 corresponding flattened DCR Graph. Def. its by LO). [Slaats, Mukkamala, Hildebrandt, EDOC 2011] UDY: A C ROSS -OTop level requirements as a DCR GraphASE ProcessThe requirements Document to the following DCR Graph role graph Figure 1. RGANIZATIONAL C Figure 7. Case Handling Runtime After Upload translate where M ANAGEMENT events were identified, shown as boxes in assignments (shown as ”ears” on the event boxes) and relations super- Four top-level S YSTEM P, as) the graph labelled Create 25. januar, 2012 case, Manage case, Arrange VidenDanmark,Hold meeting. For the applied DCR shown as 22 arking demonstrate how we we meeting and Symbion, have top-level events we different types of arrows between the eventsCin Fig. IT  UNIVERSITY  OF   OPENHAGEN     where identifiedproject that our industrial partner eWednesday,A case isfollowing requirements: worker, and only once. 1: a the created within January 25, 2012by a union case atomic 1)
  27. 27. The customer of the system is Landsorganisationen i Dan-resses that, only mark (LO), which is the overarching organization for most of Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejde executed, and to the trade unions in Denmark. Their counterpart is Dansk Ar- Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk nt must be a, p bejdsgiverforening (DA), which is an overarching organization t be assigned to for most of the danish employers organizations. DCR  Graf  som  vejledning  II vents to e which At the top level, the workflow to be supported is that a cuted previously. case worker at the trade union must be able to create a case,ded events which e.g. triggered by a complaint by a member of the trade union e set of pending against her employee. This must be followed up by a meetinghe updates to the arranged by LO and subsequently held between case workersnses respectively. at the trade union, LO and DA. After being created, the and excluded by case can at any time be managed, e.g. adding or retrieving elf as a response. documents, by case workers at any of the organizations. In this case, the Fig. 1 shows the graphical representation of a simple DCRg that no pending Graph capturing these top level requirements of our case study.This corresponds to be accepting those ending innterest especially LTL logics. Then for infinite runs on with τ -events17]. ized the need to low for modeling s need, so-called It can be defined given in Def. 1n response graph Figure 1. Top level requirements as a DCR Graph R, P, as), where vent to its super- Four top-level events were identified, shown as boxes in±, Act, l, R, P, as) the graph labelled Create case, Manage case, Arrangethat the marking meeting and Hold meeting. For the top-level events we atoms(E) where identified the following requirements: he set of atomic 1) A case is created by a union case worker, and only once. 2) The case can be managed at the union, LO and DA after flat DCR Graph it has been created. nd by preserving 3) After a case is created, LO can and must arrange a sted DCR Graph meeting between the union case worker, the LO case In particular, the worker and the DA case worker. the labelled tran- 4) After a meeting is arranged it must be held (organizeded DCR Graph. by LO). The requirements translate to the following DCR Graph roleTIONAL C ASE assignments (shown as ”ears” on the event boxes) and relations shown as different types of arrows between the events in Fig. VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 IT  UNIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN    ave applied DCR 1: 23industrial partner 1) Create case has assigned role U and excludes itself. Wednesday,theustomers. In January 25, 2012 case is a condition for Manage case, which has 2) Create
  28. 28. The some laterof the or becomeLandsorganisationen i Dan- at customer state system is excluded. The customer of the system is Landsorganisationen i Dan- that, since the union has uploaded a file to the case, theresses that, only mark (LO), which isin the above definition 5. The Graphical mark (LO), which is the overarching organization for most of Condition (iii) the overarching organization for most ofonly Editor Fra automatiserede arbejdsgange til it-støttet samarbejdeFigure expresses that, Thomas Hildebrandt, hilde@itu.dk executed, and to the trade unions in Denmark. Their counterpart is Dansk Ar- to the trade unions in Denmark. Theirenabled. is Dansk Ar- same time, Accept LO events e that are currently included, can be executed, and Download is now counterpart But at the and Accept DA still remains the same as the previous graph, nt must be a, p bejdsgiverforening (DA), r) the is an overarching organizationa, p bejdsgiverforening (DA), which is an overarching organization give the label (p, a, which label of the event must be t be assigned to for most of the danish to the role organizations. be assigned to for most of the danish employers organizations. must be assigned employers r, which must DCR  Graf  som  vejledning  II vents to e which At the top level, the workflow all condition events to e which a. Condition (iv) requires that to be supported is that a as the proposed dates have not been accepted yet by either LO At the top level, the workflow to be supported is that a worker at the trade union must be able executed previously. case worker DA. trade union must be able to create a case, cuted previously. caseare currently included should have been to create a case, or at theded events which e.g. Conditionby a states that the acurrently included events which e.g. triggered by a complaint by a member of the trade union triggered (v) complaint by member of the trade union e set of pending against her employee. This must be followedin the setmeeting are milestones to event e must not be up by a of pending against her employee. This must be followed up by a meetinghe updates to the arranged by LO andCondition (vi) held (vii) are the updates to the arranged by LO and subsequently held between case workers responses (R ). subsequently and between case workersnses respectively. at the tradeincluded LO andand pending being created, the sets of union, events DA. After responses respectively. at the trade union, LO and DA. After being created, the and excluded by caseNote that an event e can not be both includedor retrieving by case can at any time be managed, e.g. adding or retrieving can at any time be managed, e.g. adding and excluded elf as a response. documents, by casee, but an event may the organizations. response. documents, by case workers at any of the organizations. the same event workers at any of trigger itself as a In this case, the Fig. In shows the graphical consider finite runs. simple DCR the 1 this paper we only representation of a In this case, Fig. 1 shows the graphical representation of a simple DCRg that no pending Graph capturingcondition degenerates to requiring that no pending Graph capturing these top level requirements of our case study. acceptance these top level requirements of our case study.This corresponds response is included at the end of the run. This corresponds to be accepting to defining all states where R ∩ In = ∅ to be accepting those ending in states and define the accepting runs to be those ending innterest especially an accepting state. Infinite runs are also of interest especially LTL logics. The in the context of reactive systems and the LTL logics. Then for infinite runs execution semantics and acceptanceEditor for infinite runs Figure 5. The Graphical condition on with τ -events are captured by mapping to a B¨ chi-automaton with τ -events case u Create17]. and the work has been formalized in [12], [17]. Figure 7. Case Handling Process Runtim ized the need to During the case study (Sec. III), we realized the need to low for modeling extend our model with nested sub-graphs to allow for modeling s need, so-called of hierarchical sub structures. To address this need, so-called It can be defined Nested DCR Graphs was introduced in [14]. It can be defined given in Def. 1 as an incremental extension to DCR Graph given in Def. 1 above as follows.n response graph Definition 3:Top level requirements as condition response graph Figure 1. A Nested dynamic a DCR Graph Figure 1. Top level requirements as a DCR Graph R, P, as), where is a tuple (E, , M, →•, •→, →, ±, Act, l, R, P, as), where vent to its super- Four: top-level events were identified, showneventboxes in E E is a partial function mapping an as to its super- Four top-level events were identified, shown as boxes in±, Act, l, R, P, as) the event (if defined) and (E, M, →•, •→, →, ±, Act, l, R, P, as) the graph labelled Create case, Manage case, Arrange graph labelled Create case, Manage case, Arrangethat the marking meeting DCR Hold meeting. to thethe top-level events marking meeting and Hold meeting. For the top-level events we is a and Graph, subject For condition that the we atoms(E) where identified (Ex, In, R) ⊆requirements:atoms(E) × atoms(E) where identified the following requirements: M = the following atoms(E) × he set of atomic 1) atoms(E) created by a∈ E. case worker, and only of atomic A case is = {e | ∀e union (e ) = e} is the set once. 1) A case is created by a union case worker, and only once. 2) events. can be managed at the union, LO and DA after The case 2) The case can be managed at the union, LO and DA after flat DCR Graph A has been created. can be mapped to a flat DCR Graph it nested DCR Graph it has been created. nd by preserving 3) by extending all relations to thecan and must arrange a After a case is created, LO sub events and by preserving 3) After a case is created, LO can and must arrange a sted DCR Graph only the atomic events. This flattening of a nestedLO case meeting between the union case worker, the DCR Graph meetingFigure 7. theCase Handling ProcessLO case After Upload Document between union case worker, the Runtime In particular, the into a DCR Graph is case worker. worker and the DA defined formally in [14]. In particular, the worker and the DA case worker. the labelled tran- 4) semantics of a Nested DCR Graph is givenheld (organizedtran- After a meeting is arranged it must be as the labelled 4) After a meeting is arranged it must be held (organizeded DCR Graph. by LO). sition semantics for its corresponding flattened DCR Graph. by LO). The requirements translate to the following DCR Graph role The requirements translate to the following DCR Graph roleTIONAL C ASE assignmentsC ASE S TUDY: A C ROSSevent boxes) and relations III. (shown as ”ears” on the -O RGANIZATIONAL C ASE assignments (shown as ”ears” on the event boxes) and relations VidenDanmark, Symbion, 25. januar, 2012 Case Handling Process 23 as different types of arrows between the events NIVERSITY  OF  COPENHAGEN     Figure 6. shown as different types ANAGEMENT S YSTEM events in Fig. Runtime M of arrows between the shown IT  U in Fig.ave applied DCR 1: In this section we demonstrate how we have applied DCR 1:industrial partner 1) Graphs in practice assigned role U and excludes itself. partner Create case has within a project that our industrial 1) Create case has assigned role U and excludes itself. Wednesday,theustomers. In January 25, 2012 case is a condition for Manage case, which has the Create 2) Exformatics carried out for one of their customers. In 2) Create case is a condition for Manage case, which has

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