History of Instructional Design and Technology
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This presentation provides a brief history of Instructional Design and Technology from its inception to the present day.

This presentation provides a brief history of Instructional Design and Technology from its inception to the present day.

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History of Instructional Design and Technology Document Transcript

  • 1. The History of Instructional Design and Technology
    William B. Clark
  • 2. First school museum opens in St. Louis, Missouri, signifying the first use of media for instructional purposes.
    1905
    The “visual instruction” or “visual education” movement continues to gain interest. Keystone View Company publishes Visual Education, a teacher’s guide to lantern slides and stereographs.
    1908
  • 3. The first catalog of instructional films is published in the United States. The public school system of Rochester, NY becomes the first to adopt films for regular educational use.
    1910
    Significant growth in the visual instructional movement:
    • 5 national professional organizations established
    • 4. 5 journals on visual instruction begin publication
    • 5. >20 institutions established for teacher training
    in visual instruction
    • Approximately 12 large-city school systems develop visual education bureaus
    1914 -1923
    The National Education Association (NEA) establishes the Division of Visual Instruction (DVI).
    1923
  • 6. The University of Nebraska offers college credit courses by radio.
    1923
    Technological advances in radio broadcasting, sound recordings, and sound motion pictures mark the evolution from “visual instruction” to “audiovisual instruction.”
    1924 -1930s
    The Division of Visual Instruction (DVI) merges with two other national professional organizations to form a lasting organization. This is known as “the coalition of 1932.”
    1932
  • 7. Audiovisual instruction is employed in the United States military and industry. The United States Air Force alone produces over 400 training films and over 600 filmstrips. In 1941, the United States federal government establishes the Division of Visual Aids for War Training.
    1939 - 1945
    Training films play an important role in preparing US civilians to work in industry.
  • 8. Edgar Dale develops the “Cone of Experience” which outlines the hierarchy of instructional strategies and their effects on learner retention.
    1946
    The Division of Visual Instruction (DVI) changes its name to the Department of Audio-Visual Instruction (DAVI).
    1947
    In response to the growing interest in television for instruction, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) issues its Sixth Report and Order, reserving 242 channels for non-commercial, educational use.
    1952
  • 9. DAVI publishes its inaugural issue of Audio-Visual Communication Review
    1953
    B.F. Skinner publishes his article, “The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching” which revolutionizes the field of education by focusing on “programmed” instruction.
    1954
    Benjamin Bloom publishes Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, classifying learning objectives by the type of learner behavior.
    1956
  • 10. Instructional television continues to grow throughout the 1950s and IBM researchers begin developing computer-assisted instruction.
    The launch of Sputnik prompts the United States to invest millions of dollars into improving math and science education, greatly impacting the instructional design process.
    1957
    Robert Mager publishes Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction, which describes how to write learning objectives that include descriptions of desired learner behavior, the learning conditions, and the criteria by which the behavior is evaluated.
    1962
  • 11. In the early 1960s, the concept of criterion-referenced testing emerges as an important factor in the instructional design process.
    Robert Gagne publishes The Conditions of Learning in which he describes his five domains of learning and the nine events of instruction.
    1965
    DAVI changes its name to the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT).
    1970
    Instructional design processes continue to flourish in the 1970s, and the terms educational technology and instructional technology begin to replace audiovisual instruction.
  • 12. Computers are increasingly being used for instructional purposes in more than 40% of all elementary schools and in more than 75% of secondary schools in the United States.
    1980-1983
    During the 1980s, there is growing interest in how cognitive psychology principles can be applied to the instructional design process. This applies to the business, industry, military and international arenas.
    1983-1989
    There is increasing interest in the use of microcomputers for instructional purposes.
  • 13. Cognitive learning theories continue to evolve and new movements emerge such as human performance technology.
    1990-1999
    Constructivist approaches that focus more on the learner and real-world applications begin to emerge.
    As new innovations in technology emerge and instructional design strategies are refined, the future of the field will become more sophisticated and robust.
    The New Millennium