Personas: arquetipos, no estereotipos

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Buena descripción de cómo generar perfiles o "personas" para acercarnos a los arquetipos que representen mejor a nuestros usuarios

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Personas: arquetipos, no estereotipos

  1. 1. Personas Archetype, not Stereotype
  2. 2. What are personas?
  3. 3. Personas can look like this...
  4. 4. To design for your users you must first define who your users are
  5. 5. Where did the idea come from? • A Persona is an artificial person, invented for the purpose of helping a designer understand the people who will be using their product. • Pruitt and Adlin have traced their heritage to much earlier. But to the modern design community, their usage was popularized by Alan Cooper in 1998 in his book "The Inmates Are Running the Asylum." Flow Interactive
  6. 6. Why do we use personas?
  7. 7. Different people have different needs Flow Interactive
  8. 8. Personas also avoid designing for the average user A car for the “average” family - average means nobody is really satisfied! Flow Interactive
  9. 9. Misconceptions
  10. 10. What aren’t Personas? • Stereotypes!!! They are the synthesis of user research findings. They are not simply made up! • Users aren’t elastic. Flow Interactive
  11. 11. Making personas
  12. 12. Contextual research Watch, listen and learn in the user’s environment. What do people do? What do they say? How do they work? Flow Interactive
  13. 13. When you can’t go into the field Flow Interactive
  14. 14. This is what raw research findings look like:
  15. 15. Data driven personas The clue is in the name! The data comes from client’s inhouse knowledge. The good stuff comes from ‘looking’ at how your users interact with your website. Good to use when you have a rich set of data, such as Amazon, Play.com, etc. Flow Interactive
  16. 16. How much research? Depends on how diverse your users’ behaviours really are. Typically we find that behaviour is less diverse that you might expect. Anything from 6 to 20 respondents is typical and useful. Sometimes do more for political reasons. Supplement with all your existing data: search logs, surveys, focus groups, customer facing staff Examples… First choice 15 lab BUPA 20 lab Yell 16 field DfES 59 field
  17. 17. What’s an effective way of communicating these back to your design team? How can you make them ‘actionable’? ... and bring them to life for non-research lovers? Flow Interactive
  18. 18. Personas and goals workshop Price driven Quality driven Nervous user Confident user Fact driven Feeling driven Wilma is a middle aged bookkeeper from Hatfield. She uses Sage and Excel on a rather old computer at work, but has internet access at home. She has an eye for a bargain but is a stickler for details. Flow Interactive
  19. 19. Persona consist of goal statements: • Life goals e.g. “get the big promotion!” vs “be an ethical person” • Experience goals: e.g. “have fun” vs “get it done quickly” (1-2) • End goals: e.g. “find the cheapest flights” • Design challenges. E.g. Why this persona is important to the business, and what to bear in mind • And a motto • One sentence that sums up the persona
  20. 20. Personas come in two main flavours: • Primary persona – the primary persona is the singularly most important person for whom the site should be designed. The primary persona should always “emerge” from the set of secondary personas: it should not be created from scratch. Secondary personas – typically between three and seven of these are generated from the ethnographic research first, before the primary persona. With big systems (e.g. CMS), you can have lots of different user types, each of which you’d sum up as personas. You can also have negative personas: people you want to specifically exclude Flow Interactive
  21. 21. Quick guide to personas • Create a narrative – ideally, a one to two-page narrative description for each persona • Be specific – identify workflow and daily behavioural patterns, using specific details, not generalities. Detail two or three technical skills to give an idea of computer competency • Create mnemonic triggers – include one or two fictional details about the persona's life, e.g. an interest or a habit that make each persona unique and memorable Flow Interactive
  22. 22. Quick guide to personas • Use your imagination – don't use someone you actually know as a persona. Try instead to create a composite based on the qualitative data you have captured • Strive for novelty – don't recycle a persona from a previous project for a new project. Instead, do your ethnography properly and create new personas for each project Flow Interactive
  23. 23. Quick guide to personas • Keep the numbers low – keep the number of personas created for a project relatively small. Usually between three and seven secondary personas, depending on the interface project, from which will emerge the primary persona • Be realistic – strive to develop a believable archetype so the design team will accept the persona Flow Interactive
  24. 24. Making & using personas Review existing data and formulate persona hypothesis. Recruit research subjects based on the persona hypothesis. Perform contextual research. Analyse existing and new data using collaborative affinity sorting techniques. Establish dimensions and goals. Create the personas. Workshop: establish dimensions, create sketches, select and flesh out personas. Assign goals. Flow Interactive Introduce the personas to the organisation, as project style and objectives require.
  25. 25. Key things to consider: • Fictional utility – personas are not "made up". They are an output of data analysis • Imaginary, not woolly – although personas are imaginary, they are archetypes not caricatures, and should be defined with precision. • Realism – names and personal details for personas should be created to put contextual flesh on the archetypal bones • Goals – personas should in the first instance be differentiated and identified by their goals • Persona-centric design – interfaces should be designed and built to very specifically satisfy the needs and goals of the primary persona Flow Interactive
  26. 26. A travel site
  27. 27. Persona Case Study Flow Interactive
  28. 28. •After a user study, we analysed participants responses to get an overview. - Age and Segment Type of trip Motivations Frustrations Behaviours and Attitudes End Goals when researching and booking travel online Flow Interactive
  29. 29. •We mapped each participant against key behavioural axis: - Planning in advance/Last minute - Relax/Explore - Attitude to risk Flow Interactive
  30. 30. We located patterns of behaviour and found groups of users that ‘stuck together’… Flow Interactive
  31. 31. Book in advance Quality Relax 1,2,3,4 1,4,7,16, 17,19,20 1,4,5,6,7, 8,9,15, 17,19 Previous Previous hotel destination 1,2,5,7,8, 910,15,16, 17,19,20, 1,17, 19,20 1-2 trips a year Maximiser Emotional 3,6,12 3,4,5,6,9, 11,13,14, 15,16,18 1,2,3, 12,13,14, 16,20 Main researcher Travel alone 2,14 7,8,10, 17,19,20 1-2 days Brand loyal Destination driven Web fresh Trust reviews 19,17,20 1,3,7,8,10 12,13,15, 17,19,20 3,10,14,15 8,14 3,4,5,6,9, 11,13,14 15,18,20 3-4 days With friends 1,7,11,13, 15,16,18 3 -6 trips a year 5,6,7,8 3,5,8,9,12, 13,14,18 3,5,8,9,12, 13,14,18 Joint decision 2,4,5,7,8, 3,4,5,6,8, 9,10,11,12 13,15,16,18 3,12,13, 14,16,18 With partner 1,2,11,15, 9,10,11, 12,13,14 Relationship intermediate intermediate driven 1 week 8,9,12 2,4,5,6,8 9,11,12, 13,16,18 2,12,13, 15,`7 2,8,10, 12,16,19 2 weeks 2,4,5, 6,10,14 15,16,17, 18,19,20 2,6,10, 11,15 3,10,16 3,4,6, 11,1213, 14,18 2,3,4,5,6,7, 8,9,10,11, 12,13,14 15,16,18 3,10,16 1,2,7, 8,10,12 17,19,20 4,5,6,7,8,9, 10,11,15 17,18,19 3,10,16 4,5,6,9 3 2,4,5,6,9, 14,16,18 1,7,17, 19,20 1,3,4,5,6, 7,9,10, 11,16,18, 19,20 1,7,17 Book last minute Price Explore New destination New hotel 1-2 trips a month Satisficer Practical Sole decision With family More than 2 weeks Google Event driven Web savvy Don’t trust . Flow Interactive
  32. 32. Book in advance Quality Relax 1,2,3,4 1,4,7,16, 17,19,20 1,4,5,6,7, 8,9,15, 17,19,20 Previous Previous hotel 1-2 trips a year destination Maximiser Emotional 1,2,5,7,8, 910,15,16, 17,19,20 3,4,5,6,9, 11,13,14, 15,16,18 1,2,3, 12,13,14, 16 1,17, 19,20 3,6,12 Main researcher Travel alone 2,14 7,8,10, 17,19,20 1-2 days Brand loyal Destination driven 19,17,20 1,3,7,8,10 12,13,15, 17,19,20 3,10,14,15 Web fresh Trust reviews 8,14 3,4,5,6,9, 11,13,14 15,18,20 With friends 1,7,11,13, 15,16,18 3 -6 trips a year 3,5,8,9,12, 13,14,18 3,5,8,9,12, 13,14,18 Joint decision 1,2,4,5,7,8, 9,10,11,13, 14,15,16,18 5,6,7,8 3,4,5,6,8, 9,10,11,12 13,15,16,18 3,12,13, 14,16,18 With partner 1,2,11,15, 9,10,11, 12,13,14 Relationship intermediate driven 1 week 8,9,12 Don’t look for reviews 2,4,5,6,8 9,11,12, 13,16,18 2,12,13, 15,`7 2,8,10, 12,16,19 2 weeks 2,4,5, 6,10,14 15,16,17, 18,19,20 2,6,10, 11,15 3,10,16 3,4,6, 11,1213, 14,18 2,3,4,5,6,7, 8,9,10,11, 12,13,14 15,16,18 17,19,20 1,2,7, 8,10,12 17,19,20 4,5,6,7,8,9, 10,11,15 17,18,19,20 1,7,17, 20,19 4,5,6,9 3 2,4,5,6,9, 14,16,18 1,7,17, 19,20 1,3,4,5,6, 7,9,10, 11,16,18, 19,20 1,7,17 Book last minute Price Explore New destination New hotel 1-2 trips a month Satisficer Practical Sole decision With family More than 2 weeks Google Event driven Web savvy Don’t trust reviews . Flow Interactive
  33. 33. Flow Interactive
  34. 34. Flow Interactive
  35. 35. Flow Interactive
  36. 36. Using personas
  37. 37. Personas are the first step to innovation 5 Contextual research 2 Concept 3 Prototype 4 Specify 5 1 1 Build and launch 4 2 3 And they are useful throughout the rest of the design* process! They are a fundamental tool for innovation. * Design is the whole thing, not just the graphics
  38. 38. Personas: Used as a communication tool •It all about getting everyone to sing off the same song sheet •Focusing on users •Reducing arguments They enable decision making because you can ‘query’ them as if they were a ‘real’ person •Standardised approach •Common language •They fill in the gaps between user-studies - you can’t have users on-site all the time. Flow Interactive
  39. 39. Mood boards Flow Interactive
  40. 40. Bed time reading
  41. 41. Bed time reading
  42. 42. Bed time reading
  43. 43. References ▪ Carroll, John M. Making Use: Scenario-Based Design of Human-Computer Interactions. MIT Press, 2000. ISBN 0-262-03279-1 ▪ Carroll, J.M. ed. Scenario-Based Design: Envisioning Work and Technology in System Development. Wiley, 1995. ISBN 0-471-07659-7 ▪ Chapman, C.N. & Milham, R. The personas' new clothes. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) 2006, San Francisco, CA. October 2006. [1] ▪ Cooper, Alan. The Inmates are Running the Asylum. SAMS, 1999. ISBN 0-672-31649-8 ▪ Grudin, J. and Pruitt, J. Personas, participatory design and product development: an infrastructure for engagement. Paper presented at Participatory Design Conference 2002, Malmo, Sweden. June 2002. ▪ Pruitt, John & Adlin, Tamara. The Persona Lifecycle : Keeping People in Mind Throughout Product Design. Morgan Kaufmann, 2006. ISBN 0-12-566251-3 ▪ Rönkkö, K. An empirical study demonstrating how different design constraints, project organization, and contexts limited the utility of personas. Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS) 2005, Waikoloa, HI. January 2005.
  44. 44. [Client: project, Date]

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