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  • 1. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu PORTFOLIO GEORGE MASON UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF EDUCATION AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Centre for International Education Teaching Excellence and Achievement Program Funded by IREX-US Department of State TEA FELLOW 2009 GILBERT MOHAMMED IBRAHIM 1
  • 2. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu 2
  • 3. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu CONTENT 1. Introduction 1.1 Reflection on Portfolio 1.2 Resume 1.3 Aims/goals for the program 2. Summary of orientation at Gallaudet 3. Courses at GMU 3.1Reflective Practice by Dr. Sherry Steeley 3.1.1 Professional Identity, agency and goals 3.1.2 Introduction to Portfolio and Professional Development 3.1.3 Lesson Planning 3.1.4 Learning Strategies and Student Metacognition 3.1.5 Cooperative Learning 3.2Educational Leadership by Dr Farnoosh Shahrokhi and Dr Beverly Woody 3.2.1 Life Style Inventory 3.2.2 Multiple Intelligence (MI) Theory and Curriculum Development 3.2.3 Educational Leadership in the Culture of Change 3.3Social Science Method & Curriculum by Megan Garnett 3.4US culture by Cara Bremer 4. Learning Strategies 5. Shared Strategy 6. Lesson Plans 7. Shared Lesson Plan 8. Internship 9. Materials from Mentor 10. Reflection from Field Trips 11. Other Social Activities 3
  • 4. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu INTRODUCTION: Portfolio is a record of materials or resources in a single folder that serves as a guide to achieve your goals and objectives and also as a bank of resources for the improvement of your work in the future. Depending on the teacher agency, i.e. the teachers’ believe in his ability to be an agent of change, every teacher has a workable portfolio and engages continuously in reflective practice (both formative and summative) on professional practice and student learning. AIM/GOALS FOR THE PROGRAM I came for the program with the aim and hope to: • Improve lesson planning and Delivery • Learn how to use technology for effective teaching. • Learn new teaching strategies to be modern teacher • Learn new things that will help me improve my local school: Supervision, Administration • Learn new things that will help me contribute meaningful for the development of my Department-Share with colleagues • Influence government educational policy to improve the falling educational standards • To increase my effectiveness in meeting the needs of all students, from the weakest to the brightest (that is Differentiation). RESUME: I am a teacher of Tema Senior High School, Ghana. I was born on the 17th of July, 1974 and I have been teaching for about ten years now. I am a team player with a hand-on style who has acquired Ten (10) years and Six (6) years working experience over the years in Teaching and Radio respectively. I am pursuing an International Executive MBA (Banking and Finance option) programme with Paris Graduate School of Management (PGSM), currently putting my Thesis together. PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE TEMA SECONDARY SCHOOL (09/2001 – Date) 4
  • 5. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Economics Teacher  Dealing with student by explaining Economics theories and concepts with precision.  I take care of form two Day students as their Housemaster.  Patron to Scripture Union.  Patron to Cadet Corps.  Patron to Interact Club based on my good leadership and organizational abilities, good inter-personal relationship coupled with a good understanding of adolescent psychology which is one of my Education courses.  I serve on the Publicity Committee of the School.  Secretary to the Chaplaincy Committee.  I double as the PTA and Staff Secretary. This has given me the opportunity to work very closely with management to formulate and implement policies in the school. I readily accept responsibility and execute it to the best of my ability. MERIDIAN F.M-100.5 (2002 – February 2009) Broadcast Journalist I worked as a part-time Broadcast Journalist, on Meridian 100.5 FM in Tema. Mainly, I host the Current Affairs Programmes, the Major News Paper Review programme on Saturday afternoons. EDUCATION  MBA-Banking and Finance, still in view, with Paris Graduate School of Management (June 2007 - Date)  Bachelor of Education Degree Economics, Sociology and Education, University of Cape Coast (2000)  Advanced Level Certificate, Wa Secondary School (1995)  Ordinary Level Certificate, Bole Secondary School, (1993)  COMPUTER SKILLS Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, PowerPoint, etc PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT/WORKSHOP Participated in World Links Curriculum and Technology Integration e-Learning course This was a twelve-week online course designed for participants to follow sequential activities, both individual and group, that facilitate the collaborative development of knowledge and skills to integrate computers and Internet technologies into teaching. Attended and participated in the INFOCOM TRAINING PROGRAMME organized by the Management of ATL FM for their Presenters/DJs. HOBBIES: Reading and writing, Research, Music, Sports and Watching Films 5
  • 6. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Summary of orientation at Gallaudet The Ghana group (Five participants) arrived in Washington and were picked from the airport for a three day orientation at Kellogg Conference Hotel to Gallaudet University. The Orientation majorly addressed Cross-Cultural Communication Skills for Life, Study and School Internships in the US, US Educational System, among others. US Culture and Ethnic, Linguistic and Religious Diversity: I learnt largely at the conference that US Citizens, in general take pride in this diversity. The demonstration of this reflects in their schools and work places. Many schools and workplaces are multilingual. I learnt that Religion is generally a personal matter for Americans Also I learnt that Culture is like an iceberg, nine-tenth of it is below the surface:  Surface Culture:  Food, dress, music, visual arts, drama, crafts dance, literature, language, celebrations, games, etc.  Deep Culture:  Courtesy, concept of time, body language, relationship to animals, concept of food, touching, eye contact, etc. US EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM • The US Department of Education was only created in 1980. It is very different from most Countries’ Ministries of Education. • Education in the US is decentralized and policy differ from State to State. • No Child Left Behind Policy 6
  • 7. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Courses at GMU: 12. Reflective Practice by Dr. Sherry Steeley Dr Steeley’s lovely Family – They took us to Baltimore 7
  • 8. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu REFLECTION ON PROTFOLIO: What is the purpose of Portfolio in your Country? Portfolios are not used in my school. I believe it is the same for all public school in Ghana with the exception of a few Private schools like: Ghana International School, Tema International school, etc, which practice more of the US style. However, by intuition a few teachers and I have a way of keeping our teaching materials, lesson plans, etc in some folders as a resource bank with its accompanying challenges. I must say, in Ghana, portfolios are mostly used at least in the area where I work to keep students’ academic records, attendance, report on students’ behaviour. I believe this practice of keeping portfolios is not practiced because it is not mandatory. Regarding the purpose of portfolio in Ghana, generally, this is to put, in a single folder, the teachers’ teaching materials, works and samples of activities performed by outstanding students so as to keep progressive track of the teacher’s work and act as a bank of useful resources that can be used again or rejected, clearly as a way of showing the teachers progress and professional growth and development. Ethically, every good professional teacher would have to reflect on their lesson. In Ghana, this is not a formal practice but some teachers reflect on their lessons but since it is not mandatory you would not get teachers writing their reflections down. Overall, creating a portfolio at this TEA program will help me acquire that skill which I intend to share with my colleagues in my school. It is obvious this will be my first and the beginning of my Professional Portfolio which I intend to keep and develop better as I progress in my career. I also hope to inspire and help other teachers to start their own. I sincerely and strongly aim at compelling the Management of my school to make it mandatory and I will have to teach and help colleagues learn how to develop portfolio manually or electronically. REFLECTION ON REFLECTIVE PRACTICE AND PROFESSIONAL PORTFOLIO DEVELOPMENT The concept of Reflection and Professional Portfolio development is alien in the educational system in Ghana. At the TEA programme I have learnt that reflective practice is very critical to meaningful growth and change. Also I learnt that professional portfolio is a performance- based document that is aligned with professional standards and consisting of a collection of carefully selected materials, examples and reflections, assembled over time that provides an evidence-based record of a teacher, knowledge of content and pedagogy, skills, professional growth, teaching practice, application of standards and leadership skill. It is essential for a professional to keep portfolio since it provides evidence of content knowledge and teaching practice. Besides, it provides the teacher with opportunities to synthesize material and reflect both formative and summative on professional practice. It keeps teachers abreast with national standards. It helps teacher education institutions to determine teacher trainees’ successful completion of program. 8
  • 9. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu I learnt that in lesson planning, teachers have to be aware of presenting materials to maximize effective learning of all students using MI theory. If a student is not grasping a concept it is advisable to vary the mode of delivery and learning activity so as to meet all students learning styles. Some suggested uses of portfolio. My portfolio will help me change my style or strategy of teaching: 1. It helps improve class participation (discussion) leaving out the outmoded chalk-and- talk style 2. Help my colleagues in the department 3. Hold weekly meeting with colleagues (PLC) to plan the week to ensure effective lesson planning and delivery of lesson. 4. Supervision: Influence management to encourage teachers to keep portfolio 5. Respect the view of students 6. To be the document that will be presented for upgrading and promotion. 7. It will be the main document where my daily activities will be recorded and entered. 8. Serve as a resource bank 9. It will help me to be more reflective 10. It helps in the improvement of the image of the teacher 9
  • 10. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Educational Leadership by Dr Farnoosh Shahrokhi and Dr Beverly Woody Dr Farnoosh Shahrokhi’s lovely Family – We had lunch with them 10
  • 11. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Life Style Inventory STEP 1: Primary: Dependant, (5 o’clock position) Backup: Conventional, (4 o’clock position) Step 2: The style I have chosen to work on is Dependant, (5 o’clock). What does this style mean to you? My score in dependant means I tend to believe that: My efforts make little difference as a result of feeling of helplessness in one or two areas of my life. I am extremely sensitive to people’s feelings, moods and reactions to me but after talking or getting to know a few of such people it turned out that I misinterpreted their feelings. However, this is not a long- standing case but happens when there are temporal life changes such as a new job, new environment like Robinson Secondary School, GMU IREX-TEA group class where I have to meet new people or when I am in the midst of completely unknown people. This is a defence against feeling of being rejected by others so I tend to be over-concern with pleasing people. This feeling tremendously diminishes or disappear once I get acclimatize with the people and the environment. At such moments I tend to be very conventional, initially, until I discover my sense of direction then I can now have things my own way; thinking outside the box and yet cautious of not infringing on anybody’s right, not targeted at pleasing but not to offend them or encroach on their privacy/opinion. Step 3: Significant Position (or Situation) My mother was very strict, easily offended, quick to point out my flaws/weaknesses in a derogatory manner, hardly give complements and quick to insult/beat if you did not do it her way or by her rules. Her intensions were noble, to train up a very discipline man. Honestly she was hard to please because she never expressed it. For example, if I scored an excellent grade in school, say 90%, and was not the highest/placed first, then it was not good enough. Besides, in Ghana promotion and good recommendation for favours/ promotion/opportunities from your Boss requires, apart from your effectiveness and efficiency, an unquestionable loyalty which can confine you to do things to please your Boss. In Ghana we call this ―eye service‖ is results in a feeling that your effort does not count. Idea/Behaviours You Might Have Learned By the upbringing of my mother, when am in a new environment dependant behaviour dominates: a feeling that my efforts does not count, over-concern with pleasing people/very 11
  • 12. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu careful not to offend them, a feeling of being rejected by others, and the development of high sensitivity to people’s feelings and their reactions to me. At the job setting the tendency to please my Boss makes me dependant as a defense against being rejected by my Boss even though I am indispensable to my Boss. Step 4: Consider the consequences of using this style and list them as indicated below: Personally Positive Consequences 1. It makes me sensitive, modest and tactful which are positive character traits. 2. I will always do what is expected which ensures peaceful co-existence. 3. I will not have issue with rules and regulations or ethical standards Self-Defeating Consequences: 1. I tend to always depend on others for direction 2. It creates a loss of self confidence 3. It kills creativity 4. I tend to blame others for my failures, etc Professional Positive Consequences 1. I will always do what is expected 2. I will involve more people in decision-making (Teamwork) though out of fear of taking risk. 3. Win the confidence of your Boss as obedient and loyal 4. Get promotion and favours Self-Defeating Consequences 1. Difficult taking decisions on my own 2. Loss of self confidence 3. Kills creativity 4. You blame others for your failures, etc 12
  • 13. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Professional Positive Consequences 1. I will always do what is expected 2. I will involve more people in decision-making (teamwork) through out of fear of facing risk. 3. Win the confidence of your boss as obedient and loyal. 4. Get promotion and favours. Self Defeating Consequences 1. Difficult taking decisions on your own 2. There is a high tendency to be easily influenced 3. The tendency to be gullible 4. It develops in the believe that your efforts don’t count very much and this kills creativity and initiative STEP 5 Consider how your life would be different if you changed your behavior in this area Some positive differences 1. There will be a sense of control over my own life 2. I will think outside the box, do things my unique way and be creative 3. I will value my self-worth and believe that my efforts count 4. Improve my achievement and self-actualization scores 5. You become confident of your own judgment and abilities and effective in a leadership role. Some negative differences 1. Self-protection and over-reliance on others for direction and assistance 2. There will be indication a reduction in my desire and ability to encourage others. STEP 7 How would you like things to be different? 13
  • 14. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu I would like to give up and challenge the idea of allowing those around (my boss especially) to have excess influence over how I accomplish my tasks. This makes me independent and gives a sense of control over my life. I would love to increase my ability to set and accomplish my own goals. Also to be independent and act according to my own believes and values. I would like to take supportive approach to others. STEP 8 What barriers now exist to make this change? 1. High sensitivity to people’s feeling and reactions to me. 2. Danger of over dominance 3. Fear of being a nuisance by habitually offending people 14
  • 15. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Multiple Intelligence (MI) Theory and Curriculum Development We took a course in MI and personal development test and it turned out that I am high in linguistic Intelligence, Interpersonal Intelligence, Intrapersonal Intelligence and I need to improve on Logical-Mathematical Intelligence, Musical Intelligence, Spatial Intelligence, Bodily-kinaesthetic Intelligence, Musical Intelligence and Naturalist Intelligence. A good lesson Plan must involve/engage the eight Multiple Intelligences (MI) HOW TO CREATE MI LESSON PLAN (GUIDE) 1. Title/Topic 2. Focus on a specific objectives 3. Ask key MI questions 4. Consider the possibilities 5. Brainstorm 6. Select appropriate Activities 7. Set up a sequential plan 8. Implement the plan SAMPLE: Topic: The Transatlantic Slave Trade Objectives: By the end of the lesson students will be able: - To know the struggle of their forefathers - To know the consequences of inhuman treatment of one another and connect it to current occurrences The Key MI Questions:  Who has ever been left at home alone by their parents?  What were the factors that contributed towards abducting and selling of ones own brothers and sisters?  Why do you think a human being will sell his brother/sister for material gains?  Who will abandon ones brother/sister for material benefit?  Do you recall the story of Jacob and Esau? Appropriate Activities  Reading about the topic  Writing down new words and expressions  Film show about slave trade  Dramatizing it 15
  • 16. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu SEQUENTIAL PLAN  STEP 1: Brainstorming Asking a lot of questions about the topic to recall previous knowledge  Step2: Give an introductory summery  Step3: film show on slave trade  Step 4: Discussion on the film  Step5: Evaluate knowledge gained by asking questions. 16
  • 17. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Educational Leadership in the Culture of Change – Dr Beverly Woody Fullan pointed out that the process of change does not happen overnight. In fact it may not happen over a year. Leadership is needed for problems that do not have easy answers. Change is a prerequisite to improvement. Some things I would like to change:  Portfolio development and reflection  Intensive student participation - Lesson strategy - Lesson plan - Introduce Professional Learning Community  Honours and regular classes Golman’s Leadership Style  Coercive - “Do what I tell you”  Authoritative - “come with me”  Affiliative - “people come first”  Democratic - “what do you think”  Pacesetting - “Do as I do now”  Coaching - “Try this” I learnt that there are three string reasons to believe five components of leadership represent independent but mutually reinforcing forces for positive change. 1. Moral Purpose this is acting with the intention of making a positive difference in the lives of students, other teachers and the society as a whole. 2. Understanding Change. Moral purpose without an understanding of change will lead to moral martyrdom 3. Relationship Building. If relationship improve, things get better 4. Knowledge creation and sharing. This reflects an amazing congruence with the previous three themes 5. Coherence Making. This is a perennial pursuit. Leadership is difficult in a culture of change because disequilibrium is common. ―It is not the pace of change that is the culprit it is the piecemealness and fragmentation that wears us down‖ ―In many organisations, the problem is not the absence of innovations but the presence of too many disconnected episodic, piece meal project with superficial implementation. (More good things happen. Fewer bad things happen) 17
  • 18. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Social Science Method & Curriculum by Ms. Megan Garnett  Backward Design Model  Content, Skill, Assess, ETC • LEARN INSTRUCTIONAL MODEL  LINK: making connection to PK  ENGAGE: teacher presents a large group lesson  ACTIVATE: active learning, guided practice  REFLECT: processing and assessment  NEXT STEP: where do we go next? foreshadowing CLASSROOM INSTRUCTIONS THAT WORKS – Nine Strategies 1. Identify Similarities and Differences 2. Summarizing and note taking 3. Reinforcing effort & providing recognition 18
  • 19. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu 4. Home work & practice 5. Non-linguistic representation-pictures 6. Cooperative Learning 7. Setting objective and providing feed-back 8. Generating & testing Hypothesis-predictive value 9. Cues, Questions & Advance organizers US culture by Cara Bremer 19
  • 20. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Learning Strategies LEARNING STRATEGY ONE 1. Name of method or strategy: Cooperative learning - Jigsaw 2. When is this method or strategy useful? When teaching larger groups or groups with varying learning aptitudes 3. Why or how is this method or strategy useful? It breaks up the content into easy-to-tackle chunks and makes each group focus on a specific chunk. It addresses the whole topic in its entirety and enables a clear understanding of the Big Picture. 4. What are the steps involved in using this strategy or method? The students are divided into pairs or groups. Each pair or group has to read up or do research on a particular part of the topic and then answer questions that follow. The teacher may or may not assign roles to the group members like group leader, Research leader, Secretary, Organizer, Presenter(s). It gets everybody involved; one person to read up, one person to write and another person(s) to present to the class. The group will put down its findings/answers on a poster and give a presentation before the class. 5. When would this method or strategy be useful in your setting? This strategy would be useful to reach out to those students who are in general non- participatory in class, or who need the moral support of a group/team to come forward. It would encourage the normally participatory students to take charge of the performance of the team as a whole. It is useful in developing leadership skill, speaking skill, teamwork skill, research, independence i.e. students working with the teacher directing, etc. 6. What would you like other teachers in your school to know about this strategy? Other teachers would also be able to use this strategy to engage learners with different aptitudes and encourage the students to work and learn as a team. 20
  • 21. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu LEARNING STRATEGY TWO Name of method or strategy: 3 – 2 – 1 Strategy When is this method or strategy useful? It is used to conclude a class and to assess students understanding of the topic. It can also be used to start a class to solicit students’ previous knowledge. It makes students concentrate and pay attention in class. Why or how is this method or strategy useful? It helps the teacher know what the students know already (Previous knowledge), what they expect to know and what bothers their mind. The student also pays attention especially if it is used at the end of the lesson. What are the steps involved in using this strategy or method? The student writes: 3 things they know about Economic Systems  .......................................................................................................................................... ..........................................................................................................................................  .......................................................................................................................................... ..........................................................................................................................................  .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... 2 things they want to know about Economic Systems  .......................................................................................................................................... ..........................................................................................................................................  .......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 1 comment/question about Economic System  .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... 6. What would you like other teachers in your school to know about this method or strategy? 21
  • 22. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu After this i will show some of the comment of the students to some of the teachers and if the show interest I will teach them how to use it effectively. 22
  • 23. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu LEARNING STRATEGY THREE Name of method or strategy: KWL Chart (Know, Want to learn, Learnt) 2. When is this method or strategy useful? This strategy is useful to summarize student’s background knowledge, teaches to select new information from the read text by organizing it into the chart, and develops curiosity in students. It is also useful at the beginning of a topic or unit and serves as a very good warm up activity. Sometimes it is difficult for the student to understand what he/she is reading. This can be extremely frustrating for students. To help them understand what they are reading, students can be guide through this strategy of learning so that they know exactly what to look for. 3. Why or how is this method or strategy useful? This strategy is useful because it promotes independence in thinking and learning. It can help the students to focus and be motivated. The questions elicit student’s prior knowledge, pique their curiosity about a topic, and support research, motivating students to seek answers for their questions in other texts. 4. What are the steps involved in using this strategy or method? The Teacher should ask the students to write the theme of the lesson and draw a table with three cells: Economic Systems KNOW WANT TO LEARN LEARNT  Students fill in the information they already know about , Economic Systems in the first column  Teachers ask students to think of what else they would like to know about the topic and fill in the second column  While reading the text students take notes in the third column. 23
  • 24. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu  For home work students are given a task to find answers on the questions they asked in the second column. A. "Know" Step: 1. Initiate discussion with the students about what they already know about the topic of the text. 2. Start by using a brainstorm procedure. Ask the students to provide information about where and how they learned the information. 3. Help them organize the brainstormed ideas into general categories. B. "Want to Learn" Step: 1. Discuss with the students what they want to learn from reading an article. 2. Ask them to write down the specific questions in which they are more interested. C. "What I Learned" Step: 1. Ask the students to write down what they learned from the reading. 2. Ask them to check the questions they had generated in the "Want to Learn" Step. 5. When would this method or strategy be useful in your setting? This strategy can be applied to any lesson as an effective tool of summarizing student’s background knowledge of a definite theme. It teaches to read a text thoughtfully and attentively. It develops critical thinking of students. When the students have some prior knowledge about the topic and are going to take up something new based on it. Also when I want them to focus on what exactly they should learn from a vast or comparatively complicated unit. Or maybe when I want them to be aware of precisely what they need to know. 6. What would you like other teachers in your school to know about this method or strategy? This strategy can be used with a group of diverse learners. This strategy allows students of varying abilities to increase their knowledge about a topic and give them ownership in the classroom. This educational strategy also allows students of varying learning styles of extend their knowledge in the classroom. It provides a visual way to discuss sometimes abstract concepts and allows students to communicate their thoughts both in small and large group discussions. This is particularly relevant for teachers in my school because we have so many diverse learners and so many learning styles. 24
  • 25. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu LEARNING STRATEGY FOUR Name of method or strategy: R.E.A.P (Read, Encode, Annotate, and Ponder) strategy When is this method or strategy useful? It is used to prepare students for a class discussion and other teaching-learning activity that engages the entire class. Why or how is this method or strategy useful? It develops independence of students. It develops writing skills and analytical skills of students What are the steps involved in using this strategy or method? The students do the following: Read- the text on their own Encode- take notes on what they have read, but puts notes in their own words Annotate- write down main ideas, key terms, quotations, etc. Ponder- think about what they have read; talk about what they have read to their peers; try to make connections with what they know, have experienced and read before; and record questions they may still have about the topic. What would you like other teachers in your school to know about this method or strategy? I would like my colleagues to know how to inform students about searching for information. 25
  • 26. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu LEARNING STRATEGY FIVE Choose a method or strategy that you have learned about or observed during field experience. Name of method or strategy: Mind Mapping When is this method or strategy useful? When the teacher wants to find out the prior knowledge of the students Why or how is this method or strategy useful? This strategy very quickly tells a teacher how much the children already know and hence helps plan his lesson. It also enables the teacher to teach from the general to the more specific. What are the steps involved in using this strategy or method? The teacher gives the general topic and writes it on the board. He then asks the children for some issues related to it and writes them on the board, linking them to the main topic. The teacher then divides the class into groups and gives each a chart and a marker. The teacher asks the students to think on each subtopic and chart a mind map. The teacher draws an example on the board to make the activity clear to the students. Children are given only about 10 to 15 minutes to complete the mind map. 5. When would this method or strategy be useful in your setting? This method can be effectively used while starting a new topic to know the prior knowledge or at the end of a lesson as part of summarization or recapitulation. It can reinforce learning. 6. What would you like other teachers in your school to know about this method or strategy? The teachers of other subjects can also use this strategy successfully for the above mentioned purposes. 26
  • 27. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu LEARNING STRATEGY SIX Name of method or strategy: Think - Pair – Share Strategy When is this method or strategy useful? This strategy can be used anytime during a lesson or unit Why or how is this method or strategy useful? Benefit to Students:  Provides the processing time  Build in wait time  Provides rehearsal  Enhances depth and breadth of thinking  Increases level of participation Benefits to the teacher:  Provides opportunities to check for understanding  Provides time for teacher to make instructional decision  Provides time for teacher to locate support materials and plan the next questions.  Allow the teacher to intervene with one or two students without audience What are the steps involved in using this strategy or method? Process:  Ask a question  Ask the students to think quickly about possible answers to questions. This is usually only thirty seconds to one minute, unless the question is quite complex (THINK).  Have students pair with a neighbour or a learning friend to discuss their thinking. The discussion usually lasts two to three minutes (PAIR).  Ask students to share their responses with the whole group or with a table group. Not all students have to share their answers with the large group (SHARE). (Some teachers use hand signals, pointers, bell etc to mark transition point during the cycle. When appropriate students can write notes, web or diagram their responses during the “Think” or “Pair” time. Students can either explain their own thinking, 27
  • 28. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu that of their partners or the consensus they reached. Think-Pair-Share can be used 2 – 5 times during an instructional period.) 5. When would this method or strategy be useful in your setting? This strategy can be used at any time in my setting. 6. What would you like other teachers in your school to know about this method or strategy? This strategy can go with all subjects. I will like to implement this idea in my regular practices and will also introduce this to my colleagues at Department Meeting (PLC). I believe once teachers are introduced to this strategy they would love to put it into regular practice. 28
  • 29. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu SHARED STRATEGY Strategy 1 1-NAME OF STRATEGY GROUP WORK-Group work is a student centered strategy that involves the student in the teaching learning process 2-WHEN IS THIS STRATEGY USEFUL? The strategy is useful when there are strong and weak students in the class. The strategy enables transfer of knowledge from stronger students to weaker ones. It is also useful when the teacher wants to cover a large section of the syllabus within a short time. 3-STEPS IN USING THE STRATEGY STEP 1 In a class of say 50 students are put in five group of ten in each group the Teacher makes sure there are strong and weak students. STEP- 2 Teacher gives the topic for discussing to ensure participation, roles are assigned to students in the group e.g., leader, note taker etc. STEP-3 Presentation-students present their work to the class for general class discussing 4- I will teach other teachers in my school to know about this strategy since it ensures student active participation. Strategy 2 1 DEBATE 2 This strategy is most useful when a panel class discussing is organized for the class. It is also useful when a controversial topic is being discussed for example, ―who is most guilty? The Europeans who came for the slaves or the African chiefs caught the slaves for the European? 3 STEPS IN IMPLEMENTING THIS STRATEGY A-Students ballot by selecting folded paper to be on either side of the Debate B-The two sides are made to select their lead debaters C-Main debate takes place 29
  • 30. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu 4-The benefit of this strategy is, it will bring out debating skills out of the students and be able to present two sides of an issue. 30
  • 31. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Strategy 2 1 PICTURE DISCUSSING 2-When is this method used? This strategy is used when the topic under discussing needs pictorial images to bring the message home 3-Why should the method be used?-By using this method, events are made real in the minds of the students by so doing relate more with the event. STEPS INVOLVED IN USING THIS METHOD A-The teacher presents pictures about the topic to the class B-The class is made spend some time to write about the pictures. C-Students discuss the pictures in the class. 4-WHY IS THIS METHOD USEFUL? This method makes students participate in class activity it makes discussing lively and interesting. This strategy breaks the monotony in the teaching and learning process. Strategy 41-NAME OF STRATEGY-JIGSAW 2-WHEN IS THIS STRATEGY USEFUL? A-When the class is large B-When the students are in groups for group work C-When the teacher wants to cover a large part of the syllabus over a short time. 3-WHEN OR HOW IS THE STRATEGY USEFUL? A-To build the spirit of team of team work 31
  • 32. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu B-To create a sense of sharing among the students. 4-STEPS INVOLVED IN USING THIS STRATEGY A-The class is divided into groups of say ten students B-The lesson is divided into topic segments and assigned to the students in the group. C-Students are given time to read the segment given to them. D-Students are made to explain their segment to their corresponding colleagues in other groups E-Students are made to present to the class the explanation made to them by their corresponding colleagues from other groups. 5-I will like other teachers in my school to you this strategy since it helps in making students participate in class work. Strategy 5 1- NAME OF STRATEGY-TASKED BASED STRATEGY 2-WHEN IS THIS STRATEGY USEFUL? A-When one is dealing with a large class. B-When the class is tired and needs an activity to keep them active. 3-HOW IS THIS STRATEGY USEFUL? A-This strategy is useful in keeping students busy with their lessons B-It helps students share ideas with one another. C-Students are able to build communicative skills. STEPS A-Students are put into small groups B-A specific activity is given to the students to work on. C-While students work on their task, the teacher monitors the students work. This strategy will be applicable in Ghana because we have very large classes and large teaching syllabus. 4-I will like other teachers in my school to use this strategy because it will make their class more active and interesting. 32
  • 33. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu LESSON PLAN SHEET Introduction: I firmly believe that the success of every lesson depends on how effectively the lesson is planned. To plan effectively, it is strategically prudent to for the teacher to plan with this acronym in mind SMAT: S – specific The aims and procedure in the lesson plan should be specific and to the point using action verbs. M – measurable It should be possible to easily evaluate the students’ activity during or after the lesson. If this is difficult or impossible, lesson plan is not measurable. A – achievable The aims of the lesson should be fulfilled within the time given for the lesson. For example, an aim that requires students to answer ten broad questions in 45 minutes may not be achieved. It is not realistic. R – realistic The topic of the lesson should be within the ability of the students. T – time Bound The lesson plan should be completed within the time limit and include specific times given in the margins for each teacher and student activity. Also, to achieve lesson goals the teacher has to lead the class to conduct a few activities, such as: - Exchange of greetings with the students - Get the students warm up, for example, ―stand up, hand up and pair up.‖ - Elicit topic related questions - Give them work and walk around the class - Ensure everybody is participating - Help them if necessary - Give them the feed back 33
  • 34. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu LESSON PLAN (1) Grade Level: 10 Subject: Economics Title/Topic: Economic Systems Number of Students: 55 Date: Duration: Objectives: By the end of the lesson the student will be able to:  Define/Explain Economic Systems  Identify the types of Economic System  Identify the type of Economic System their country (Ghana) runs  Identify countries that practice:  Capitalist Economic System  Socialist Economic System  Mixed Economic System  Differentiate between:  Capitalist Economic System  Socialist Economic System  Mixed Economic System Materials: Supplemental economic texts, pamphlets, library resources, and computer on-line database searches should be available for the students to use in their research. Allow class time for the groups to work together. This is also a good time to use a multimedia program for a review before testing or to reinforce a concept. Procedure for Learning Activities: Introduction: (Ice breaker 5 munities) Development (15 minutes) 34
  • 35. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Students will be asked to work in pairs of three. A script will be given to them to read, discuss and write down their understanding of Economic Systems, types of Economic Systems, and examples of countries that practice them. I will ask Student groups, preferably, as volunteers share their work with the class. After each presentation i will ask the opinion of other students who were observing to comment on the presentation, an encouragement, a suggestion, etc. This should be than orderly by showing hands to be called. I then summarize this part of the lesson on the Board  Definition of Economic Systems  Types: - Capitalist Economy- US, etc - Socialist Economy – Former Soviet Union, etc - Mixed Economy – UK, Ghana, etc Assessment: (10 minutes) 3 – 2 – 1 approach: That is writing down: 3 things you have learnt 2 things you will like to know 1 comment/question This will list will be the ticket to leave the class Differentiation: As students learn differently according to Gardener’s theory of Multiple Intelligences, by structuring the assessment activities in this way the teacher will have addressed most of the intelligences and learning styles. Reflection: Student will have an idea of the economic system of Ghana and most developed countries of the world and create a connection to development. 35
  • 36. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu LESSON PLAN (2) Grade Level: 10 Subject: Economics Title/Topic: Division of Labour Number of Students: 55 Date: Duration: Objectives: By the end of the lesson students will be able to:  compare outcomes of "cottage industry" process with "division of labour" process in manufacturing a product;  list advantages and disadvantages of both processes;  discuss job satisfaction of both processes;  construct wholly or specifically a product using one of two processes.  make construction paper hot air balloons! Materials for Learning Activity: Construction paper, glue, staples, tape, coloured yarn, scissors, pencils, glitter, stickers, felt tip markers, crayons, etc. Procedure: Conduct a "balloon race" to test the effectiveness of the division of labour system compared to the domestic system. Divide the class into two groups of workers to design, cut out, and assemble paper models of hot air balloons. Make the balloons in five steps listed below. Several groups of five students will work according to the division of labour system, with each student specializing in only one of the five steps. Other students--approximately five--will work individually according to the cottage system, that is, each of these students will work alone to assemble balloons from start to finish. The division of labour assembly lines will compete with each other and with the solitary cottage system to see who can complete the greatest number of balloons. Establish a time limit of 10 to 15 minutes. To be sure that the race to manufacture balloons is timed fairly, first gather the necessary materials. Then everyone begins manufacturing balloons at the same time. Begin counting time when the manufacturing actually begins. Steps: 36
  • 37. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu 1. Draw the balloon bags on construction paper, and then cut them out. 2. Design and cut out decorations for the bags. These could be stripes or patterns cuts from coloured paper, glitter, stickers, etc. 3. Glue decorations to the balloon bag. 4. Cut the basket (the area of the hot air balloon where the pilot and his passengers stand) out of construction paper and cut the strings to proper length. 5. Attach the basket to the balloon by gluing or taping the strings in place. After Timed Period: 1. Count the number of hot air balloons made by each group. 2. For the division of labour group divide number of balloons by number of workers involved to get a number per worker. 3. Ask the following types of questions: a. Who made the most balloons? b. In the different division of labour groups, what made one group more efficient than the other groups? c. What group made the most attractive balloons? d. What group(s) made the best quality balloons? e. What were some advantages of working by oneself? f. What were some disadvantages of working by oneself? g. What were some advantages of working in groups? h. What were some disadvantages of working in groups? i. Who set the pace in the group work? j. Did the group’s name a leader? Or did one worker naturally assume the role of the leader? k. Did the individual worker feel rushed when she/he saw the groups making a large number? If so, what did they do to compete? l. What do students conclude about the effectiveness of the cottage system and a division of labour? Tying it All Together: 1. Discuss with students contemporary examples of the division of labour work system. Have them diagram the manufacturing process of a company or industry they know of or have researched. 2. Discuss with the students the problem of job satisfaction in an assembly line situation as well as how such satisfaction affects the quality of the product. Have students propose different solutions to this problem. Examine specific situations, e.g., the auto worker who assembles one engine component all day long. How can the quality of both the worker's life and the product be maintained or improved in these situations. Assessment: (10 minutes) 3 – 2 – 1 approach: That is writing down: 3 things you have learnt 2 things you will like to know 37
  • 38. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu 1 comment/question This will list will be the ticket to leave the class Differentiation: As students learn differently according to Gardener’s theory of Multiple Intelligences, by structuring the assessment activities in this way the teacher will have addressed most of the intelligences and learning styles. Reflection: Student will have an idea of the economic system of Ghana and most developed countries of the world and create a connection to development. 38
  • 39. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu LESSON PLAN (3) Grade Level: 12 Subject: Economics Title/Topic: Industrialization Number of Students: 55 Date: Duration: Objectives: By the end of the lesson students will be able to:  Explain the term Industrialization  Distinguish between Industry and Firm  State the various classification of industries in Ghana  Explain the location of Industries  Identify the factors that influences the location of industries Materials for Learning Activities: Show a documentary on Industrial development using a projector, Supplementary textbook, pamphlets, etc Procedure for Learning Activities: After the documentary I will lead a brainstorming session and the points will be written on the board. Ask students to think of the difference between an Industry and a Firm. Also ask student to tell the class where they would like to site their own factories and give three reasons to support that. Ask some of the students to advise me regarding where i should locate my factory as an industrialist. Engage the class in a brainstorming session on some of the reasons why some factories are located at their present locations. Assessment (10 minutes): 39
  • 40. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Ask students should, individually, write three reasons for the establishment of VALCO Company in Tema and close to the Harbour. Differentiation: The documentary, group discussion, movement, reading of write up ensures that various categories of learners will be addressed in the single lesson. Reflection: Student will know and understand why some and most firm are located at their locations. And also understand that such locations are strategic to maximize profit and minimize losses or both. 40
  • 41. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu LESSON PLAN (4) Grade Level: 10 Subject: Economics Title/Topic: Demand and Supply Number of Students: 55 Date: Duration: Objectives: By the end of the lesson Students will be able to: 1. Define the terms supply and demand. 2. Identify what happens when demand exceeds supply. 3. Identify what happens when supply exceeds demand. 4. Explain how supply and demand affects choices such as: careers, types of cars made, etc. 5. Give recent examples of instances where demand exceeded supply and the results. 6. Explain how economic stability or affluence affects supply and demand. Materials for Learning Activities: Teacher materials: tokens, prize for each student in class (it can be something as simple as chocolate kisses) Student materials: pencil, 3 index cards Procedures for Learning Activities: 1. Students will be given a box of tokens with at least two different colours in it and asked to select any number of them from 1 to a handful. 2. Place a value on the tokens. (Make certain this is done AFTER students have already selected their tokens.) 3. Pull out an object student would desire to win and let the students know that they will only receive an "A" on this lesson if they own this selected item of which you happen to have EXACTLY one of. You will announce the bidding to be open at 10 and they may use their tokens to purchase the item. 4. Continue auction until a student has paid a high price for this item and received it. Then pull out a large supply of the very same item just sold while announcing that you do just happen to have a few more of these items and you're willing to open the bidding at 1. WAIT & WATCH REACTION! 5. Write supply and demand on board. Ask the individual who bought the overpriced item to define what these terms mean to him in light of the experience he just had, explain why he was motivated to pay such a high price for it, and let us know if he would have paid so much had he known there were enough items to go around. 41
  • 42. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu 6. Guide students in a discussion which covers all objectives. (I found an effective lead- in to objective #6 is to ask the following: "What if these tokens represented money and this was all the money you had available for two months?") Assessment: 1. Ask students to think of three items in their desks and to secretly set a price for each one of them on an index card which is folded so that it can stand upright on the desks. 2. Instruct students to then take out the items and place them by the appropriate "price tag" on their desks. 3. Invite students to go "shopping" and check out all the prices in the "store". 4. Lead the students in the discussion which will naturally follow with questions such as: "Now that you know how other merchants priced their items how will it affect your pricing of the same items?" "Were there some items that would be in high demand because of their low supply? How might that affect pricing?" 5. Students may want to stock their "shelves" differently after doing some comparison shopping and seeing the availability of certain items. You may then choose to give them another opportunity to price three items of their choice and discuss their changes and why they were made. Differentiation: It is activity based which also involved a lot of movements. And involved very practical simulation, so various learning group would benefit from it. Reflection: This lesson allows for personal involvement in the concept of supply and demand which helps the students see how it relates to their everyday life. 42
  • 43. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu LESSON PLAN (5) Grade Level: 10 Subject: Economics Title/Topic: Introduction to Business Number of Students: 55 Date: Duration: Objectives: By the end of the lesson students will be able to: 1. List examples of wants and needs. 2. Describe differences between and want and a need. 3. Pass a 10 question, 10 point quiz with at least 80% accuracy. Materials for Learning Activities: Just the worksheets completed by the instructor, and prizes Procedures for Learning Activities:  To prepare for this activity students read the chapter about wants and needs, and answer carefully selected questions concerning the subject.  The day after students read material they are handed a worksheet prepared by myself. It consists of fill-in-the blank questions about their reading and questions. They are to fill in the worksheet and review them before class tomorrow. I tell students that if they can score a 'B' or better we will receive a gift.  Orally discuss and check the worksheets to make sure the answers are correct. I collect the questions and give students the 10 point quiz. At that time 90% of the students scored an 'A' and the rest scored a 'B'.  We proceed to give our gifts. I have found this activity works best when given a time limit or a score limit. The winners usually receive a prize—the type of prize is left to the discretion of the instructor. Assessment:  Praise students for a job well done on their quizzes an encourage them to keep reviewing the material presented.  Use this activity to liven up a class that might at that time seem uninteresting.  An activity as the one described below will allow me to check their understanding of wants vs. need. Differentiation: 43
  • 44. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Many students in an introductory class such as this find the material not challenging. I have found an activity that not only helps them find this course interesting but fun and in a way--a challenge. The purpose of this activity is to reinforce their knowledge of the current material we covered in class. As an example let’s say we covered material concerning wants/needs. Reflection: Many students in an introductory class such as this find the material not challenging. I have found an activity that not only helps them find this course interesting but fun and in a way--a challenge. 44
  • 45. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu SHARED LESSON PLANS LESSON PLAN 1 - TOPIC- The coming of the Europeans to Ghana OBJECTIVE –By the end of the lesson, students should understand factors that influenced European traders to come to Ghana in the 13th century. Duration of lesson - 80minutes [Double period] MATERIALS FOR THE LESSON A - Test- books B - Maps and Globe. C - Pictures and artist impressions. CONTENT A - Recall of previous knowledge of students through asking probing questions. B - The period in history when the European voyage started. C - Reasons for European trade with Ghana. D - Effect of the trade on both Ghanaians and Europeans. E - Items of trade-Gold, Ivory, Rum, Animal skin etc. F - Who benefited from the trade? ACTIVITY A - Students are made to read on the topic individually in the class. B-Students are made to narrate what they have read to the class. C-The teacher explains the topic and the content to the students. D-The students are put into groups for group work on the topic. E-Students are made to ask questions on the topic. ASSESSMENT The teacher asks students questions on the topic to check their understanding. HOMEWORK-Students will write four effects of European settlement in Ghana. 45
  • 46. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu LESSON 2 TOPIC-POPULATION IN GHANA OBJECTIVE- By the end of the lesson students should know what the population of Ghana is. They should also know the growth rate and the factors that contribute to the population structure of Ghana. DURATION OF LESSON 80 MINUTES [Double period] MATERIALS FOR THE LESSON A-Map of Ghana B-Text books C-Population pyramids D-Charts and Graphs E-Audio visual aids CONTENT OF THE LESSON A-The definition of population B - Factors leading to population growth e.g. cultural factors, political factors, migration etc. C-Relationship between population and resources D-Effects of Population growth on national development F - Population control. TEACHING ACTIVITY A-Warm-up activity: The teacher a population game with the students. B-The teacher introduces the topic to the class. C-The teacher lectures on the topic explaining various aspects of the topic to the students. D-The students are put in groups for class discussion. E-Students ask questions on the topic and the teacher explains it to the students. ASSESSMENT The teacher puts questions to the class to assess their understanding of the lesson. HOMEWORK-Students will write three ways of controlling populatio 46
  • 47. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu LESSON THREE TOPIC- SLAVE TRADE OBJECTIVE By the end of the lesson, students should understand the genesis of the slave trade, how it was organized, the players of the trade and the moral lessons relevant for today’s world. MATERIALS FOR THE TOPIC A-Text books B-Maps C-Audio visuals CONTENT OF THE LESSON A-Tracing slavery from ancient times B - Differentiating local slavery from the Trans Atlantic Slave Trade. C - Causes of the Slave Trade. D-How the trade was organized. E - The effect of the trade on the local people. F-Moral lessons for today. ACTIVITIES: To measure previous knowledge, the teacher will ask probing questions on the topic. Students will alternate reading paragraph by paragraph the topic to the whole class. Group work- students are put in groups to prepare a presentation on each paragraph. After each presentation, students will put questions to their peers for explanation. The teacher will then explain challenging issues to the students. ASSESSMENT The teacher will ask questions to assess students understanding from their answers. HOMEWORK-Students should write on two modern parallels of slavery. LESSON FOUR TOPIC- GENDER BALANCE 47
  • 48. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu OBJECTIVE-By the end of the lesson, students should know the benefits of gender equality to the individual and the society as a whole. DURATION OF LESSON-80 MINUTES [DOUBLE PERIOD] CONTENT-Identify the special attributes of each gender Explain complementary roles each gender plays in the society Identify areas of inequality The effects of inequality on society The benefits of equality on the society Bridging the gap between the genders MATERIALS FOR THE LESSON Text books Newspaper articles Audio visuals ACTIVITIES Students are made to write their preferences when they give birth. They then discuss the reasons for their preference with their class mates. The class is put into groups to come up with various areas of gender imbalance in our society. They are also to identify role models that cut across the sexes in the Ghanaian society. The teacher explains to the class issues on gender. ASSESSMENT-Students are to suggest ways to improve on gender equality in Ghana. 48
  • 49. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Internship – Robinson Secondary School I was sent to Robinson Secondary School. This school had a middle school and a high sent. I was in the middle school because my mentor teaches at the middle school. Robinson Middle School has a population. The total enrolment for Middle school is 1256 and the high school is 2703. That is about 3959 students. The school has its mission statement as ―... to create a culture of confidence in which all students are empowered with the academic social and ethical knowledge and skill to be well rounded citizens ready for life beyond high school. Vision Statement: ―Robinson faculty and staff are committed to building an environment where academic, social and ethical growth is expected and where students share in and accept the responsibility for their living. It is a very diverse school with students who are: Asian or Pacific Islander, Black (not of Hispanic origin), Hispanic, White (Not of Hispanic origin)- the majority and others. 49
  • 50. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu My mentor is Mrs Sandy Lamb. During my observation of my mentor and other teachers I observed generally that there were much more differences between Robinson secondary school and Tema secondary school. Some of the differences include:  Classes are well equipped  Small class size  Friendly and healthy relationship between teachers and students  Students move to the classes of teachers for classes  Students here do not take a final formal exams  Students attitudes and behaviour are casual  High level of diversity  They do not use uniforms 50
  • 51. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Picture A: My Mentor, Mrs Sandy Lambs, A co-teacher, and I. Picture B: My mentor in active teaching Materials from Mentor  Lesson plan sample  Teaching aids  Some outlines for class activities  Assessment sample  Outline for designing rubrics 51
  • 52. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Reflection from Field Trips The field trips were revealing and here are some pictures Thomas Jefferson Memorial Boltimore 52
  • 53. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Annapolis, Maryland Philadelphia – National Constitution Centre – Pennsylvania 53
  • 54. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Liberty Bell, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Mount Vernon 54
  • 55. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Culture sharing Day Other Social Activities and New Friends 55
  • 56. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Wonderful Friends My Room Mate – Otabek (Uzekistan), DR. Woody and I 56
  • 57. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Halloween pictures Halloween 57
  • 58. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu Halloween My Halloween would have been marred without these true Friends 58
  • 59. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu A Teacher and some Students from Rockville High School we visited Portfolio Presentation 59
  • 60. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu My Computer Instructors 60
  • 61. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu CONCLUSION I have been learning different teaching methodologies through the guidance of Dr. Farnoosh Shahrokhi, Dr. Sherry Steeley, Megan Garnet, Cara Brema, Mrs Sandy Lamb (my Mentor), etc these are great educators.  I developed a higher computer literacy  I must say I am a better teacher now It is said that Learning is said to have taken place when there is a change in behaviour. And as I get back home to Ghana, I look forward to an exciting time with my colleagues. I will share my experience with everybody in a seductive manner THANKS Special appreciation and thanks goes to the following people and institutions: First I thank God for the opportunity. Also to IREX of the Department of State of the US My warmest gratitude goes to the George Mason Staff – particularly Dr Farnoosh Shahrokhi and Dr Sherry Steeley for not only teaching but also opening their home/family to us. I am particularly grateful. I wish them the peace of God Blessing and Prosperity. Also to all who have taught me: Dr Beverly Woody, Cara Bremer, and Megan Garnett? Not forgetting my Headmistress, Mrs Elizabeth A. Asare and the entire Tema Secondary School Community. And to my colleagues it has been an experience and a privilege to meet them and to share a lot together, their patience and tolerance. God Bless you all and I wish you well as you get back to your country. REMEMBER YOU ARE A LEADER IN A CULTURE OF CHANGE 61
  • 62. Gilbert Mohammed Ibrahim, Ghana ibragil@yahoo.com/gibrahim@gmu.edu 62