He said, “ I have lost my Direct speech umbrella”Reporting verb Inverted commas Exact words+ , He said (that) he had lost his umbrella Reported Reporting speech verb + (that) Changes: same meaning without exact words
PRONOUN EXPRESSIO S AND NS OF TIMEADJECTIV AND PLACE ES VERBS
DIRECT INDIRECT/REPORTED HE, SHE / HIS, HER / HIM, I / MY / ME HER YOU / YOUR I / MY WE / OUR / US Don’t change or THEY / THEIR / THEMHE, SHE, IT / HIS, HER, ITS / Don’t change HIM, HER, ITS He THIS,“ THAT to apply for this job” said, I want THE He said that he wanted to apply for the job She told me, “ You have to do some exercise” She told me I had to do some exercise He said to me, “ he came through the window” He said that he ( the thief) had come through the window
DIRECT INDIRECT/REPORTED TODAY, TONIGHT THAT DAY / THAT NIGHT YESTERDAY THE DAY BEFORE/ THE PREVIOUS DAY TOMORROW THE NEXT DAY/ THE FOLLOWING DAY NOW THENLAST WEEK, YEAR.. THE WEEK BEFORE/ THE PREVIOUS WEEKNEXT WEEK, YEAR… THE FOLLOWING WEEK A YEAR AGO A YEAR BEFORE/ THE PREVIOUS YEAR HERE THERE
TENSE DIRECT INDIRECT/REPORTED Simple Simple He said, ”I never eat meat” He said that he never ate meat present past Past.Pres. Cont She said, “ I’m waiting for Ann” She said she was waiting for Ann Cont. He explained, “I have found a Past.Pres. Perf. He explained that he had found a flat. flat” Perf.Pres. Perf. He said, “I’ve been waiting for Past. He said that he had been waiting for Cont ages” Perf.Con ages. t Simple Past. She said she had taken it home with She said, “ I took it home with me” Past Perf. her He said, “ We will be in Paris on Conditio He said they would be in Paris on Future Monday”. nal Monday. She said, “ I will be using the car Cond. She said that she would be using theFut. Cont. myself on the 24th” Cont. car herself on the 24th Can He said, “ You can do it yourself” Could He said I could do it myself He said, “ She may be at home He said she might be at home that May Might tonight” day.Must/ Have She said, “ You must go to the Had to She said that I had to go to the doctor. to doctor”
We can report: STATEMEN QUESTION TS S SPEAKER’S INTENTION S
We usually use the verbs SAY and TELL, butother possible verbs are EXPLAIN, POINT OUT, SCOMPLAIN T THAT can be omitted after SAY or TELL, but it Ashould be kept with other verbs. T E Construction: MSAY + ( TO + indirect complement ) + ( THAT ) She said to me that she was looking for a Ejob N She said she was looking for a job TTELL + indirect complement + ( THAT ) S She told me that she was looking for a job She told me she was looking for a job
S He said, “ She is coming this week to stay with us” T He said that she was coming that week to stay with them. A T E She said, “ I bought these pearls for my mother a year ago”She told me that she had bought the pearls for her mother the previous year/ the year before. M E John said, “I couldn’t get on time because I lost the bus” John explained that he couldn’t get on time because he had lost the bus N Hadn’t been able to get T Christine said, “ we will pay you back next month” S Christine told me they would pay me back the following week
The main introductory verbs are ASK,WONDER, WANT TO KNOW, INQUIRE… Apart from the general changes there are other Qimportant changes: U - The interrogative form changes to affirmative Eform - The question mark is omitted S T I O N S
He said, “ Where is she going ?” Q U He asked where she was going E S “ Do you want to go to the cinema with me today?” he asked. THe asked me IF I wanted to go to the cinema with him that day I He asked, “have you seen my cousin at school today?” OHe wanted to know IF I had seen his cousin at school that day N S Mark asked, “Why are you wearing my new shoes, Peter?” Mark asked Peter WHY he was wearing his new shoes.
S We will study them in groups depending on Ptheir behaviour when we apply the necessary Echanges. A They don’t follow the changes in the verb form. KSome of them will be followed by INFINITIVE, Ewhile others will be followed by GERUND. R ‘S I N T INFINITIVE GERUND E N T I O N S
(I) TELL +someone + TO INF / NOT TO INF ORDERS “Don’t make too much noise, children” he said.COMANDS He told the children not to make too much noise ASK+ someone+ TO INF / NOT TO INFPETITIONS “You might post some letters for me” said my boss. My boss asked me to post some letters for him WARN+ someone+ TO INF / NOT TO INFWARNINGS “Don’t go alone” Her father warned her Her father warned her not to go alone ADVISE + someone +TO INF / NOT TO INFADVICES “You must see this exhibition” said all my friends. All my friends advised me to see that exhibition REMIND + SOMEONE + TO INF / NOT TO INFREMINDS “Don’t forget to buy the wine” said Mrs Pitt.
( II) OFFER + TO INF / NOT TO INF “I can look after the child while you are working” he OFFERS said. He offered to look after the child while she was working PROMISE + TO INF / NOT TO INFPROMISES “ I will give you a raise ” my boss promised. My boss promised to give me a raise REFUSE + TO INF / NOT TO INFREFUSALS “I won’t lend you any more money” his sister said. His sister refused to lend him any more money. THREATEN + TO INF / NOT TO INF “I will call the police if you don’t stop making noise” said myTHREATENS neighbour My neighbour threatened to call the police if we didn’t stop making noise.
APOLOGISE FOR + GERUNDAPOLOGIES “I’m sorry I’m late” he said. He apologised for being late THANK FOR + GERUND THANKS “You have worked till late, thank you” said my boss. My boss thanked for having work till late SUGGEST + INGSUGGESTION “Let’s go for a walk, it’s a wonderful afternoon” she S said She suggested going for a walk because it was a wonderful afternoon. DENY + ING DENIAL “I didn’t steal the money” said the employee. The employee denied stealing the money ADMITT + GERUNDADMISSIONS “All right, I took the money” the secretary said. The secretary admitted taking the money
STATEMENTS QUESTIONS ( I ) QUESTIONS ( II )REQUEST AND ORDERS