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  • Autism Video Modeling A Visually Based Intervention for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Jennifer B. Ganz Theresa L. Earles-Vollrath Katherine E. Cook Visually based interventions such as moderate or severe autism, often co- Grandin described her thought proces- video modeling have been demon- occurs with developmental delays, ses as "completely visual" (Grandin &. strated to be effective witli students emotional and behavioral disorders, Scariano, 1986, p. 131], noting that with autism spectrum disorder. Tfiis and attention deficits (Kogan et al., she remembered information by visu- approach has wide utility, is appropri- 2009]. alizing a page in a book with the ate for use witii students of a range of According to current legislation (i.e.. information and that she had difficulty ages and abilities, promotes indepen- No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, remembering auditory information dent functioning, and can be used to Individuals With Disabilities Education unless she was able to pair it with a address numerous learner objectives, Act], instructional strategies used in visual image. Likewise, Liane HoUiday including beiiavioral, self-help, commu- classrooms must be scientifically Willey (1999] recalled relying on visu- nication, and social objectives. What research-based (Simpson, Myles, & al landmarks to find her way to col- are the components of video modeling? Ganz, 2008]. Visually based instruction lege classes and finding herself drawn Whats the best way to implement such as video modeling, a research- to visually based subjects, such as video modeling with students? Do the supported intervention, may be more architecture. techniques differ for students of differ- appropriate and effective than other Visually based approaches may help ent ages and abilities? approaches for students with ASD for a address pervasive difficulties in stu- number of reasons (Bellini & AkuUian, dents viiith ASD. These strategies Recently, the number of people diag- 2007; Delano, 2007b]. respond to stimulus overselectivity by nosed with autism spectrum disorder assisting students in focusing and (ASD) has increased drastically, most Sfudenls WiHi ASD as maintaining attention to relevant stim- recently as common as 1 in 91 [Kogan Visual Learners uli (Shipley-Benamou, Lutzker, & et a l , 2009], although impacts range Students with ASD learn best through Taubman, 2002], and can enhance from severe to mild impairment (Rice visual means (Hodgdon, 1995; Mesi- childrens abilities to independently et al., 2007]. ASD is common across bov & Shea, 2008; Mesibov, Shea, & complete unfamiliar or complex direc- races, ethnicities, and social groups Schopler, 2004; Quill, 1997; Simpson tions by condensing the content to and is four times more common in et al., 2008]. In addition, adults with only essential information (Williams, boys than in girls (Rice et al., 2007]. ASD have attested to their reliance on Goldstein, & Minshew, 2006]. The per- Further, ASD, particularly in those with visually based information. Temple manent nature of visually based strate- 8 COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN
  • gies allows students to review cues, (Dettmer, Simpson, Myles, & Ganz, ing problem behaviors in children agesdecreasing reliance on teacher prompts 2000; MacDuff, Krantz, & McClanna- 7 to 14 (Sasso, Melloy, & Kavale,and increasing independence (Hodg- han, 1993; Massey & Wheeler, 2000), 1990).don, 1995). Additionally, visually (b) reduce problem behavior in a 3-based interventions support students year-old (Dooley, Wilczenski, & Torem, What Is Video Modeling?ability to shift attention (Quill 1995, 2001), and (c) facilitate play in 4- to 6- Video modeling is a strategy involving1997, 1998), make abstract concepts year-olds (Morrison, Sainato, Ben the use of videos to provide modelingmore concrete (Peeters, 1997), and Chaaban, & Endo, 2002). of targeted skills (Bellini & Akullian,may be less socially stigmatizing than Visually based scripts are another 2007). Both videos that include theverbal reminders by adults or compan- strategy used with students with ASD participants [video self-modeling, VSM)ions when in the presence of peers. (Ganz & Flores, 2010; Ganz, Kaylor, and videos of others have been found There is support in the literature for Bourgeois, & Hadden, 2008). Scripts effective in teaching new skills (Shererusing visually based strategies with provide the exact words for participat- et a l , 2001). Video modeling including "other" models may be easier to pro- duce because these videos generally Students with ASD learn best through visual means. require less editing than VSM; typically developing students may more readilystudents with ASD of all ages (Simpson ing in social interactions and other cooperate, understand directions,et al., 2008). When taught using visu- well-defined situations (Ganz, Gook & already demonstrate mastery of targetally based strategies, many students Earles-Vollrath, 2006). Visually based skills, and require fewer prompts.with ASD maintain and generalize scripts have been effective (Simpson et Poinc-of-view modeling, or placing thenewly learned skills (Krantz & McGlan- al., 2008) in (a) increasing social skills video camera at an angle that illus-nahan, 1993, 1998). In particular, visu- in children ages 5 to 10 (Gonzalez- trates the target skill from the point ofally based schedules, containing photo- Lopez & Kamps, 1997; Pierce & view of the target student (e.g., cameragraphs or line drawings of upcoming Schreibman, 1995, 1997), (b) improv- is placed at the shoulder of the modelactivities or selected play schemes, ing communication skills in students to show the skill from eye level) alsohave been used to (a) increase work ages 9 to 12 years old (Krantz & has been demonstrated to be effectivecompletion for students ages 5 to 14 McGlannahan, 1993], and (c) decreas- (Bellini & Akullian, 2007). TEAGHING EXCEPTIONAL GHILDREN JULY/AUC 2011 9
  • Video modeling as a strategy has elementary-age students (e.g., Niko- baseline data regarding the studentspreliminary support to improve a vari- poulos & Keenan, 2003; Sherer et al., social strengths and deficits (Heflin &ety of skills in students with ASD 2001). Alaimo, 2007). This might include eco-(Ganz et a l , 2006; Ganz, Cook, & The flexibility of video modeling is logical assessments comparing a stu-Earles-VoUrath, 2007). Video modeling an advantage: In addition to addressing dents abilities to those of his peersusing videos of "others" has been a variety of skills for a continuum of within a target environment or activity;demonstrated to age ranges, it can be implemented behavior sampling; observations in the alone or in conjunction with other natural environment; questionnaires• Increase appropriate social inter- instructional strategies. In fact, much and interviews completed by school actions (Apple, Billingsley, & of the research involving video model- staff, parents, and peers; and student Schwartz, 2005; Gena, Couloura, & ing has been in combination with other self-reports (Heflin & Alaimo, 2007). Kymissis, 2005; Maione & Mirenda, strategies. For example, Baharav & Using the assessment results, develop a 2006; Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2003). Darling (2008) used video modeling list of skills and prioritize them in• Improve conversation skills (Char- with an auditory trainer, Scattone order of importance. Target skills lop & Milstein, 1989; Charlop- (2008) combined it with social stories, should be objectively defined and Christy, Le, & Freeman, 2000; Sherer and Keen and colleagues (2007) paired based on observational data. et a l , 2001). video modeling with positive reinforce-• Improve daily living skills (Haring, ment strategies. Although video model- Step 2: Produce the Videos Kennedy, Adam, & Pitts-Conway, ing may be implemented alone or with- Prior to developing the videos, deter- 1987; Keen, Brannigan, & Cuskelly, out additional strategies, research sup- mine the type of media to use (i.e., 2007). ports its use when combined with videotape vs. digital) and then gather strategies such as social skills instruc- the necessary equipment (e.g., video• Improve play skills [Charlop-Christy tion (Bellini & AkuUian, 2007). camera, video player, monitor, video et al., 2000; Dauphin, Kinney, & Because video modeling can be editing software; Sigafoos, OReilly, & Stromer, 2004; MacDonald, Clark, used with students with ASD to de la Cruz, 2007). Plan on creating Garrigan, & Vangala, 2005; Maione & Mirenda, 2006; Nikopoulos & strengthen a variety of skills (see three to five videos for each skill, pro- Keenan, 2003, 2007). Figure 1), it is a strategy that educators viding a variety of settings, models should have in their toolboxes. It helps (i.e., the student, peers, or adults;• Reduce problem behaviors [Luscre to understand the components and Buggey et a l , 1999; Sherer et a l . & Center, 1996). VSM, although studied less fre-quently, has been demonstrated to be There are three basic steps for implementing video modelingeffective when used to improve com-munication skills (Buggey, Toombs, with students with ASD: identifying the skills to be targeted,Gardener, & Cervetti, 1999; Sherer et the videos, and implemenliiíg the intervention.al, 2001), increase social initiations,decrease problem behaviors (Buggey,2005), and improve academic and task- 2001), and scripts or task analyses tooriented behaviors (Delano, 2007a; steps of video modeling, and how to ensure skill generalization (DAteno,Hagiwara & Myles, 1999). Point-of- implement the intervention before Mangiapanello, & Taylor, 2003).view modeling has some support as using this approach with students. For the strategy to be most effective,well, having been shown to improve There are three basic steps for imple- there should be three to five scripts ordaily living skills (Shipley-Benamou et menting video modeling with students task analyses for each skill beingal., 2002) and play skills (Hine & with ASD: identifying the skills to be taught (Ganz et al., 2006). Scripts canWolery, 2006). targeted, producing the videos, and be used for skills that require verbal- In most cases, newly learned skills implementing the intervention. izations (e.g., greeting others, initiatingtaught via video modeling are main- conversations, asking to enter a game),tained over time (MacDonald et al., Components of Video whereas task analyses can be used for2005; Maione & Mirenda, 2006) and Modeling multistep tasks (e.g., loading the dish-generalize to new settings or with new washer, using the microwave to cookadults (Gena et al., 2005), particularly Step 1 : Identify the Target popcorn, performing household chores;when using multiple videos showing Skill(s) Sigafoos et al., 2007). When writingthe same skill across activities, set- The first step contains several sub- scripts, consider seeking input from thetings, and people. Video modeling has steps: assessment, listing and prioritiz- students typically developing peers,been used effectively with young chil- ing skills, defining the skill, and col- who may be better judges of typicaldren with ASD, including preschoolers lecting baseline data. Prior to imple- activities, nonverbal communication,(e.g., Maione & Mirenda, 2006) and menting video modeling, document and speech patterns than adults. Task10 COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN
  • Figure 1 . Possible Siciiis lo Improve Via Video Modeling Social initiation - "How do you get to school?" - "Can I sit with you?" - "What did you eat for breakfast?" - "Look at this/that." - "What do you like to do after school?" - Asking a peer to have lunch - "Whats your favorite TV show?" Greetings - "Whats your favorite video game?" - Giving greetings - "Whats your phone number?" - Responding to/greetings - "Wiiere do you live?" - "What do you like to do on the weekends?" Appropriate nonverbal communication - Showing interest in what someone Making requests is saying [eye contact, nodding) - Asking permission - Smiling - "i want [food, preferred item, activity]." - Identifying others nonverbal cues - Asking for a turn or to borrow something - Expressing sensory needs Conversational skills - Asking/offering to do a new activity - Maintaining conversation on-topic - Asking for help - Comments regarding previous - Requesting personal space activities - Responding to others comments - Making jokes - Sharing attention or enjoyment with another child or adult - Telling stories - Using manners, appropriate language [please thank you) - Saying something only once or twice Play - initiating game play - Statements appropriate for games - Comments appropriate within the context of specific games - Sports behaviors Appropriate behavior in the school building - Cafeteria - Waiting in the hall before school starts Comments Community outings What to do/say in case of emergency - Appropriate restaurant behavior - Ordering at a fast-food restaurant Appropriately demonstrating - Purchasing items disagreement/dislike - Using public transportation Complimenting others and - Medical/dental visits reciprocating compliments - Appropriate social behavior at special events Daily living skills [e.g., [e.g., weddings, birthday parties, holidays, family cooking, cleaning, get- events, funerals) ting dressed) - Haircuts Answering/asking infor- - Travel [plane, car) mational questions - Waiting in line - "Whats your name?" - Table manners - "What school do you go Responding appropriately to an adults requests/ to?" demands - "How old are you?" Responding to teasing - "What sports do you like to Excusing self politely for hygiene purposes play?" TEACHING EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN JULY/AUG 2011 11
  • analyses can be developed by watching there are not enough natural opportu- To address a lack of reinforcement,a typically developing peer or adult nities for the student to practice the it may be necessary to identify rein-perform the skill. skill, plan on role-playing or practicing forcing stimuli that can be delivered Be sure to obtain parental permis- the skill in the classroom—or arrange immediately and consistently followingsion for any video participants and situations within the school or therapy the demonstration of the target behav-models who are minors. The models setting where the student is required to ior. Poor video content can also affectshould be taught each script or step in use the target skill. the impact of the intervention. If videothe task analysis, practice it, and then Collect Intervention Data. Collect content seems to be an issue, reshootperform while being videotaped (Ganz data on the students performance. To and/or rewrite and reshoot the video.et al., 2006). Buggey (2005) recom- determine the effectiveness of video When filming the video, it is importantmends that the models be similar (e.g., modeling, the same type of data to restrict extraneous stimuli (i.e.,age, gender) to the target student. Plan should be collected for both baseline excess noise and visual distractions)on editing each video to be approxi- and intervention phases (Sigafoos et and ensure that the target behavior(s)mately 3 to 5 minutes long (Buggey, a l , 2007). are modeled slowly and clearly. If it2005), although research has demon- Program for Generalization. Stu- appears that the student does not havestrated the effectiveness of videos as dents with ASD often have difficulties the prerequisite skills of imitation andshort as 30 seconds and as long as 13 generalizing newly acquired skills. observational learning, consider addingminutes (Bellini & AkuUian, 2007). Programming for generalization, there- adult-directed instruction to the fore, is an important component of any process.Step 3: Implement the Video social skills instruction (Bellini, Peters,Modeling Intervention Benner, & Hopf, 2007; Gresham, 2001). CASE EXAMPU: Chad Prepare for Teaching. Sigafoos and Teaching skills via video modeling Chad was a fifth-grader who qualified colleagues (2007) recommend designat- should include teaching multiple stim- for special education and related serv- ing a time of day for viewing the ulus and response exemplars. For ices under the category of autism. He videos. Videos focusing on a particular example, when teaching a student how had average cognitive functioning, skill should be viewed daily and at the to enter a group game, include varying could speak, and participated in gener- same time each day. In addition, the settings (e.g., playground, gym, neigh- al education for most of the school videos should be viewed immediately borhood), peers, and scripts (e.g., "Can day, although his day was fairly struc- prior to the time of day the student is I play?" "Looks like fun, can I have a tured. In sixth grade, Chad would be expected to demonstrate the skill. For turn?" "What position can I play?") in required to transition from his current example, if the video and script the different videos. Other generaliza- elementary school to a middle school describe how to enter a game, show tion strategies include teaching the stu- setting. Chad demonstrated difficulties the video just before the class has dent to self-monitor or self-record the with major transitions. When he was recess. use of the target skill, and teaching the not prepared for change, he screamed, For best results, the video should be social skill in the natural environment pulled his hair, and cried. These behav- viewed in a consistent setting. To whenever possible (Gresham, 2001). iors were related to new situations in increase the relevance of the instruc- Videos may need be viewed numerous which he did not understand the tion, this setting should be the place in times. Its helpful to make arrange- expectations, did not know whom to which the child is expected to demon- ments so that the student can access ask for help, or was not familiar with strate the skill. Materials used in the the video for independent viewing as the location. video should be the same materials the needed. students will be expected to use when Step 1 : Identify the Torget Skill(s) demonstrating the target behavior. nvubleshooting Chads team, which included his ele- View the Videos. Videos may be Dont be inclined to abandon video mentary and middle school specialwatched as a whole group or inde- modeling too quickly if initial data education teachers and general educa-pendently depending on the needs of indicate limited progress toward the tion homeroom teachers, selected a listthe students and the instructional set- target behavior (s). Although it may of skills from those identified by histing (Buggey, 2005). Plan on having appear that this strategy is an easy, individualized education program (IEP)students view each of the three to five no-fail intervention, as with other and from consultation with the schoolvideos developed for the targeted skill teaching techniques issues may arise counselor. The team focused on skillsprior to engaging in the selected skill during implementation. Sigafoos et al. that would assist Chad in successfullyor activity (Sigafoos et al., 2007). (2007) described several problems that making the transition to middle school Engage in the Target Skill. Immedi- may occur, as well as solutions for and in dealing with new situations.ately after viewing the video, provide each of these problems. Lack of They prioritized the skills and decidedthe student with the opportunity to progress can be due to a lack of rein- that "requesting help" when he waspractice the skill, in the natural setting forcement, poor video content, or a feeling anxious would be the first tar-if possible. If this is not possible or if lack of prerequisites. get skill. Additional target behaviors12 COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN
  • Figure 2 . Chads Video Modeling Script: Requesting Help he demonstrated any of the relaxation and self-monitoring strategies modeled in the videos. Although not directly addressing generalization, this substep permitted assessing his generalization of the skill once he was in middle g to ask school; Chads middle school special todo.Vmgoirt n-m not sure what education teacher observed him and [sotto voice! , word problem collected frequency data on his {or help-" eed help with thi requesting of help, seeing an improve- C ment over the first few weeks of «,*»"*"] . varin 1 don V ,,u""— how you wa"^ us to school. His mother also sent periodic written updates to his special educa- tion teacher, reporting how anxious he "Mr iNaiiii organize this paper- thanks." seemed each school day, and the spe- cial education teacher would check with him at the end of the school day {or your help- to ask him how it went. Although he reported some anxiety and avoided crowded hallways, he appeared to han- dle the transition periods well.included understanding environmental created videos to teach Chad otherexpectations and the orientation of the social skills, such as greetings and initi- CASE EXAMPLE: Sarakmiddle school building. ating and maintaining conversations, Sarah was a 16-year-old sophomore for later use.] diagnosed with Aspergers syndrome.Step 2: Produce the Videos She had average cognitive functioningThe team recorded digital videos in Step 3: Implement the Video and participated in general educationsome of the middle school classrooms Modeling Intervention classes all day, with as-needed special(i.e., Chads future homeroom, special Chads IEP team identified several education support. She appeared toeducation resource room, and math times per day, for the remainder of his want to have friends but did not knowclassroom] and settings (i.e., cafeteria, fifth-grade year, that he would view the how to establish friendships. Sarahhallway, library]. Each of the class- videos. "Video watching" was added to would follow her peers between classroom videos included shots of Chads his visual schedule at the same time periods, even if they were going in thedesk, where he would store his materi- every day. With input from his parents, opposite direction of her next class;als, the pencil sharpener (an activity the team also established a schedule she would stand by a group of studentsthat calmed him], and the teachers for video watching and practicing the who were talking but would not partic-desk. Middle school teachers and staff skills over the summer ipate in the conversation; and shewere videotaped sharing rules and Chad first watched the video in its often brought her peers small giftsexpectations for the classroom or other entirety, and then specific video clips such as candy and CDs. Sarah hadsetting. Chads team chose to imple- (e.g., home room or math class], dur- recently found that using bodily func-ment video modeling by peer "others" ing individual one-on-one lessons. tions (e.g., burps and passing gas]to provide Chad with examples of how Prior to video watching, Chads were an effective means for gaining herto respond to signs of anxiety (e.g., teacher introduced the segment and peers attention; When she passed gasstiff, hunched shoulders, wide eyes]; the embedded lesson. After each ses- during class and especially duringafter acting as if they were upset or sion, Chad was asked to summarize lunch, her peers smiled, laughed, andanxious, these peer models modeled what he saw in the videos (what the usually interacted with her for a shortself-talk following written scripts models said and did], and then prac- period of time. Studetits also remem-(Figure 2]. The completed video ticed the relaxation and self-monitoring bered the incident and made com-included a menu listing each setting strategies demonstrated in the videos. ments when they saw her later in theand educator/staff member, to enable The intervention continued over sever- day. Sarah expressed frustration to herselective viewing of a specific environ- al weeks as Chad gained familiarity study hall teacher that she tried herment and interaction. The video could with teacher expectations, whom to hardest to make friends, but no onealso be viewed from beginning to the ask for help in each of the middle ever invited her to eat lunch withend to famiharize Chad with the transi- school settings, and the orientation of them, to hang out after school or ontions between the settings, and was the school building. the weekends, and they ignored herrecorded in the same order as Chads During his fifth-grade year, Chads "friend" requests on online social net-schedule. (At the same time, the team team collected ongoing data whenever working sites. TEACHING EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN JULY/AUG 2011 13
  • Step 1 : identify the Target Sklil(s) Figure 3. Sarahs Video Modeling Script: Social InteractionsSarahs team, which included her gen-eral education study hall teacher andthe school districts autism consultant,selected a list of several social skillsfrom her IEP. They then conducted an 1ecological assessment: After observingSarah in the cafeteria and in study hall .— _— _ and conducting teacher and familyinterviews, they compared her social "How s it goi do you have next.initiations with those of her peers. The "What classteam felt that if Sarah could learn to "See you lainteract with her peers in a moresocially acceptable way, she would beable to make friends and this wouldincrease her quality of life. Theydecided that "initiating social interac- video, she discussed the appropriate CASE EXAMPLE: Samtions" would be the first target behav- means for initiating conversations with Sam was a 21-year-old student withior, and they collected baseline obser- her peers. One of her assignments was autism and moderate to severe cogni-vation data during lunch and study to develop a list of the initiation phras- tive impairments who was transition-hall. es that were used in the videos and ing from a public school program to a role-play them with the teacher or her part-time job at a local fast-food restau-Step 2: Produce the Videos peers. Sarah was then asked to suggest rant. Although he had received jobLike Chads team, Sarahs team chose other comments or phrases she could training through his special educationto implement the strategy using use to initiate conversations. program, this was the first job for"other" models so she could observe The IEP team collected data by which Sam would receive a salary. Astudents who were proficient with observing Sarah during study hall and job coach spent several hours a day onsocial interaction. Although the team lunch, as well as in the hallway and the job site with Sam to assist him inprovided the peers with topics to talk selected classrooms. Although Sarahs learning the job requirements.about, the scripts were open-ended to study hall teacher found it difflcult toallow for natural conversation instead take real-time data because it was too Step 1 : Identify the Target Skill(s)of contrived examples (see Figure 3). conspicuous to observe Sarah interact- Sams job coach and employer brain-The team asked several of Sarahs pre- ing with her peers in the hallways and stormed a list of job-related skills thatferred peers to participate in the social at lunch, she noticed that Sarah began would assist Sam in being successful.skills group. They informed parents of sitting with a group of girls at lunch Sam had difficulties in interacting withthe purpose of the group and obtained approximately three weeks after inter- customers and completing requiredpermission for the students to partici- vention began. Sarah also reported that tasks. In particular, some customerspate. The team produced several digital two of the girls had sent her "friend" had complained that Sam was abrupt,videos of Sarahs peers initiating social requests on online social networking cleared items from the table beforeinteractions in the hallway and differ- web sites. they were flnished, and appeared rude.ent classrooms. His coach and employer decided that To assess Sarahs ability to general- "making light conversation with cus-Step 3: Implement the Video ize the skill, the team also observed tomers" and completing three jobModeling Intervention Sarah in other school settings not tar- requirements (i.e., mopping the floor, geted for initial instruction. They devel-The team identified several times a day wiping tables, cleaning the condiment oped additional videos for settings inand the locations (e.g., study hall, area) were priorities for him to be suc- which Sarah did not demonstrate gen-selected classes) where Sarah would cessful on the job. Conducting an eco- eralization of the skill. They supple- logical assessment, Sams job coachview the videos. These times occurred mented these videos with others show- and employer observed his co-workersjust prior to when Sarah was expected ing Sarahs peers initiating social inter- to determine the steps for completingto demonstrate the selected skill.Although Sarah initially viewed each actions during school-related activities each of the three selected jobs. Fromvideo by herself, some of her peers such as a school dance, a football these observations they developed awho participated In the videos occa- game, and a pep rally. They later creat- task analysis for each targeted job.sionally joined her to discuss the sce- ed additional videos to facilitate more They then observed and recordednarios and to model the questions they advanced conversational exchanges Sams performance of each of the threeasked themselves to determine what to (e.g., maintaining conversations, stay- jobs and each of the steps in the tasksay and when. After Sarah viewed each ing on topic, ending conversations). analysis. TEACHING EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN ¡ JULY/AUG 2011 15
  • Figure 4 . Sams Video Modeling Script: Making Light Conversation did not meet the full psychological cri- teria. He received approximately 66% of his specialized instruction in a spe- cial education classroom with the assistance of a one-on-one paraprofes- sional. Scotts educational program consisted of structured, data-based pro- reamr gramming that emphasized functional „HOW was your m Ê â l / ^ ï ^ ^ ^ academics as well as social and com- "yi,re you donel" munication skills. In addition to this O ••Mayl clear your tabler specialized instruction, Scott also received 120 minutes of speech therapy ..Haveagoodda^/mEi.^ and occupational therapy per week. Step 1 : Identify the Torget Slcill(s) Scotts IEP team had tried a variety ofStep 2: Produce the Videos discuss the light conversation skill or strategies to increase his ability to gen-The "light conversation" digital videos job steps depicted in the video and eralize academic skills and knowledgefeatured several of Sams co-workers clues for determining when a job had he demonstrated at school to the homeinteracting with customers. Although been completed [e.g., how to deter- setting. They had used numerous fonts,Sam could have completed the tasks mine if the tables were clean, how to materials, and verbal antecedents, andwith prompting [VSM], the job coachs determine if the floors were complete- incorporated opportunities for Scott totime was limited and it was faster to ly mopped). Sam then role-played practice what he learned across a vari-record videos with "other" models to each job in the area in which it would ety of settings within the school and insave time in editing out prompts. naturally occur [e.g., role-playing the the community. However, even withWhile completing other tasks, the co- steps for cleaning the condiment at the use of these strategies, Scott con-workers modeled appropriate greet- one of the two condiment areas in the tinued to demonstrate difficulty com-ings, comments, and questions [see restaurant). During the role-playing, pleting homework activities thatFigure 4). Sams co-workers pretended to be cus- required him to generalize skills he had tomers and responded to his "light A second set of videos designed to performed that day at school. To estab- conversations. "teach Sam the job requirements, devel- lish a baseline, sight words mastered atoped over a 3-week period, showed A month following the beginning school were sent home as "home-Sam appropriately completing the tar- of the intervention, Sams employer work." Scotts mother, Alice, then pre-get activities [VSM). Because Sam had sent his job coach an e-mail com- sented the sight words and collectedmany of the subskills necessary for menting that he had not had any fur- data on his performance.each task, little editing was required to ther complaints about Sams rudecreate a short [5- to 7-minute) video behavior, and that Sam was complet- Step 2: Produce the Videosfor each of the tliree target jobs. The ing most of the video-modeled tasks Because Scott could complete the tasksvideo clips contained the verbal independently and correctly. After at school, the team decided to useprompts provided by the job coach Sam had mastered the video-modeled VSM, which would require little edit-during the completion of the task; in skills, his employer and job coach dis- ing. The second author videotapedlater viewings of the video, once Sam cussed with him variations in com- Scott accurately reading flash cards atbegan to experience success, the vol- pleting each of his assigned jobs. school, edited the video to delete incor-ume was lowered to remove the verbal Additional videos were produced for rect responses and prompts, then sentprompts. other new job responsibilities such as the video home for him to watch prior fining the condiment bar and asking to starting his homework each day.Step 3: Implement the Video for help when needed [e.g., emptyingModeling Intervention a heavy trash can, restocking items), Step 3: Implement the VideoThe best time for Sam to view the job- and for new social skills [e.g., asking a Modeling Interventionrelated videos and those demonstrat- customer if he/she is finished before Alice collected data on Scotts level ofing light conversation skills would be taking the plate). performance with the flash cards with-just prior to the restaurant opening out the video for a week. Because Scotteach day. Sam, his job coach, and his CASE STUDY: Scott liked watching himself on video, Aliceemployer viewed the videos together, Scott was a seventh-grade student who let him watch the video every day for aone at a time, across several weeks. qualified for special education under week, "just for fun. " Scott continuedAfter viewing the videos, they would the autism designation, although he reviewing the sight words at school16 COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN
  • during his maintenance programming Although Scott made progress in skills that too frequently underminebut did not review the words at home reading the words on the flash cards, it their success across many contexts.during this time. The following week, was unclear whether he would be ableAlice showed him the video every day to do so spontaneously and in different Referencesand talked with him about what they contexts. Scott occasionally became Apple, A., Billingsley. F., & Schwartz, I.saw, and how well he did; if he had frustrated with himself when he was (2005). Effects of video modeling aionepreviously missed a word, she tried to not able to read the sight words after and with self-management on compli-point out that word and how well he having seen himself do so accurately ment-giving behaviors of children withread it in the video. on the video. Alice thought that having high-functioning ASD. Joumal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7, 33-46. doi: Following the video viewing and different videos she could rotate in 10.1177/10983007050070010401discussion, Alice presented the flash viewing, focusing on several tasks and Baharav, E., & Darling, R. (2008). Casecards and tracked Scotts performance. examples, might result in maintaining report: Using an auditory trainer withIf Scott hesitated or read the word the novelty of and Scotts motivation to caregiver video modeling to enhance communication and socialization behav-incorrectly, Alice marked it "incorrect," watch the videos. iors in autism. Joumal of Autism andthen used a time delay and error-cor- Developmental Disorders, 38, 771-775.rection procedure, directly instructing Final Thoughts doi: to. 1007/s 10803-007-0429-6him to sound out each phoneme in the Because children with ASD have a Bandura, A. (1977). Social teaming theory.word, then blend the sounds together greater propensity to learn through Engiewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.to read the word. (These were the visual means than auditory-based Bellini, S., & Akullian, J. (2007). A meta- analysis of video modeling and videosame teaching method and verbal teaching techniques, visually based self-modeling interventions for childrenprompts as used at school.) Alice gave strategies such as video modeling hold and adolescents with autism spectrumScott social reinforcement for each cor- promise in positively impacting the disorders. Exceptional Children, 73,rect answer on the video and for each learning of children with ASD. Video 264-287.correct answer he gave using the flash modeling is based on social learning Bellini, S., Peters, J. K., Benner, L., & Hopf, A. (2007). A meta-analysis ofcards. When he answered correctly, theory, which asserts that students can school-based social skills interventionsAlice praised him (e.g., "you can learn by observing and then imitating for children with autism spectrumread," "youre so smart," "good job") the actions of others (Bandura, 1977). disorders. Remedial and Specialand gave him high fives. When he Video modeling is also particularly Education, 28, 153-162. doi: 10.1177 /07419325070280030401made mistakes, she praised him for his appealing as a technique to address Buggey, T. (2005). Video modeling applica-efforts (e.g., "good try; lets look at the social skills deficiencies of children tions with students with autism spectrumletters"). When they completed the with ASD in a low-cost and unobtru- disorder in a small private school setting.video and reading all of his words, sive fashion. Focus on Autism and Other Develop-Alice praised him for doing his home- Video modeling offers educators mental Disabilities, 20, 52-63. doi: 10.1177/10883576050200010501work. flexibility in implementing, whether Buggey, T., Toombs, K., Gardener, P., & Cer- Alice reported high social validity using "other" models, the target stu- vetti, M. (1999). Training respondingfor the VSM procedure. In particular, dent, or adults, and a variety of set- behaviors in students with autism: Usingshe reported that it was a positive and tings. Schreibman and Ingersoll (2005) videotaped self-modeling. Joumal of Posi-reinforcing experience: Scott seemed to noted that for video modeling to have tive Behavior Interventions, 1, 205-214. doi: 10.1177/109830079900100403enjoy seeing himself succeed, and both a high level of success, it must always Charlop, M. H.. & Milstein, J. P. (1989).he and Alice were motivated to contin- occur with direct instruction and natu- Teaching autistic children conversational speech using video modeling. Joumal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22, 275-285. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1989.22-275 Video modeling is also particularly appealing as a Chariop-Christy, M. H., Le, L., & Freeman, technique to address social skills deficiencies of children K. A. (2000). A comparison of video modeling with in-vivo modeling for with ASD in a low-cost and unobtrusive fashion. teaching children with autism. Joumal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 537-552. doi: 10.1023/A :1005635326276ue and did not lose interest in the flash rally occurring opportunities. The com- DAteno, P., Mangiapanello, K., & Taylor, B.cards as quickly as she thought they bination of video modeling, direct (2003). Using video modeling to teachwould. Scott also seemed to gain some instruction, and facilitated support complex play sequences to a preschoolerconfidence by watching himself per- within naturally occurring environ- with autism. Joumal of Positive Behaviorform well on the video. Further, Scott ments is more apt to lead to success. Interventions, 5, 5-11. doi: 10.1177 Video modeling gives practitioners a /10983007030050010801made gains in reading accuracy Dauphin, M., Kinney, E. M., & Stromer, R.through this process, although he con- heuristic tool to help children with (2004). Using video-enhanced activitytinued to miss different words each ASD learn or improve the social, com- schedules and matrix training to teachday. munication, behavior, and work-related sociodramatic play to a child with TEACHING EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN JULY/AUG 2011 17
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  • Quill, K.A. (1995). Teaching children with Williams, D. L., Goldstein, G., & Minshew, autism: Strategies to enhance communica- N. J. (2006). Neuropsychologic function- Social Skill Builder tion and socialization. Albany, NY: ing in children with autism: Further «»>iW3 Tuols Delmar. evidence for disordered complex infor-Quill, K. A. (1997). Instructional considera- mation-processing. Child Neuropsy- tions for young children with autism: chology, 12, 279-298. doi: 10.1080 The rationale for visually cued instruc- /09297040600681190 invaluable <rooltl" tion. Journal of Autism and Develop- mental Disorders, 27, 697-714. doi: Jennifer B. Ganz (Texas CEC), Associate 10.1023/A: 1025806900162 Professor of Special Education, DepartmentRice, C. E., Baio, J., Van Naarden Braun, K., of Educational Psychology, Texas A&M Doernberg, N., Meaney, F. J., & Kirby, R. University, College Station. Theresa L. S. (2007). A public health collaboration Earles-Vollrath (Missouri CEC), Associate for the surveillance of autism spectrum Professor of Special Education, Educational disorders. Paediatric and Perinatal Leadership and Human Development, Epidemiology, 21, 179-190. doi: 10.1111 University of Central Missouri, Warrensburg. /j.1365-3016.2007.00801.x Katherine E. Cook (Kansas CEC), AutismSasso, G. M., Melloy, K. J., & Kavale, K. Specialist, Department of Early Childhood, (1990). Generalization, maintenance, Olathe School District, Kansas. and behavioral co-variation associated with social skills training through struc- Correspondence concerning this article tured learning. Behavioral Disorders, should be addressed to Jennifer Cam, 16, 9-22.Scattone, D. (2008). Enhancing the conver- Department of Educational Psychology, Texas A&M University, College Station, JfJJT sations skills of a boy with Aspergers TX 77843 (e-mail: jeniganz@tamu.edu). Disorder through Social Stories" and video modeling. Journal of Autism and "Chad, " "Sarah, " and "Sam " are composite Developmental Disorders, 38, 395-400. characters: "Scott" is a pseudonym. The doi: 10.1007/S10803-007-0392-2 authors wish to thank "Scott" and "Alice"Schreibman, L., & Ingersoll, B. (2005). for their participation. Behavioral interventions to promote learning in individuals with autism. In TEACHING Exceptional Children, Vol. 43, F. R. Vlokmaar, R. Paul, A. Klin, & D. No. 6, pp. 8-19. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders: Volume two: Assessment, interventions, Copyright 2011 CEC. Developed in collaboration with Michelle Garcia Winner S Pamela Cfooice, based on and policy (3rd ed., pp. 882-896). Sbook YouAmSociilDetectm Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Sherer, M., Pierce, K. L., Paredes, S., Kisacky, K. L., Ingersoll, B., & Schreib- man, L. (2001). Enhancing conversational Social Skill Builders interactive software skills in children with autism via video technology. Which is better, "self" or uses video reenactments of real-life "other" as a model? Behavior Modifi- Ad index situations to achieve social awareness and cation, 25, 140-158. doi: 10.1177 understanding in children and young adults. /0145445501251008Shipley-Benamou, R., Lutzker, J. R., & Attainment, cover 2, 1 • Different complexity levels Taubman, M. (2002). Teaching daily living skills to children with autism • Customizable lesson plans through instructional video modeling. California University of Journal of Positive Behavior Inter- • For preschoolers to young adults Pennsylvania, 35 ventions, 4, 165-175. doi: 10.1177 • Over 350 video lessons each* /10983007020040030501Sigafoos, J.. QReilly, M., & de la Cruz, CEC, 7, 44, 53, 63, cover 3 • Also includes motivating games B. (2007). How to use video modeling •Preschool Playtime:lSO videos ea. and video prompting. Austin, TX: PRO-ED. Conover, 4, 5Simpson, R. L., Myles, B. S., & Ganz, J. B. See demos of all our innovative social (2008). Efficacious interventions and skill-building programs on our website: treatments for learners with autism spec- Social Skill Builder, 19 trum disorders. In R. L. Simpson & B. S. Myles (Eds.), Educating children and socialskillbuildet.com youth with autism: Strategies for effective practice (2nd ed., pp. 477-512). Austin, Waiden University, cover 4 866-2Z8-1452 TX: PRO-ED.Willey, L. H. (1999). Pretending to be nor- mal: Living with Aspergers syndrome. Social Skill Builder Ä^^mg Tools London, England: Jessica Kingsley. TEACHING EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN JULY/AUG 2011 19
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