Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Regional Cultural Contexts and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Bourdieuian Approach
Regional Cultural Contexts and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Bourdieuian Approach
Regional Cultural Contexts and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Bourdieuian Approach
Regional Cultural Contexts and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Bourdieuian Approach
Regional Cultural Contexts and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Bourdieuian Approach
Regional Cultural Contexts and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Bourdieuian Approach
Regional Cultural Contexts and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Bourdieuian Approach
Regional Cultural Contexts and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Bourdieuian Approach
Regional Cultural Contexts and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Bourdieuian Approach
Regional Cultural Contexts and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Bourdieuian Approach
Regional Cultural Contexts and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Bourdieuian Approach
Regional Cultural Contexts and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Bourdieuian Approach
Regional Cultural Contexts and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Bourdieuian Approach
Regional Cultural Contexts and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Bourdieuian Approach
Regional Cultural Contexts and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Bourdieuian Approach
Regional Cultural Contexts and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Bourdieuian Approach
Regional Cultural Contexts and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Bourdieuian Approach
Regional Cultural Contexts and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Bourdieuian Approach
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Regional Cultural Contexts and Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Bourdieuian Approach

2,788

Published on

My presentation at the 2012 Association of American Geographers annual meeting. This presentation focuses on ways we can examine how local cultures influence the entrepreneurship process.

My presentation at the 2012 Association of American Geographers annual meeting. This presentation focuses on ways we can examine how local cultures influence the entrepreneurship process.

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,788
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
8
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
17
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • \n
  • This is the central question of my dissertation: what are the processes that link actors' economic & social practices with the cultures and institutions they opreate within. Important for several reasons: (1) without such an undersanding we're left with either cultural determinism or rational actor theory; (2) without a deep understanding of the theoretical processes, we're left with description. Becomes bad standup. (3) we have difficulty understanding how changes in such cultures and institutions will affect actions & practices. \n
  • Growing importance of context. Geographers focus on 'entrepreneurial environments,' management researchers more interested in 'context,' but effectively the same thing. Essentially a combination of formal institutions like universities, EDOs, and informal institutions like entrereneurial cultures and orientations \n\nImportance of examining local conditions? Entrepreneurs will mostly draw on local resources and knowledges. This includes both financing, as well as emotional support, employees, and often the initial customers. All of these actors are influenced by local economic cultures, preceptions of risk and failure, and what consistitutes a "good life." \n\nHowever, culture is an inhariently fuzzy term. Difficult to define both what it is as well as what constitutes it. We can't just say culture 'causes' people to act in a particular way because there are always counter examples. Culture influences, but how? While Granovetter's theory of embeddedness is often invoked to explain this linkage, embeddedness itself is dependent on a rational actor theory where individuals weigh the pros and cons of violating community norms for their own profit. Our own experiences in life tell us that this isn't true. Coffee example\n\nSecondly, embeddedness is too often taken as a homogenieus solution. When we speak of embeddedness, we elide a very complex series of social relationships and connections. We need a way to account for the fact that not everyone is equally embeddded in a region, or might have a very different relationship with local cultures and institutions. \n
  • Taking a bourdieuian approach helps solve these problem. We focus on the practices of entrepreneurs, what they actually do (e.g why they want to start a firm, networking techniques, use of social capital to find resources) rather than what we as researchers expect them to. \n\nPractices emerge from a combination of the field and habitus. Fields are the ordered social structures, rules, traditions and norms of a particular group. These are often not formal rules, but rather shared understandings of what is the 'right' thing to do in a given situtiation. Most importantly, the field helps determine the values of different capitals, which Bourdieu broadly defines as any labor accumulated on an individual basis. While the most common form is economic capital, we can also think of social capital, symbolic capital, beuacratic capital, ect. Critically, the values of these forms of capital differ depending on the nature of the field. (example: the value of a Harvard MBA in Wall Street vs nearby Silicon Alley). Practices are oriented around accumulating capital. \n\nBut rules are not explicit and universally understood in the same way. Habitus, individual dispositions & understandings, are used to intrepret the habitus and decide on what practices are best for a given situation. Practices are thus motivated by the individual belief about what actions will best serve to accumulate capital within a given field.\n
  • These are not perscriptive rules. Rather a Bourdieuian approach sees actors as social virtuosos, who are able to understand the rules of their society to further their own goals. \n
  • Placing Bourdieu is hard, since he actively avoided considering space or geography. Local-based fields are critical to study because of how often resources are drawn from the local community. However, it's hard to define what 'local' is: are we talking a neighborhood, a politically defined city, an economically defined region? We must often resort to "we know it when we see it" when defining the local. In generally, I use local fields to refer to the social rules and norms found within a local community, often perpetuated through interpersonal interaction, observation, and the local media. \n\nCan't only rely on examining the local field, entrepreneruship is affected by both the field of the industry their involoved with, as well as the larger economic fields that dominate our society by prioritizing economic capital. But these non-local fields still materalize locally and are influecned by the rules and traditions found in the local field. A relational perspective is needed to balance the interactions and tensions that occur between local and non-local fields. Entrepreneurs are truely social virtuosos to be able to balance the competing demands of multiple fields. \n
  • \n
  • Give overview of entrepreneurial intentions - not just based on personality factors but deeply connected to social structures & fields\n
  • \n
  • Waterloo has history of successful entrepreneurship - encourages others to see it as a path to a successful life. Not a small business owner, but creating a large international company. \n
  • The culture of entrepeneurship in KW, especially within the university, encourages entrepreneurial endevors for their own sake. KW features practice of opening firm before opportunity identified - confidence at being able to pivot. Also confidence that they can do such a thing at a young age. \n
  • But not everyone conforms to the field. Those that don't are seen as less legitmate and have difficulty accessing resources \n
  • 53% of firms used runway techniques compared to 34% in Waterloo\n
  • Being an entrepreneur has less social status than in Waterloo. It's fine and dandy to be one, but it counts for less in terms of social legitmacy and posistion. \n
  • While entrepreneurship isn't 'prized,' it is normalized. It is seen as a normal part of a career path that can include both traditional and self-employment. Helped by tight labor market - failure is an option. \n
  • only 14% of Calgary entrepreneurs started firm straight out of university compared to 26% of Waterloo. 51% of Waterloo entrepreneurs were under 30 when starting firm, compared to 32% in Calgary. \n\nCareer success much more important in Calgary - can be obtained in entrepreneurship, but much harder than just working for oil company. Also need to examine organizational field of oil industry - very conservative and resistant to change. \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • Transcript

    • 1. Regional Cultural Contexts andEntrepreneurial Intentions: ABourdieuian ApproachBen SpigelPhD CandidateDepartment of GeographyUniversity of TorontoDate
    • 2. The central questionWhat are the processes that link cultures & institutions with economic actions?
    • 3. Local culture & entrepreneurship “...while ‘cultural embeddedness’ has✤ Entrepreneurs draw on locally- quickly become established as a based resources & knowledges conceptual lynchpin of the regional development literature, our understanding of the causal mechanisms and everyday✤ Entrepreneurs influenced by practices through which spatially variable local norms about risk & sets of socio-cultural conventions, norms, reward attitudes, values and beliefs shape and condition firms’ economic performance✤ But how to account for culture remains under-specified.” without making it deterministic? ~James, 2007 p. 395
    • 4. Field Habitus Practice
    • 5. "Only a virtuoso with a perfect mastery of hisart of living can play on all the resourcesinherent in the ambiguities and indeterminaciesof behaviors and situations so as to produce theactions appropriate in each case, to do at theright moment that of which people will sayThere was nothing else to be done "Bourdieu The Logic of Practice p. 107
    • 6. Approaching fields relationally &geographically Non-local fields Local manifestation of non-local field local field
    • 7. Case studies Entrepreneur Investor EDOCalgary 28 5 6Ottawa 29 8 3 Calgary Waterloo OttawaWaterloo 23 5 4
    • 8. Entrepreneurial Intentions Pull Trip Push
    • 9. Case studies Pull Push Trip Unclassified Calgary 8 (30%) 3 (11%) 15 (53%) 2 (7%) Waterloo 11 (48%) 1 (4%) 9 (39%) 2 (8%)
    • 10. Waterloo: Entrepreneurship asLifestyle "We have been fortunate in the past that we have a long tradition of entrepreneurialism in the✤ Institutions (University of area...we’ve got a history where, Waterloo) and successful firms you know, taking a risk, betting (RIM) raise social status of growth-oriented the farm, and doing a startup is entrepreneurship part of our DNA. And the tech scene is just the next manifestation of that core culture.” Interview with EDO director
    • 11. Waterloo: Entrepreneurship asLifestyle✤ Institutions (University of Waterloo) and successful firms "We incorporated the company (RIM) raise social status of even before we had the idea. We growth-oriented decided that there were three of entrepreneurship us, we’re smart guys, lets see if✤ Symbolic value of growth- we can’t figure out how to do oriented entrepreneurship this" encourages starting business Interview with growth-oriented before identifying opportunity entrepreneur
    • 12. Waterloo: Entrepreneurship asLifestyle✤ Institutions (University of “If you’re doing something Waterloo) and successful firms (RIM) raise social status of that’s not technology — and here growth-oriented you have to say you’re doing entrepreneurship software and everyone is like ‘[gasp] is that like RIM?’ If you’re✤ Symbolic value of growth- not doing that... I find that oriented entrepreneurship people around here are very encourages starting business unclear about what you’re doing before identifying opportunity and why that may be interesting to them.”✤ Those operating outside of Interview with lifestyle fields norms face challenges entrepreneur
    • 13. Calgary:Tripping over opportunityThe only reason we started[company] at that point was weknew that [client] was looking foran e-learning solution.”Interview with e-learningentrepreneur ✤ Booming oil economy increases barriers to entrepreneurship - need to see opportunityThere’s money, there’s revenue andthere’s employment there and it’scontracted and it looks long-term.There definitely wasn’t a lot of riskin our startup.”Interview with IT consultant
    • 14. Calgary:Tripping over opportunity“I wouldnt say that I dreamedabout [being an entrepreneur], but Ialso wouldnt say that I saw myself ✤ Booming oil economy increasesas doing a 9-5 employee gig for the barriers to entrepreneurship -rest of my life. I think it was sort of need to see opportunitya preference, but it wasnt centralto my being that I must be an ✤ Entrepreneurship is notentrepreneur, that I must start a particularly prized or valuedbusiness.”Interview with owner of $200million company
    • 15. Calgary:Tripping over opportunity“It’s very common for someone whoworks in an oil company...if they haveperceived that there’s a play available ✤ Booming oil economy increasesand their current employer either barriers to entrepreneurship -doesn’t have the finances to exploit that need to see opportunityor confidence in them to exercise it, yousee these kinds of people launching off ✤ Entrepreneurship is noton their own...That’s how it works particularly prized or valuedhere. People that live in this area arefamiliar with that process and it’s ✤ But starting a firm seen as a normal part of a career pathquite common. ”Interview with supplier of oilfield ITservices
    • 16. Society, not economy Calgary Age at Founding Waterloo25%20%15%10%5%0% -25 6-30 1-35 6-40 1-45 6-50 1-55 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 -55 21 2 3 3 4 4 5 21 26 31 36 41 46 51
    • 17. Further research...✤ Zeroing in on culture✤ Evolution and change within fields✤ Making clearer connections between practices and fields✤ Investigating connections between economic and local fields
    • 18. Questions?

    ×