Entrepreneurship and  Regional Culture: ABourdieusian Perspective             Ben Spigel          PhD Candidate      Depar...
? *Social Structure     *Culture   *Institutions*Modes of Regulation
Problems with existing     frameworks    Deterministic, linear          Overly parsimonious   Static, unchanging
Field   Habitus   Practice
SocialCulturalSymbolic
"Only a virtuoso with a perfect mastery of his art ofliving can play on all the resources inherent in theambiguities and i...
Bourdieu &       Entrepreneurship•   Entrepreneurs will only    get resources if they    appear to be legitimate•   Differ...
Overlapping fields                           economic fieldsocial                               localfields    entrepreneuria...
Which entrepreneur is more legitimate?
Which investor is more legitimate?
Mentorship• Increases firm formation• Important source of knowledge transfer and  socialization• Has both benefits and costs...
Entrepreneurs        Investors        Economic          Total                                                Development  ...
Ottawa•   Post-war economy based    on federal workforce•   Telecom economy    emerged in 1970s•   Success stories like Te...
Waterloo       •   Technology economic           built on foundation of           traditional industries       •   Role of...
Mentorship               Mentor      No                          MentorWaterloo 8 (40%)         12 (60%)                  ...
MentorshipSome were just people that I alwayslooked up to and I went up to them      •   Significantly less                ...
MentorshipQ: Do you have an entrepreneurial        •   Significantly lessmentor?                                      mento...
Symbolic Capital of   Mentorship          •   Waterloos economic and social              history give mentorship greater  ...
Connecting the  elements
Thank you
Entrepreneurship and Regional Culture: A Bourdieusian Perspective
Entrepreneurship and Regional Culture: A Bourdieusian Perspective
Entrepreneurship and Regional Culture: A Bourdieusian Perspective
Entrepreneurship and Regional Culture: A Bourdieusian Perspective
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Entrepreneurship and Regional Culture: A Bourdieusian Perspective

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Presentation given at the 2011 AAG conference in Seattle. Presented in the session "Local and global geographies of entrepreneurship and innovation: Structures, processes and geographical contexts I"

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  • In traditional understanding, some kind of larger social force or structure, often called culture or informal institutions, affect the actions and practices of individual. This is some sort of informal collection of social norms and conventions that are not themselves law, but are reflected in laws and other types of social organization \n\nBut we have relatively little understanding the processes by which these larger scale forces \nactually influence behavior\n
  • One of the most popular theories is embeddedness. But embededness is simultaniously a noun (something is embedded in something) and a verb (something embeds). The word 'embededness' elides the actual process by which being embedded in something should affect behavior and actions \n
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  • Network embeddedness is a similar explanation. The process most often at work here is that behavior and actions are regulated by the threat of social sanction and being cut off from the network. However, this perspective grossly overestimates how often we consider the threat of sanctions. \n\nWe do things because we think those things make sense to do. We don't do things because we're afraid of being punished if we don't do those things. \n
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  • Talk about representative sample\nidentical legal/tax/economic/legal systems\n
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  • Entrepreneurship and Regional Culture: A Bourdieusian Perspective

    1. 1. Entrepreneurship and Regional Culture: ABourdieusian Perspective Ben Spigel PhD Candidate Department of Geography University of Toronto
    2. 2. ? *Social Structure *Culture *Institutions*Modes of Regulation
    3. 3. Problems with existing frameworks Deterministic, linear Overly parsimonious Static, unchanging
    4. 4. Field Habitus Practice
    5. 5. SocialCulturalSymbolic
    6. 6. "Only a virtuoso with a perfect mastery of his art ofliving can play on all the resources inherent in theambiguities and indeterminacies of behaviors andsituations so as to produce the actions appropriate ineach case, to do at the right moment that of whichpeople will say There was nothing else to be done "Bourdieu The Logic of Practice p. 107
    7. 7. Bourdieu & Entrepreneurship• Entrepreneurs will only get resources if they appear to be legitimate• Different fields have different, and often contradictory, definitions of legitimacy• Actors must balance the conflicting demands of different fields
    8. 8. Overlapping fields economic fieldsocial localfields entrepreneurial business economic field field field
    9. 9. Which entrepreneur is more legitimate?
    10. 10. Which investor is more legitimate?
    11. 11. Mentorship• Increases firm formation• Important source of knowledge transfer and socialization• Has both benefits and costs for both parties
    12. 12. Entrepreneurs Investors Economic Total Development OfficersWaterloo 20 5 3 28Ottawa 29 8 3 40 Total 49 13 6 68
    13. 13. Ottawa• Post-war economy based on federal workforce• Telecom economy emerged in 1970s• Success stories like Terry Mathews• Decline after dot.com bust & downfall of Nortel
    14. 14. Waterloo • Technology economic built on foundation of traditional industries • Role of University of Waterloo in attracting entrepreneurial students • Successful, but isolated, RIM
    15. 15. Mentorship Mentor No MentorWaterloo 8 (40%) 12 (60%) • Significantly less mentorship in Ottawa 5 (17.2%) 24 (82.8%) Ottawa than Waterlooχ2 = 2.225, P = .1305
    16. 16. MentorshipSome were just people that I alwayslooked up to and I went up to them • Significantly less mentorship inone day and I asked if they had Ottawa thanthoughts about what I’m doing and Waterloodoes it makes sense or do you see anypitfalls. Some of them were actually… • Waterlooone particular individual was my entrepreneurslandlord at one of our previous more likely to looklocations. We developed a friendship outside their networkand a relationship. (Interview W125)
    17. 17. MentorshipQ: Do you have an entrepreneurial • Significantly lessmentor? mentorship in Ottawa thanA: Not really. And not because I Waterloowouldn’t have liked to have had oneper se. I do a lot of reading of books • Waterloo entrepreneurs moreand that kind of thing. I guess I’ve likely to look outsidetaken best practices from a lot of their networkpeople who have been successful, butnot necessarily a mentor or a specific • Having a mentor isrole model. (Interview O137) seen as less important in Ottawa
    18. 18. Symbolic Capital of Mentorship • Waterloos economic and social history give mentorship greater symbolic value • Entrepreneurs there will be more willing to use other types of capital to get mentors • Ottawa mentors would rather use that capital on other resources (more time spent on the business or with family) • Fewer potential mentors
    19. 19. Connecting the elements
    20. 20. Thank you
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