Beer physics


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Beer physics

  1. 1. The Physics of Carbonated Beverages: Gas Volume Vs. Temperature in Beer<br />Reed Schackmann, Joe Ploof<br />And AbendigoReebs<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />At first, we wanted to conduct an experiment with beer using Henry’s Law, but quickly realized it would be difficult to measure partial pressures and gas solubility in liquid<br />So we thought about our experiences with regards to temperature and gas volume in beer<br />
  3. 3. Observations about The Physics of Beer<br />Beer kegs can explode, if they get too warm or get shaken, as well as bottles of beer upon opening<br />Warm beer tastes bad and isn’t nearly as refreshing<br />The sound that you hear when you twist off the cap is carbon dioxide leaving the bottle, as gas molecules push their way out<br />
  4. 4. General Observation<br />A Change in Temperature Seems to Correspond with a Change in the Amount of Carbon Dioxide Gas<br />When we increase the temp on a confined gas, the kinetic energy of the gas molecules increases, causing their overall volume to expand<br />Source: Myers, Rusty L. The Basics of Physics. Greenwood, 2005 (p.114). Print.<br />
  5. 5. Our Hypothesis<br />As we bring the temperature up on a certain amount of beer at atmospheric pressure in a closed container, the volume of the gas (carbon dioxide) of the beer should vary directly with the change in temperature<br />Our objective is to collect data that supports this trend<br />
  6. 6. Charles’ Gas Law<br />First, we need to stand on the backs of giants<br />Also known as Gay-Lussac’s Law, it states that the volume occupied by a fixed amount of gas varies directly with the absolute temperature”<br />Source: Pickover, Clifford. Archimedes to Hawking: Laws of Science and the Great Minds Behind Them. Oxford: Oxford Publications, 2008. Print.<br />
  7. 7. What Is An Ideal Gas?<br />Basically, an Ideal Gas expands when heated and contracts when cooled. <br />Source: Gordon de Press, Christopher. Physics Made Simple. Three Rivers Press, 2005 (p.65). Print.<br />For our purposes, we are treating the carbon dioxide in our beer as an ideal gas. And fortunate for us, that’s just how it behaves<br />
  8. 8. Pressure is Our Constant<br />Our constant in our experiment is atmospheric pressure, as well as the volume of the liquid (one third of a cup of beer or 2.67 oz), which is normal pressure at sea level (1 atm). We turn the PASCO Gas Law Apparatus on its side. <br />“In this position, the force acting on the apparatus is the atmospheric pressure and is equal throughout the range of operation of the piston.”<br />Source:Instruction Manual and Experiment Guide for the PASCO scientific Model TD-8572. Heat Engine Gas Law Apparatus<br />
  9. 9. Absolute Temperature a Must<br />“When applying Charles’ Law, absolute temperature must be used.” <br />Source: Myers, Rusty L. The Basics of Physics. Greenwood, 2005 (p.114). Print.<br />Basically, this has to do with the fact that thermal energy is proportional to the Kelvin scale, but not to any other scale.<br />
  10. 10. Our Setup: PASCO Gas Law Apparatus<br />
  11. 11. How the PASCO Gas Apparatus Works<br />We calculate gas volume at various piston positions and create a plot a graph of temperature (in Kelvins) versus gas volume<br />
  12. 12. Getting Started<br />
  13. 13. Why Henry’s?<br />
  14. 14. Tidbit: Palmer & Beer Carbonation<br />Palmer delves more specifically into the carbonation of beer. As measured by the Nomograph for Measuring Amount of Priming Sugar, the higher the levels of priming sugar added to a fermented wort, the higher the level of carbonation. <br />Source: Palmer, John. How to Brew: Everything You Need to Know to Brew Beer Right the First Time. Boulder: Brewer’s Publications, 2006. Print.<br />
  15. 15. Palmer Cont.<br />Henry Weinhard’s uses a specific and constant amount of priming sugar for all of their beers so we have selected them for the purpose of this experiment.<br />
  16. 16. Nomograph for Measuring Amount of Priming Sugar<br />Source: CH. 11, Priming & Bottling;, by John Palmer<br />
  17. 17. Henry’s Isn’t Half Bad<br />
  18. 18. Collecting Our Data<br />
  19. 19. How We Took Our Data: 30 Samples<br />
  20. 20. How We Converted Our Data<br />(F) Fahrenheit to (K) Kelvins (absolute temp.)<br />((F - 32) / 1.8) + 273.15 = K<br />(h) Height (mm) to (V) Gas Volume<br />π (r ^ 2) h = V (mm ^ 3)<br />Convert mm ^ 3 to mL<br />= (V / 1000) mL<br />
  21. 21. Data Converted<br />
  22. 22. Graph of Our Experiments’ Data<br />Slope = .38<br />
  23. 23. Thoughts on Data<br />Our hypothesis was not disproven by our experiment.<br />In other words, the released CO2 was directly proportional to the increase in temperature. On a side note, there was a corresponding depreciation in quality of flavor as it warmed up. <br />But you know this already. Nobody will ever claim to be the “Warmest Tasting Beer”. <br />
  24. 24. Was Our Hypothesis Confirmed?<br />Yes. Check it.<br />We were trying to find a trend in our data.<br />The trend is that as temperature goes up, gas volume goes up and they directly vary.<br />
  25. 25. Conclusion<br />Indeed, the trend is there. Gas volume in beer varies directly with temperature. And we got a slope around two fifths (as temp goes up, gas volume goes up)<br />Temperature truly does have a major effect on carbonation (and taste); and here is the physics behind it<br />A rise in temperature will cause a carbonated beverage in an open container to lose its carbonation even more rapidly<br />
  26. 26. Things We Would Do Differently…<br />
  27. 27. Things We Would Do Differently… <br />Repeat experiment with many different types/styles of beer<br />Repeat the experiment multiple times using the Gas Law Apparatus<br />Measure over a wider range of temperatures<br />Use other types of barometric pressure devices to determine if our results would remain constant <br />We won’t use a Sharpie to tag Reed when he passes out…<br />