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Recovery For Orienteering
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Recovery For Orienteering

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Orienteering and recovery. Recovery techniques, training, planning training and optimizing adaptation. A presentation from the vault, I think I put it together in circa 2003. I don't think its all ...

Orienteering and recovery. Recovery techniques, training, planning training and optimizing adaptation. A presentation from the vault, I think I put it together in circa 2003. I don't think its all supported by the science, but its reaonable guidelines in my opinion.

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Recovery For Orienteering Recovery For Orienteering Presentation Transcript

  • The Recovery Route Recover and Train Better Ben Rattray
  • • The effectiveness of training is often determined by the players ability to bounce back quickly, or recover before the next training stimulus is applied
  • Training Cycles • Adaptation curve Adaptation Zone Performance Level Neutral Zone Fatigue Zone (exhaustion) Time
  • Training Cycles • Adaptation curve Adaptation Zone Performance Level Neutral Zone Fatigue Zone (exhaustion) Too hard - failing adaptation Time
  • Training Cycles • Adaptation curve Adaptation Zone Performance Level Too easy - Little adaptation Neutral Zone Fatigue Zone (exhaustion) Too hard - failing adaptation Time
  • Training Cycles • Adaptation curve Just right - Maximum adaptation Adaptation Zone Performance Level Too easy - Little adaptation Neutral Zone Fatigue Zone (exhaustion) Too hard - failing adaptation Time
  • Training Cycles • Adaptation curve Just right - Adaptation maintenance Maximum adaptation Adaptation Zone Performance Level Too easy - Little adaptation Neutral Zone Fatigue Zone (exhaustion) Too hard - failing adaptation Time
  • Training Cycles • Adaptation curve Adaptation maintenance Adaptation Zone Optimum Performance Level time for next training Neutral Zone Fatigue Zone (exhaustion) Time
  • Training Cycles • Adaptation curve Adaptation maintenance Adaptation Zone Optimum Performance Level time for next training Neutral Zone Bad recovery Fatigue Zone (exhaustion) Time
  • Training Cycles • Adaptation curve With Recovery Adaptation maintenance Adaptation Zone Techniques Optimum Performance Level time for next training Neutral Zone Fatigue Zone (exhaustion) Time
  • Orienteering Demands • Metabolic demand • Depends on intensity • Glycogen stores, lactic acid build-up, fat/ protein metabolism • Nutritional demand • Glycogen stores, hydration status, protein requirements, iron needs • Musculo-skeletal demand • Muscular contraction - eccentric
  • Orienteering Demands • Neuro-muscular demand • Nerves get tired too! • Mental demand • Concentration for navigation, race pressure, pushing yourself, training volume, not achieving goals… • Immune demand • All these effects can have a detrimental effect on your immune status – depressed for time after.
  • Work hard + Recover well = Best performance Recovery from What?
  • Work hard + Recover well = Best performance Recovery from What? Mental Fatigue Dehydration Nervous system Depleted Energy Reserves Clearing of metabolism Muscle Damage bi-products (e.g. lactate) (bone/joint/other tissue) Immune Response
  • Recovery Strategies • Immediate – Warm-down, re-hydrating, re-fuelling • Regular – Sleep, rest days, easy sessions, easy training periods • Extra tools – Physical therapies, relaxation therapies, hydro-therapies, Russian techniques Balance between work and recovery
  • Warm-down • What should it consist of? – Low intensity exercises mimicking sport – Static stretching • Why is it needed – Removal of waste products (incl. lactate) – Maintains blood flow (assists cell recovery) – Reduces muscle stiffness post training – Returns body to resting
  • Why Warm-down? • Removal of waste products • Prevents blood pooling • Facilitates blood flow • Reduces muscle stiffness post training • Prevents decrease in performance during next training session • Improves discipline • Returns muscles to resting state
  • Example of cool down • Drink, maybe some food, then • Easy jog (10-30 minutes) – ~60-75% HRmax, 120-150 bpm – If have incremental testing results, follow those guidelines (it should be below lactate threshold) • Static stretching (10-30min) – Stretch (at least major muscle groups) – Drink and eat during stretches
  • De-hydration • Sweat loss (major mechanism for heat loss) up to 2-3 l·h-1 reported in endurance athletes in hot humid conditions • Typical sweat rates 1.0-1.2 l·h-1 • Sweat rate depends upon: – Size of the athlete – Degree of acclimatisation – Intensity of exercise – Environmental conditions
  • De-hydration • Fluid losses of 2% shown to significantly reduce performance through – Increased thermo-regulatory stress – Increased cardiovascular stress – Increased perception of effort – Impairs mental functioning – Reduce rate of gastric emptying • 10-11% fluid loss can result in death • ATHLETES SHOWN TO DRINK INADEQUATE AMOUNTS DURING COMPETITION
  • Re-hydration Guidelines • How much fluid is lost? • Estimating fluid loss – Use pre- and post-competition weights as a basic guide of fluid requirements – Athletes advised to consume fluids that meet as least 80% of total sweat losses during exercise • Depends upon: – Environment, intensity, duration • Guidelines: – Drink throughout exercise, but after – Replace 150% of weight lost during
  • Re-hydration Guidelines • Plan Ahead – Be Prepared • What to Drink – Sports drinks work (fluid and CHO) – Look for: • Electrolytes (sodium and potassium) – Replace what is lost, improve taste, trigger thirst and increase absorption • CHO – 4-7% solution – Mix of sugars (glucose, fructose, glucose polymers)
  • Re-Fuelling • To maximise recovery eat as soon as practical after exercise (must within 2 hours) • At least 1g CHO·kg-1 bw straight away, then • Daily 7-10g·kg-1 bw • High G.I CHO foods promote greater glycogen storage • Include a fructose-rich food (i.e. fruit) for the liver • Drink to replace fluid losses, ensure it tastes nice so you do! • Protein may help to restore muscle damage
  • Re-Fuelling
  • Re-Fuelling • To maximise recovery eat as soon as practical after exercise (must within 2 hours) • Eat 50g – i.e. 2 bananas – 2 medium bread roles – 700ml sports drink • Drink 150% of body mass lost – You need water to store CHO as glycogen (muscle store)
  • CHO important in diet
  • CHO important in diet
  • CHO important in diet
  • Work hard + Recover well = Best performance Recovery of What? Mental Fatigue Dehydration Nervous system Depleted Energy Reserves Clearing of metabolism Muscle Damage bi-products (e.g. lactate) (bone/joint/other tissue) Immune Response
  • Work hard + Recover well = Best performance Recovery of What? Mental Fatigue  Dehydration Nervous system Depleted Energy  Reserves Clearing of metabolism Muscle Damage bi-products (e.g. lactate) (bone/joint/other tissue) Immune Response
  • Work hard + Recover well = Best performance Recovery of What? Mental Fatigue  Dehydration  Nervous system Depleted Energy  Reserves  Clearing of metabolism Muscle Damage bi-products (e.g. lactate) (bone/joint/other tissue) Immune Response 
  • Sleep • Humans operate on 24 hour clock that determines when we sleep and wake • Disruptions to this biorhythm (late nights, sleeping in, international travel) generate fatigue • When our body repairs itself • Best to go to sleep when our body temperature is at it’s daily high
  • When training hard, deep sleep (stage 3/4 increases, up to 3 fold) When training – first 1/3 of nights sleep is most important, so do not compromise this part (e.g. sleep near noise (a party, leaving tv on), delay normal bed time)
  • Sleeping Tips • Practise relaxation techniques before going to bed e.g. soft music, muscle relaxation, breathing exercises, visualisation, light reading • Always wake at similar times • Eat at similar times • 8 hours/night good target (individual) • Before competition, the 3-5 nights before are the MOST important, not the night before. • Wake up 3+ hours before quality training • Things to avoid in the late evening: – Caffeine, e.g coffee, tea, chocolate, cola drinks – Nicotine – Alcohol – leads to disturbed sleep patterns – High protein and large meals
  • Physical Therapies Massage / self massage Elite athletes need at least 2 massages per week Athletes should use self-massage daily on key body parts
  • Physical Therapies Massage / self massage • Very popular • Physiological benefits – Enhances delivery of O2 and nutrients to tired muscles – Promotes removal of waste-products – Warming and stretching of muscle – Temporary flexibility gains • Psychological benefits too • Easy to learn and do training partners or self
  • Physical Therapies • Spa jets • Yoga • Extra stretching • Acupuncture/Acupressure • Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
  • Hydro-therapies • Contrast showers / baths – Alternating hot and cold – Can provide nervous system stimulation – Promote blood pump which assist removal of waste products • Guidelines – Warm: 3-4 minutes Cold: 30-60 sec – (Repeat process 3 times) • Contra-indications – Illness – Soft-tissue injury (48-72 hours) • End on a hot before bed time to enhance deep sleep
  • Cold water immersion
  • Work hard + Recover well = Best performance Recovery of What? Mental Fatigue Hydration Nervous system Fuel Sources Clearing of metabolism Muscle Repair bi-products (e.g. lactate) (bone/other tissue) Immune Response
  • Work hard + Recover well = Best performance Recovery of What? Mental Fatigue  Hydration Nervous system   Fuel Sources Clearing of metabolism Muscle Repair  bi-products (e.g. lactate)  (bone/other tissue) Immune Response 
  • Work hard + Recover well = Best performance Recovery of What?  Mental Fatigue  Hydration Nervous system   Fuel Sources Clearing of metabolism Muscle Repair  bi-products (e.g. lactate)  (bone/other tissue) Immune Response 
  • Relaxation Therapies • Music • Reading • Movies • Yoga • Psychology – Meditation – Progressive Muscle Relaxation – Imagery – Flotation Tanks
  • Recovery Sessions • Why? – To let the body adapt to the training stimulus and recover from the physiological and mental pressures of intense training – Restore energy balance – Relieve muscle tension/soreness – Remove metabolic waste products • When? – To break up successive days of intense training – After competition to refocus the body and mind • How? – Pools are excellent as provide minimum impact and cool water reduces swelling and assists restoration of body temperature
  • Recovery sessions • Active recovery, provided the work intensities are light. • Use alternate (cross-) training: – cycling, swimming, skiing to assist in increasing training volume, but also as an active recovery. – Many use pool sessions (swimming, water running and other activities) to enhance recovery after matches. • Rest days are essential. At least one day a week should be a minimal training, or a non- training day.
  • Recovery Session - example • Basic Pool Recovery – 15-20 mins – Light to moderate – Follow the leader format • Activities – Movements using whole body – Stretches – Hydration
  • Work hard + Recover well = Best performance Recovery of What? Mental Fatigue Dehydration Nervous system Depleted Energy Reserves Clearing of metabolism Muscle Damage bi-products (e.g. lactate) (bone/joint/other tissue) Immune Response
  • Work hard + Recover well = Best performance Recovery of What? Mental Fatigue  Dehydration Nervous system  Depleted Energy Reserves Clearing of metabolism Muscle Damage  bi-products (e.g. lactate)  (bone/joint/other tissue) Immune Response 
  • Work hard + Recover well = Best performance Recovery of What?  Mental Fatigue  Dehydration Nervous system  Depleted Energy Reserves Clearing of metabolism Muscle Damage  bi-products (e.g. lactate)  (bone/joint/other tissue) Immune Response 
  • Planning YOUR Recovery • If you don’t plan for it, you won’t do it!
  • Periodised Plan: example Train2Compete
  • Recovery Training Periods • Programmed in training plan • Example: – Week in Macrocycle Training Load • May also be longer, after competition WEEK 1 2 3 4
  • Weekly Training Plan M T W T F S S Moderate Hard Active Hard Active Moderat Hard Recovery Recovery e Hard Hard Massage Hard Spa Hard Relaxation BEN’s Rules 1. Avoid more than 2 hard sessions in a row of similar training (e.g. weight training and on-court work are NOT like training) 2. Actively plan recovery at least twice per week 3. Stretch and self-massage whenever possible
  • Weekly Planning example • A moderate-high training week Monday am: easy run (30min) pm: steady terrain/hill run (50min) Tuesday am: off pm: track intervals – speed endurance Wednesday am: longer run (90min) pm: touch football spa/sauna Thursday am: easy run (30min) pm: steady terrain/hill run (50min) Friday am: rest day pm: massage Saturday am: intervals – vVO2max pm: easy run (30min) Sunday am: long run (1h 50)
  • Weekly Planning example
  • Weekly Planning example • A moderate-high training week Monday am: easy run (30min) pm: steady terrain/hill run (50min) Tuesday am: off pm: track intervals – speed endurance Wednesday am: longer run (90min) pm: touch football spa/sauna Thursday am: easy run (30min) pm: steady terrain/hill run (50min) Friday am: rest day pm: massage Saturday am: intervals – vVO2max pm: easy run (30min) Sunday am: long run (1h 50)
  • Super Hard Blocks of Training
  • Lifestyle Management • Training and competition must be considered in context with: – Family commitments – Academic/work demands – Social commitments – Health • A healthy balance must be achieved to enhance training and other areas • Sacrifices will have to be made
  • Lifestyle Management • No substitute for hard work • Development of excellent time management skills is essential to success in any sport • Work hard + recover well = top performance • Train hard but more importantly train smart!
  • Training for Success • Quality and consistency are two of the most important aspects of any training program • Your longevity as an elite athlete also depends on YOUR ability to look after your body • To achieve this, you must: – Stay injury free – Stay healthy
  • Training strategies • Keep a Monitoring and Training Log • Plan your training – Recovery day each week – Alternate hard and easy periods – Regular recovery periods (e.g. every 4th week) – Periodise Training • Load: Low → Moderate → High • Volume before Intensity • Use variety in your training – Monotony, not just load associated with over-training • Account for non-training stressors in overall load – E.g. work, relationships, school
  • Minimising Risk • Be aware the immune system is suppressed for up to 24 hours following hard training – Avoid sick people and crowds (e.g. bus, flights, cinema, shopping centres) particularly at these times) • Wash hands regularly – Keep fingers away from nose, mouth and eyes • Maintain good oral hygiene • NEVER share drink/water bottles • Avoid shared spas/saunas • Maintain good personal hygiene • Obtain adequate quantity and quality of sleep – Lack of sleep is linked to immunosuppresion
  • Environmental Strategies • Heat and Humidity – Limit initial exposure to adverse conditions – Acclimatise over 7-10 days – Replace fluids, wear appropriate clothing and monitor signs of heat-related illness • Cold conditions – Limit exposure, move training indoors, wear appropriate clothing – Monitor signs of discomfort • Altitude – Limit exposure to moderate and high altitudes – Acclimatise over 10-21 days – When using “live-high train-low” paradigm, account for extra training stress • Air Pollution – Limit exposure, avoid heavily polluted areas and times – Move training indoors, reschedule training as required
  • Work hard + Recover well = Best performance Recovery of What? Mental Fatigue Hydration Nervous system Fuel Sources Clearing of metabolism Muscle Repair bi-products (e.g. lactate) (bone/joint/other tissue) Immune Response
  • Work hard + Recover well = Best performance Recovery of What? 
  • Monitoring Recovery From Training Quality of sleep Attitude to work Quality of sessions Attitude to team Energy levels Communication with Self confidence team Muscle soreness Health Motivation Food intake Fluid intake • Hence importance of TRAINING LOG and MONITORING SHEETS – what DOES work, what DOESN’T work?
  • No Compromise • Good luck in achieving your goals.