Family<br />“Familia” – economic and social base for society<br />“Pater Familias” – Father of the family – <br />Had total control, fixed in “Twelve Tables” (Roman Law). Could punish and even beat to death children who misbehaved (even as adults). This was known as “Patria Potestas”<br />
Dionysius, Bk 2, 26, p387<br />[Romulus] gave virtually full power to the father over his son, even during his whole life, whether he thought proper to imprison him , to scourge him, to put him in chains and keep him at work in fields, or to put him to death<br />
Gens<br />Gens were related family groups (plural – Gentes); a bit like a ‘clan’<br />Each Gens had its own religious ceremonies, and it voted in politics as a single ‘block’<br />A gathering of the Gens, known as the Curiae, was responsible for contributing the military, forming the political assemblies, and authorising the power of magistrates<br />
Clientela<br />“Familias” extended to socio-economic links.<br />Poorer people linked to wealthy and powerful men through a system of Clientela (Patronage):<br />Patronus (Patron)had to look after the needs of his Cliens (supporters/followers)<br />Followers expected to support their Patronus in law suits, and give him their vote in the Curiae and assemblies<br />Cliens were expected to see their patronus daily to see if they could be of service<br />Eventually, the powerful Patronus could have a whole city as his Cliens<br />
MosMaiorum<br />MosMaiorum(Custom of our fathers) – Respect for tradition, was a critical part of Roman society<br />Nobilitas: Each man was expected to attempt to boost the glory of his family’s name; often through a political or military career.<br />
Other Patrician Values:<br />Virtus: Perfection<br />Gloria: Good reputation<br />Fideis: Good faith/trust<br />Pietas: Reverence for gods, family, tradition<br />Obsequium: Obedience<br />Auctoritas: Power<br />Honestas: Honourableness<br />
Class System<br />Two main classes – <br />Patrician – nobility<br />Plebeian – everyone else<br />
Politics<br />There was fierce competition between individuals for political honour.<br />Political parties did not exist: groups came together based on “Amicitia” (political friendship).<br />Voting was by ‘block’ – members of each group voted as one ‘body’<br />
CursusHonorum<br />This was the ‘career ladder’ for Roman politicians. It became law (LexVilliaAnnalis) in 180BCE.<br />It set out the official positions a man needed to have served in to get to the ‘next step’.<br />There was a minumum age for each position, and there had to have been a 10-year period of service in the military or legal career.<br />
The Senate<br />A select group of “Wise Men”, chosen from the highest levels (originally Patricians)<br />Did not have a term of office – permanent entry<br />Between 300-600 members (Rome-Empire)<br />This group was the real power in Rome <br />
Powers of the Senate<br />Controlled expenditure of all official positions (so could refuse to pay)<br />Controlled ambassadors and foreign policy<br />Controlled trials for ‘capital’ crimes (crimes against the state)<br />Could nominate a ‘dictator’, with supreme authority. Did this when officials refused senatorial authority<br />The REAL power of Rome; until the Empire.<br />
Struggle of the Orders:<br />509-287BCE<br />Gradual move for (wealthy) Plebeians – and, later, Equestrians – to share political and social power<br />Patricians did not ‘give’ power away:<br />External Pressure– <br />Wars with nearby states – particularly Samnites<br />Plebs used wars for leverage – refusing to fight or work unless they received political concessions<br />
Internal Pressure<br />Wealthy Plebeians (‘Plebs’) had money and land, but no power (Auctoritas) or social status (Nobilitas)<br />Plebeians saw that theirDignitas(How society viewed you, and how you viewed yourself) was lessened<br />Poor Plebs – originally the struggle was for relief from harsh laws and debt <br />As the Plebs discovered the power of Secessio (strikes), they used it five times to get political concessions, by ‘camping’ on the Avantine Hill outside Rome and refusing to contribute to Rome’s wars<br />
Populares: The name given to senators who used the support of the Plebeian assemblies to force through laws and gain power.<br />Optimates: Those senators who relied on traditional Patrician systems of government for their power.<br />
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.